Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2019

Theses/Dissertations

Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Institution
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 431

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Quantitative Metrics For Mutation Testing, Amani M. Ayad Dec 2019

Quantitative Metrics For Mutation Testing, Amani M. Ayad

Dissertations

Program mutation is the process of generating versions of a base program by applying elementary syntactic modifications; this technique has been used in program testing in a variety of applications, most notably to assess the quality of a test data set. A good test set will discover the difference between the original program and mutant except if the mutant is semantically equivalent to the original program, despite being syntactically distinct.

Equivalent mutants are a major nuisance in the practice of mutation testing, because they introduce a significant amount of bias and uncertainty in the analysis of test results; indeed, mutants ...


Bio-Inspired Learning And Hardware Acceleration With Emerging Memories, Shruti R. Kulkarni Dec 2019

Bio-Inspired Learning And Hardware Acceleration With Emerging Memories, Shruti R. Kulkarni

Dissertations

Machine Learning has permeated many aspects of engineering, ranging from the Internet of Things (IoT) applications to big data analytics. While computing resources available to implement these algorithms have become more powerful, both in terms of the complexity of problems that can be solved and the overall computing speed, the huge energy costs involved remains a significant challenge. The human brain, which has evolved over millions of years, is widely accepted as the most efficient control and cognitive processing platform. Neuro-biological studies have established that information processing in the human brain relies on impulse like signals emitted by neurons called ...


Evaluation Of The Mechanisms And Effectiveness Of Nano-Hydroxides, Wood And Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars To Remove Fluoride And Heavy Metals From Water, Anna Rose Wallace, Wenjie Sun Dr, Chunming Su Dr Dec 2019

Evaluation Of The Mechanisms And Effectiveness Of Nano-Hydroxides, Wood And Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars To Remove Fluoride And Heavy Metals From Water, Anna Rose Wallace, Wenjie Sun Dr, Chunming Su Dr

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses and Dissertations

The development of effective treatment processes for the removal contaminants, such as fluoride and heavy metals, from polluted water have been urgently needed due to serious environmental health and safety concerns. In this dissertation, a variety of materials including various (hydro)oxide nanomaterials, biochars and surface modified biochar were studied to evaluate their effectiveness and mechanism on removing fluoride or mixed heavy metals from water.

In the Chapter 2, this study investigated the adsorptive removal of fluoride from water using various (hydro)oxide nanomaterials, focusing on ferrihydrite, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and brucite, which have the potential to be used as sorbents ...


High-Pressure Studies On The Transition From Red Phosphorus To Black Phosphorus, Heng Xiang Dec 2019

High-Pressure Studies On The Transition From Red Phosphorus To Black Phosphorus, Heng Xiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Black phosphorus (BP) is a promising material in many research fields. However, the transition process from amorphous red phosphorus (ARP) is elusive and hence hinders large scale synthesis and applications. This work describes the application of the high-pressure method to study the transition process from ARP to BP.

In this thesis, the following three objectives were achieved: (1) to understand the mechanism of the transition, (2) to facilitate the synthesis of BP by taking the advantage of less pure ARP, (3) to propose new methods of synthesizing BP-based materials, such as the moderately oxidized BP and the black phosphorus/ amorphous ...


Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire Dec 2019

Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire

Dissertations and Theses

The Portland area has an extensive flood history since it was founded in 1845. In the late 19th century, the Portland area was prone to flooding from snowmelt freshets (3-6 months duration) and brief winter rain or rain-on-snow events. Since that time the magnitude of spring freshets has been curtailed by 45% due to climate change, flow diversions, and reservoir management. Along with changes in hydrology, the bathymetry of the Lower Columbia River has been altered by the dredging of the navigation channel, diking, and land reclamation. To understand how these changes in hydrology and bathymetry have affected tidal and ...


Pressure Driven Electronic Band Gap Engineering In Tin(Iv)-O,N Compounds, Daniel Thomas Sneed Dec 2019

Pressure Driven Electronic Band Gap Engineering In Tin(Iv)-O,N Compounds, Daniel Thomas Sneed

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The intrinsic link between long-range order, coordination geometry, and the electronic properties of a system must be understood in order to tailor function-specific materials. Although material properties are typically tailored using chemical dopants, such methods can cause irreversible changes to the structure, limiting the range of functionality. The application of high pressure may provide an alternative “clean” method to tune the electronic properties of semiconducting materials by tailoring their defect density and structure.

