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2019

Theses/Dissertations

Air Force Institute of Technology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 111

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Enabling Mobile Neutron Detection Systems With Clyc, Matthew C. Recker Sep 2019

Enabling Mobile Neutron Detection Systems With Clyc, Matthew C. Recker

Theses and Dissertations

Cs2LiYCl6:Ce3+ (CLYC) has the desirable property of being sensitive to both gamma rays and neutrons while producing waveforms suitable for pulse shape discrimination (PSD) to determine which radiation was detected. This dissertation examines the behavior of CLYC to support its further development for mobile and portable applications. First, the feasibility of performing PSD with CLYC and an inexpensive data acquisition system was examined. This system was able to clearly distinguish both events with a figure of merit of 1.42. Next, the performance of a SiPM was compared to a traditional PMT. Analysis showed that ...


Adaptive-Hybrid Redundancy For Radiation Hardening, Nicolas S. Hamilton Sep 2019

Adaptive-Hybrid Redundancy For Radiation Hardening, Nicolas S. Hamilton

Theses and Dissertations

An Adaptive-Hybrid Redundancy (AHR) mitigation strategy is proposed to mitigate the effects of Single Event Upset (SEU) and Single Event Transient (SET) radiation effects. AHR is adaptive because it switches between Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) and Temporal Software Redundancy (TSR). AHR is hybrid because it uses hardware and software redundancy. AHR is demonstrated to run faster than TSR and use less energy than TMR. Furthermore, AHR allows space vehicle designers, mission planners, and operators the flexibility to determine how much time is spent in TMR and TSR. TMR mode provides faster processing at the expense of greater energy usage. TSR ...


Target Detection In Heterogeneous Clutter With Low Resolution Radar, Kyle G. Stankowski Sep 2019

Target Detection In Heterogeneous Clutter With Low Resolution Radar, Kyle G. Stankowski

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis develops a framework for SAR target detection and super-resolution in low-resolution environments. The primary focus in this research is the background clutter heterogeneity that often accompanies low range and cross-range resolutions. A corrective model which accounts for clutter replacement is developed to define the detection and false alarm rates of the detector more accurately than a traditional model in which the radar return from the target supplements the existing clutter. In a heterogeneous clutter cell, the clutter replacement model leverages the different scattering distributions among the individual clutter types to generate a probability distribution function for the areas ...


A Study Of Onboarding And Turnover Mediating Variables In U.S. Air Force Officers, Brett S. Bowers Sep 2019

A Study Of Onboarding And Turnover Mediating Variables In U.S. Air Force Officers, Brett S. Bowers

Theses and Dissertations

Employee retention, while always a concern in the workplace, has become a greater challenge for organizations in recent years. Today’s working class has displayed a propensity to change jobs more rapidly than previous generations, exacerbating not only turnover rates but also the costs associated with them (Frankel, 2016). This challenge is especially relevant to the United States Air Force, which has experienced difficulty retaining young officers in recent years. The problems resulting from this voluntary turnover are exceedingly impactful to the military command structure, as senior leaders must work their way up from the lowest ranks. As such, the ...


Effects Of Carbon-Based Ablation Products On Hypersonic Boundary Layer Stability, Olivia S. Elliot Sep 2019

Effects Of Carbon-Based Ablation Products On Hypersonic Boundary Layer Stability, Olivia S. Elliot

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersonic vehicles require an accurate prediction of the transition of the boundary layer for the design of the thermal protection system due to the high heating rates under turbulent flow. Many thermal protection systems are carbon-based and introduce new species, specifically CO2, into the boundary layer flow which are known to dampen the instabilities that lead to transition for hypersonic vehicles. A Computation Fluid Dynamics study was accomplished examining the concentration of CO2 required to impact boundary layer transition over both sharp and blunt cones. These results were used in conjunction with air-carbon ablation models models to determine if ...