We have explored a number of optoelectronic relevant materials with promising characteristics, specifically Sn-(O,N) compounds which have been predicted to undergo pressure-mediated opening of their ...


Finding A Viable Neural Network Architecture For Use With Upper Limb Prosthetics, Maxwell Lavin Dec 2019

Finding A Viable Neural Network Architecture For Use With Upper Limb Prosthetics, Maxwell Lavin

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

This paper attempts to answer the question of if it’s possible to produce a simple, quick, and accurate neural network for the use in upper-limb prosthetics. Through the implementation of convolutional and artificial neural networks and feature extraction on electromyographic data different possible architectures are examined with regards to processing time, complexity, and accuracy. It is found that the most accurate architecture is a multi-entry categorical cross entropy convolutional neural network with 100% accuracy. The issue is that it is also the slowest method requiring 9 minutes to run. The next best method found was a single-entry binary cross ...


Development Of High-Speed Photoacoustic Imaging Technology And Its Applications In Biomedical Research, Yun He Dec 2019

Development Of High-Speed Photoacoustic Imaging Technology And Its Applications In Biomedical Research, Yun He

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) is a novel imaging modality that combines the fine lateral resolution from optical imaging and the deep penetration from ultrasonic imaging, and provides rich optical-absorption–based images. PAT has been widely used in extracting structural and functional information from both ex vivo tissue samples to in vivo animals and humans with different length scales by imaging various endogenous and exogenous contrasts at the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum. For example, hemoglobin in red blood cells is of particular interest in PAT since it is one of the dominant absorbers in tissue at the visible wavelength.The main ...


Contemporary Problems In Aerosol Aggregation And Gelation, Pai Liu Dec 2019

Contemporary Problems In Aerosol Aggregation And Gelation, Pai Liu

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Aggregation of nanoparticles in aerosols is a fundamental phenomenon with important implications to diverse fields ranging from material synthesis to pollutant control. The past few decades have witnessed extensive research on investigating the structure and growth mechanism of aerosol aggregates with sizes spanning across several orders of magnitude. This dissertation focuses on some contemporary problems that remain unaddressed in this topical area. Aerosol aggregates in sub-micron regimes, which are formed via the irreversible collision and aggregation of solid nanoparticle monomers, are fractal-like in their morphology. A mathematical description of this seemingly random structure dates to the seminal works by Forest ...


Utility Of Bench Scale Sand Tank Experiments At Assessing Permeable Reactive Barrier Design, Brandon Meier Dec 2019

Utility Of Bench Scale Sand Tank Experiments At Assessing Permeable Reactive Barrier Design, Brandon Meier

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of bench scale sand tank experiments at assessing permeable reactive barrier (PRB) design. Our criteria for meeting this goal was that differences between PRB designs could be identified solely by measuring concentration in outflow from the sand tank models. For our PRB designs (funnel-and-gate, staggered wells, and parallel bars), numerical simulations clearly showed that PRB design had a quantifiable effect on outflow concentration, provided that the solute reacted with the PRB materials. Conversely, use of a conservative (non-reactive) solute did not allow us to discern between PRB design alternatives. Employing ...


Carbon Management And Volatile Fatty Acid Production In Primary Clarifiers At A Wastewater Treatment Plant, Brittany Nicole Radke Dec 2019

Carbon Management And Volatile Fatty Acid Production In Primary Clarifiers At A Wastewater Treatment Plant, Brittany Nicole Radke

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An increasing number of treatment plants are required to remove nutrients from domestic wastewater to lessen the impact of nutrient loading to water bodies. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is one of the processes commonly used to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater. The presence of an adequate quantity of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the wastewater influent to EBPR is important for process efficiency and stability. The objective of this research was to investigate the production of VFAs through fermentation of sludge in primary clarifiers as it related to improving nutrient removal, primarily targeting phosphorus.

The research tested, in full-scale ...


Application Of Data-Driven And Process-Based Modeling Approaches For Water Quality Simulation In Lakes And Freshwater Reservoirs, Ali Saber Sichani Dec 2019

Application Of Data-Driven And Process-Based Modeling Approaches For Water Quality Simulation In Lakes And Freshwater Reservoirs, Ali Saber Sichani

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Lakes and freshwater reservoirs often serve as the primary drinking and irrigation water sources for surrounding communities. They provide recreational and tourism opportunities, thereby promoting the prosperity of neighboring communities. Reliable estimates of water quality in lakes and reservoirs can improve management practices to protect water resources.

Seasonal water temperature and solar shortwave radiation variations, and their subsequent interactions with water column aquatic life, combined with seasonal variations of mixing intensity throughout the water column, result in variations of water quality constituents with depth during the annual cycle. The complexity of these variations entails the use of advanced water quality ...


Instrumentation For Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Application Of Electron Decoupling For Electron Relaxation Measurement, Nicholas Howard Alaniva Dec 2019

Instrumentation For Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Application Of Electron Decoupling For Electron Relaxation Measurement, Nicholas Howard Alaniva

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic nuclear polarization nuclear magnetic resonance (DNP NMR) exploits internal electron spin and nuclear spin interactions to increase sensitivity and uncover valuable information regarding structure and dynamics of a system. To manipulate these interactions, instrumentation is developed to combine high-power microwave and radiofrequency irradiation with the ability to spin samples at the magic angle (MAS) at temperatures from 90 K to 4.2 K. Electron decoupling uses frequency-modulated microwaves to mitigate the electron-nuclear dipolar interaction, improving signal intensity and resolution in DNP NMR experiments. Electron decoupling is combined with short DNP periods to encode electron spin information in polarized nuclear ...


Numerical And Semi-Analytical Estimation Of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient For Buildings In An Urban-Like Setting, Anwar Demsis Awol Dec 2019

Numerical And Semi-Analytical Estimation Of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient For Buildings In An Urban-Like Setting, Anwar Demsis Awol

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Urban building arrangements such as packing density, orientation and size are known to influence the microclimate surrounding each building. Studies on the impact of urban microclimatic changes on convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) from a stock of buildings, however, have been rare in surveyed literature. The present study focuses on numerical and analytical investigation of CHTC from building-like models with homogeneous set of equal and unequal planar and frontal densities. Consequently, the study discusses the CHTC response in relation to broader changes in the urban surface form. Part of the process involves the development of a simplified one-dimensional semi-analytical CHTC ...


An Application Of Deep Learning Models To Automate Food Waste Classification, Alejandro Zachary Espinoza Dec 2019

An Application Of Deep Learning Models To Automate Food Waste Classification, Alejandro Zachary Espinoza

Dissertations and Theses

Food wastage is a problem that affects all demographics and regions of the world. Each year, approximately one-third of food produced for human consumption is thrown away. In an effort to track and reduce food waste in the commercial sector, some companies utilize third party devices which collect data to analyze individual contributions to the global problem. These devices track the type of food wasted (such as vegetables, fruit, boneless chicken, pasta) along with the weight. Some devices also allow the user to leave the food in a kitchen container while it is weighed, so the container weight must also ...


Image Restoration Using Automatic Damaged Regions Detection And Machine Learning-Based Inpainting Technique, Chloe Martin-King Dec 2019

Image Restoration Using Automatic Damaged Regions Detection And Machine Learning-Based Inpainting Technique, Chloe Martin-King

Computational and Data Sciences (PhD) Dissertations

In this dissertation we propose two novel image restoration schemes. The first pertains to automatic detection of damaged regions in old photographs and digital images of cracked paintings. In cases when inpainting mask generation cannot be completely automatic, our detection algorithm facilitates precise mask creation, particularly useful for images containing damage that is tedious to annotate or difficult to geometrically define. The main contribution of this dissertation is the development and utilization of a new inpainting technique, region hiding, to repair a single image by training a convolutional neural network on various transformations of that image. Region hiding is also ...