Autonomous And Resilient Management Of All-Source Sensors For Navigation Assurance, Juan D. Jurado Sep 2019

Autonomous And Resilient Management Of All-Source Sensors For Navigation Assurance, Juan D. Jurado

Theses and Dissertations

All-source navigation has become increasingly relevant over the past decade with the development of viable alternative sensor technologies. However, as the number and type of sensors informing a system increases, so does the probability of corrupting the system with sensor modeling errors, signal interference, and undetected faults. Though the latter of these has been extensively researched, the majority of existing approaches have constrained faults to biases, and designed algorithms centered around the assumption of simultaneously redundant, synchronous sensors with valid measurement models, none of which are guaranteed for all-source systems. This research aims to provide all-source multi-sensor resiliency, assurance, and ...


Investigations Of Point Defects In Kh2Po4 Crystals Using Ab Initio Quantum Methods, Tabitha E. R. Dodson Sep 2019

Investigations Of Point Defects In Kh2Po4 Crystals Using Ab Initio Quantum Methods, Tabitha E. R. Dodson

Theses and Dissertations

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4, or commonly called KDP) crystals can be grown to large sizes and are used for many important devices (fast optical switches, frequency conversion, polarization rotation) for high powered lasers. The nonlinear optical material has a wide intrinsic transparency range. Intrinsic point defects are responsible for several short-lived absorption bands in the visible and ultraviolet regions that affect high-power pulsed laser propagation. The primary intrinsic defects have been experimentally detected in KDP using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments. The defect models established thus far include (i) self-trapped holes, (ii) oxygen vacancies, and (iii) hydrogen ...


Nondestructive Electromagnetic Characterization Of Perfect-Electric-Conductor-Backed Uniaxial Materials, Adam L. Brooks Sep 2019

Nondestructive Electromagnetic Characterization Of Perfect-Electric-Conductor-Backed Uniaxial Materials, Adam L. Brooks

Theses and Dissertations

As the use of anisotropic materials in electromagnetic applications continues to proliferate, it becomes increasingly important to develop non-destructive evaluation methods for those materials in their installed configuration. In many applications, these materials are permanently affixed onto conducting bodies to reduce unwanted reflections, making it impossible to collect S21 or S12 transmission measurements as used in many techniques based on the well-known Nicolson-Ross-Weir algorithm. It also makes it impractical to reorient the sample to collect orthogonal measurements aligned with the optical axes of the anisotropic material. The goal of this research is to develop a two-reflection coefficient measurement ...


On The Pulsed Laser Ablation Of Metals And Semiconductors, Todd A. Van Woerkom Aug 2019

On The Pulsed Laser Ablation Of Metals And Semiconductors, Todd A. Van Woerkom

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation covers pulsed laser ablation of Al, Si, Ti, Ge, and InSb, with pulse durations from tens of picosecond to hundreds of microseconds, fluences from ones of J/cm2 to over 10,000 J/cm2, and in ambient air and vacuum. A set of non-dimensional scaling factors was created to interpret the data relative to the laser and material parameters, and it was found that pulse durations shorter than a critical timescale formed craters much larger than the thermal diffusion length, and longer pulse durations created holes much shallower than the thermal diffusion length. Low transverse order ...


Cislunar Trajectory Generation With Sun-Exclusion Zone Constraints Using A Genetic Algorithm And Direct Method Hybridization, Joshua A. Ostman Aug 2019

Cislunar Trajectory Generation With Sun-Exclusion Zone Constraints Using A Genetic Algorithm And Direct Method Hybridization, Joshua A. Ostman

Theses and Dissertations

Space missions to the Moon have received renewed interest in recent decades. Science missions continue to be sent to the Moon, and several space agencies have aspirations of establishing a human presence on the Moon. With the increased number of artificial objects in cislunar space, the problem of tracking these objects arises. Optical sensors are able to track these objects in deep space. However, optical sensors cannot track objects that are close to the Sun as viewed from the observer. This unobservable region is the Sun-exclusion zone (SEZ). This research attempts to create optimal Moon-Earth transfers which are completely in ...


Point Defects In Lithium Gallate And Gallium Oxide, Christopher A. Lenyk Aug 2019

Point Defects In Lithium Gallate And Gallium Oxide, Christopher A. Lenyk

Theses and Dissertations

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL), and wavelength-dependent TL are used to identify and characterize point defects in lithium gallate and β-gallium oxide doped with Mg and Fe acceptor impurities single crystals. EPR investigations of LiGaO2 identify fundamental intrinsic cation defects lithium (VLi) and gallium (V2−Ga) vacancies. The defects’ principle g values are found through angular dependence studies and atomic-scale models for these new defects are proposed. Thermoluminescence measurements estimate the activation energy of lithium vacancies at Ea = 1.05 eV and gallium vacancies at Ea > 2 eV below the ...


Methods For Using Manpower To Assess Usaf Strategic Risk, Calvin J. Bradshaw Iii Jun 2019

Methods For Using Manpower To Assess Usaf Strategic Risk, Calvin J. Bradshaw Iii

Theses and Dissertations

With limited personnel resource funding availability, senior US Air Force (USAF) decision makers struggle to base enterprise resource allocation from rigorous analytical traceability. There are over 240 career fields in the USAF spanning 12 enterprises. Each enterprise develops annual risk assessments by distinctive core capabilities. A core capability (e.g. Research and Development) is an enabling function necessary for the USAF to perform its mission as part of the Department of Defense (DOD). Assessing risk at the core capability is a good start to assessing risk, but is still not comprehensiveness enough. One of the twelve enterprises has linked its ...


Graph-Based Temporal Analysis In Digital Forensics, Nikolai A. Adderley Mar 2019

Graph-Based Temporal Analysis In Digital Forensics, Nikolai A. Adderley

Theses and Dissertations

Establishing a timeline as part of a digital forensics investigation is a vital part of understanding the order in which system events occurred. However, most digital forensics tools present timelines as histogram or as raw artifacts. Consequently, digital forensics examiners are forced to rely on manual, labor-intensive practices to reconstruct system events. Current digital forensics analysis tools are at their technological limit with the increasing storage and complexity of data. A graph-based timeline can present digital forensics evidence in a structure that can be immediately understood and effortlessly focused. This paper presents the Temporal Analysis Integration Management Application (TAIMA) to ...


Cyber-Attack Drone Payload Development And Geolocation Via Directional Antennae, Clint M. Bramlette Mar 2019

Cyber-Attack Drone Payload Development And Geolocation Via Directional Antennae, Clint M. Bramlette

Theses and Dissertations

The increasing capabilities of commercial drones have led to blossoming drone usage in private sector industries ranging from agriculture to mining to cinema. Commercial drones have made amazing improvements in flight time, flight distance, and payload weight. These same features also offer a unique and unprecedented commodity for wireless hackers -- the ability to gain ‘physical’ proximity to a target without personally having to be anywhere near it. This capability is called Remote Physical Proximity (RPP). By their nature, wireless devices are largely susceptible to sniffing and injection attacks, but only if the attacker can interact with the device via physical ...


High Fidelity Satellite Navigation Receiver Front-End For Advanced Signal Quality Monitoring And Authentication, Andrew D. Braun Mar 2019

High Fidelity Satellite Navigation Receiver Front-End For Advanced Signal Quality Monitoring And Authentication, Andrew D. Braun

Theses and Dissertations

Over the last several years, interest in utilizing foreign satellite timing and navigation (satnav) signals to augment GPS has grown. Doing so is not without risks; foreign satnav signals must be vetted and determined to be trustworthy before use in military applications. Advanced signal quality monitoring methods can help to ensure that only authentic and reliable satnav signals are utilized. To effectively monitor and authenticate signals, the front-end must impress as little distortions upon the received signal as possible. The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate, and test the performance of a high-fidelity satnav receiver front-end for advanced ...


Displacement Damage Effects In Gesn Light Emitting Diodes, Kevin K. Choe Mar 2019

Displacement Damage Effects In Gesn Light Emitting Diodes, Kevin K. Choe

Theses and Dissertations

Potential future use on Earth-orbiting satellites calls for investigation into the suitability of GeSn based photonic devices in high energy proton environments. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity of Ge1-xSnx (x = 0, 0.02, 0.069, and 0.094) light emitting diodes was measured before and after irradiation by 2 MeV protons at relatively high fluence levels. The results showed that GeSn devices with higher Sn content were up to 10 times more resistant against proton displacement damage than the pure Ge (x = 0) devices. As Sn concentration increased, the band gap decreased, and V-P hole trap energy level moved further from ...


Electromagnetic Characterization Of Conductor-Backed Media Using Stepped Rectangular Waveguide, Avian Y. Hughes Mar 2019

Electromagnetic Characterization Of Conductor-Backed Media Using Stepped Rectangular Waveguide, Avian Y. Hughes

Theses and Dissertations

A new single stepped-iris waveguide technique is used to nondestructively determine the permittivity and permeability of conductor-backed media. This thesis will demonstrate a proof-of-concept that obtains two independent reflection measurements with a magnetic radar absorbing material (magRAM). Using a two measurement procedure, in which, the first measurement will apply a single rectangular waveguide to a known conductor-backed absorbing material under test (MUT) and the second measurement will insert a stepped-iris in between the single rectangular waveguide and MUT reducing the aperture to retrieve two independent electromagnetic properties (i.e. permittivity and permeability). The theoretical reflection coefficients are obtained using a ...


Physical Layer Discrimination Of Electronic Control Units Using Wired Signal Distinct Native Attribute (Ws-Dnda), Rahn M. Lassiter Mar 2019

Physical Layer Discrimination Of Electronic Control Units Using Wired Signal Distinct Native Attribute (Ws-Dnda), Rahn M. Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is a communication system used in automobiles to connect the electronic components required for critical vehicle operations. These components are called Electronic Control Units (ECU) and each one exercises one or more functions within the vehicle. ECUs can provide autonomous safety features and increased comfort to drivers but these advancements may come at the expense of vehicle security. Researchers have shown that the CAN bus can be hacked by compromising authorized ECUs or by physically connecting unauthorized devices to the bus. Physical layer (PHY) device fingerprinting has emerged as one of the accepted approaches ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Fusion Of 3-D Scanning Lidar Systems And 2-D Imaging Systems, Michael F. Milton Jr. Mar 2019

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Fusion Of 3-D Scanning Lidar Systems And 2-D Imaging Systems, Michael F. Milton Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

This research will demonstrate the feasibility of fusing the superior spatial resolution of a 2-D imaging system with the precise range to target information of a 3-D imaging system to create a LIDAR imaging system that can accurately find what and where a target is. The 3-D imaging system will use a scanning method as opposed to a flash method that has been used in similar research. The goal of this research is to improve performance of scanning LIDAR so it has better spatial resolution. The research in this thesis proves that incorporating 2-D imaging data into 3-D scanning LIDAR ...


Examining Effectiveness Of Web-Based Internet Of Things Honeypots, Lukas A. Stafira Mar 2019

Examining Effectiveness Of Web-Based Internet Of Things Honeypots, Lukas A. Stafira

Theses and Dissertations

The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing at an alarming rate. It is estimated that there will be over 25 billion IoT devices by 2020. The simplicity of their function usually means that IoT devices have low processing power, which prevent them from having intricate security features, leading to vulnerabilities. This makes IoT devices the prime target of attackers in the coming years. Honeypots are intentionally vulnerable machines that run programs which appear as a vulnerable device to a would-be attacker. They are placed on a network to entice and trap an attacker and then gather information on them, including ...


Autonomous Association Of Geo Rso Observations Using Deep Neural Networks, Ian W. Mcquaid Mar 2019

Autonomous Association Of Geo Rso Observations Using Deep Neural Networks, Ian W. Mcquaid

Theses and Dissertations

Ground-based non-resolved optical observations of resident space objects (RSOs) in geosynchronous orbit (GEO) represent the majority of the space surveillance network’s (SSN’s) deep-space tracking. Reliable and accurate tracking necessitates temporal separation of the observations. This requires that subsequent observations be associated with prior observations of a given RSO before they can be used to create or refine that RSO’s ephemeris. The use of astrometric data (e.g. topocentric angular position) alone for this association task is complicated by RSO maneuvers between observations, and by RSOs operating in close proximity. Accurately associating an observation with an RSO thus ...


A Blockchain-Based Anomalous Detection System For Internet Of Things Devices, Joshua K. Mosby Mar 2019

A Blockchain-Based Anomalous Detection System For Internet Of Things Devices, Joshua K. Mosby

Theses and Dissertations

Internet of Things devices are highly susceptible to attack, and owners often fail to realize they have been compromised. This thesis describes an anomalous-based intrusion detection system that operates directly on Internet of Things devices utilizing a custom-built Blockchain. In this approach, an agent on each node compares the node's behavior to that of its peers, generating an alert if they are behaving differently. An experiment is conducted to determine the effectiveness at detecting malware. Three different code samples simulating common malware are deployed against a testbed of 12 Raspberry Pi devices. Increasing numbers are infected until two-thirds of ...


Computational And Experimental Development Of 2d Anisotropic Photonic Crystal Metamaterials, James A. Ethridge Mar 2019

Computational And Experimental Development Of 2d Anisotropic Photonic Crystal Metamaterials, James A. Ethridge

Theses and Dissertations

The future of optical devices involves manipulation of nanoscale structure in order to achieve full control over the properties of the device. In fields as diverse as directed energy, remote sensing, optical communications and optical computing, these devices promise to greatly improve performance and efficiency. To advance this further, novel samples that incorporate both photonic crystal (PhC) structure and metamaterial properties, known as PhC metamaterials, are proposed. These PhC metamaterials allow for complete control over the directionality of the light-matter interaction to serve in these new applications. To develop this technology, first, metamaterials with no PhC structure are fabricated using ...


Near Real-Time Rf-Dna Fingerprinting For Zigbee Devices Using Software Defined Radios, Frankie A. Cruz Mar 2019

Near Real-Time Rf-Dna Fingerprinting For Zigbee Devices Using Software Defined Radios, Frankie A. Cruz

Theses and Dissertations

Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network(s) (LR-WPAN) usage has increased as more consumers embrace Internet of Things (IoT) devices. ZigBee Physical Layer (PHY) is based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.15.4 specification designed to provide a low-cost, low-power, and low-complexity solution for Wireless Sensor Network(s) (WSN). The standard’s extended battery life and reliability makes ZigBee WSN a popular choice for home automation, transportation, traffic management, Industrial Control Systems (ICS), and cyber-physical systems. As robust and versatile as the standard is, ZigBee remains vulnerable to a myriad of common network attacks. Previous research ...


Modeling A Consortium-Based Distributed Ledger Network With Applications For Intelligent Transportation Infrastructure, Luis A. Cintron Mar 2019

Modeling A Consortium-Based Distributed Ledger Network With Applications For Intelligent Transportation Infrastructure, Luis A. Cintron

Theses and Dissertations

Emerging distributed-ledger networks are changing the landscape for environments of low trust among participating entities. Implementing such technologies in transportation infrastructure communications and operations would enable, in a secure fashion, decentralized collaboration among entities who do not fully trust each other. This work models a transportation records and events data collection system enabled by a Hyperledger Fabric blockchain network and simulated using a transportation environment modeling tool. A distributed vehicle records management use case is shown with the capability to detect and prevent unauthorized vehicle odometer tampering. Another use case studied is that of vehicular data collected during the event ...


Designing Liquid Crystal For Optoacoustic Detection, Michael T. Dela Cruz Mar 2019

Designing Liquid Crystal For Optoacoustic Detection, Michael T. Dela Cruz

Theses and Dissertations

This research impacts the development of a cost-saving, on-chip device that can replace a wide range of costly, bulky sensors for commercial and defense applications. In particular, the goals of this work were to design and test a sensor that uses the optical properties of liquid crystal (LC) to detect acoustic waves. This began with developing a method to fine-tune the optical features of the liquid crystal. Statistical analysis of select experimental variables, or factors, lead to ideal settings of those variables when creating the sensor. A two-factor and three-factor experiment were separately conducted and analyzed as a preliminary demonstration ...


Instantaneous Bandwidth Expansion Using Software Defined Radios, Nicholas D. Everett Mar 2019

Instantaneous Bandwidth Expansion Using Software Defined Radios, Nicholas D. Everett

Theses and Dissertations

The Stimulated Unintended Radiated Emissions (SURE) process has been proven capable of classifying a device (e.g. a loaded antenna) as either operational or defective. Currently, the SURE process utilizes a specialized noise radar which is bulky, expensive and not easily supported. With current technology advancements, Software Defined Radios (SDRs) have become more compact, more readily available and significantly cheaper. The research here examines whether multiple SDRs can be integrated to replace the current specialized ultra-wideband noise radar used with the SURE process. The research specifically targets whether or not multiple SDR sub-band collections can be combined to form a ...


A Focal Plane Array And Electronics Model For Cmos And Ccd Sensors In The Afit Sensor And Scene Emulation Tool (Asset), Fernando D. Fernandez Mar 2019

A Focal Plane Array And Electronics Model For Cmos And Ccd Sensors In The Afit Sensor And Scene Emulation Tool (Asset), Fernando D. Fernandez

Theses and Dissertations

Electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor models are useful tools that can facilitate understanding a system's behavior without expensive and time-consuming testing of an actual system. EO/IR models are especially important to the military industry where truth data is required but is sometimes impractical to obtain through experimentation due to expense or difficulties in procuring hardware. This work describes implementation of a focal plane array (FPA) model of charge-coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) photodetectors as a component in the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) Sensor and Scene Emulation Tool (ASSET). The FPA model covers ...


Machine Learning Models Of C-17 Specific Range Using Flight Recorder Data, Marcus Catchpole Mar 2019

Machine Learning Models Of C-17 Specific Range Using Flight Recorder Data, Marcus Catchpole

Theses and Dissertations

Fuel is a significant expense for the Air Force. The C-17 Globemaster eet accounts for a significant portion. Estimating the range of an aircraft based on its fuel consumption is nearly as old as flight itself. Consideration of operational energy and the related consideration of fuel efficiency is increasing. Meanwhile machine learning and data-mining techniques are on the rise. The old question, "How far can my aircraft y with a given load cargo and fuel?" has given way to "How little fuel can I load into an aircraft and safely arrive at the destination?" Specific range is a measure of ...


Confidence Inference In Defensive Cyber Operator Decision Making, Graig S. Ganitano Mar 2019

Confidence Inference In Defensive Cyber Operator Decision Making, Graig S. Ganitano

Theses and Dissertations

Cyber defense analysts face the challenge of validating machine generated alerts regarding network-based security threats. Operations tempo and systematic manpower issues have increased the importance of these individual analyst decisions, since they typically are not reviewed or changed. Analysts may not always be confident in their decisions. If confidence can be accurately assessed, then analyst decisions made under low confidence can be independently reviewed and analysts can be offered decision assistance or additional training. This work investigates the utility of using neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of decision confidence to train machine learning models to infer confidence in analyst decisions. Electroencephalography ...