Incorporating Geophysical Data In Slope Stability Modeling For Two Slopes In Arkansas, Vanessa Lebow Dec 2019

Incorporating Geophysical Data In Slope Stability Modeling For Two Slopes In Arkansas, Vanessa Lebow

Theses and Dissertations

Slope failures in the United States alone cause millions of dollars in damage to infrastructure, threaten national monuments, create environmental hazards, and take an average of 25-50 lives a year. With the inevitable construction that occurs on slopes, it is imperative that the slopes be properly designed which requires a thorough understanding of slope grade, subsurface soil conditions, soil strength parameters, water table locations, and depth to bedrock across the entire site. The preferred method of data collection would be to use borings and other in-situ methods; however, sometimes due to cost constraints or site accessibility only a very limited ...


Theoretical Investigations Of The Electronic, Magnetic, And Thermoelectric Properties Of Transition-Metal Based Compounds, Haleoot Edaan Raad Dec 2019

Theoretical Investigations Of The Electronic, Magnetic, And Thermoelectric Properties Of Transition-Metal Based Compounds, Haleoot Edaan Raad

Theses and Dissertations

The electronic, magnetic, and thermoelectric properties of transition-metal based compounds were investigated by using the density functional theory and Boltzmann transport formalism. It was found that the Co-based Heusler compounds and InSe monochalcogenide are among the materials that may be used for future thermoelectric devices. Furthermore, the investigation showed that the quaternary Heusler compounds, such as, CoFeYGe, where Y is Ti or Cr, are half-metallic ferromagnetic materials with full electron spin polarization. The lattice thermal conductivity (κL) was found to decrease for these alloys as the temperature increases. The present investigation indicated that the phonon optical modes have a major ...


Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin Dec 2019

Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin

Theses and Dissertations

Bioassays have been used extensively to assess various toxicity endpoints of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), but an emphasis on single compounds prevails. In this research, DBP mixtures were assessed using a cytotoxicity test with Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and an Ames fluctuation test with Salmonella typhimurium TA-98 and TA-100 with and without S9 rat liver homogenate. Seven whole mixture DBP concentrates were formulated using reconstituted natural organic matter (NOM) extracts from the Upper Mississippi River using scaled disinfectant dosing protocols with free chlorine and monochloramine in the presence and absence of added bromide. DBPs were identified by gas ...


Extracting Social Network From Literary Prose, Tarana Tasmin Bipasha Dec 2019

Extracting Social Network From Literary Prose, Tarana Tasmin Bipasha

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis develops an approach to extract social networks from literary prose, namely, Jane Austen’s published novels from eighteenth- and nineteenth- century. Dialogue interaction plays a key role while we derive the networks, thus our technique relies upon our ability to determine when two characters are in conversation. Our process involves encoding plain literary text into the Text Encoding Initiative’s (TEI) XML format, character name identification, conversation and co-occurrence detection, and social network construction. Previous work in social network construction for literature have focused on drama, specifically manually TEI-encoded Shakespearean plays in which character interactions are much easier ...


Studies Of Initial Growth Of Gan On Inn, Alaa Alnami Dec 2019

Studies Of Initial Growth Of Gan On Inn, Alaa Alnami

Theses and Dissertations

III-nitride materials have recently attracted much attention for applications in both the microelectronics and optoelectronics. For optoelectronic devices, III-nitride materials with tunable energy band gaps can be used as the active region of devices to enhance the absorption or emission. A such material is indium nitride (InN), which along with gallium nitride (GaN) and aluminum nitride (AlN) embody the very real promise of forming the basis of a broad spectrum, a high efficiency solar cell. One of the remaining complications in incorporating InN into a solar cell design is the effects of the high temperature growth of the GaN crystal ...


A Game Modeling Of A Closed-Loop Supply Chain In A Water-Energy Nexus: Technology Advancement, Market Competition And Capacity Limit, Nabeel Hamoud Dec 2019

A Game Modeling Of A Closed-Loop Supply Chain In A Water-Energy Nexus: Technology Advancement, Market Competition And Capacity Limit, Nabeel Hamoud

Theses and Dissertations

Water and energy are two scarce and concerning resources interconnected in the water-energy nexus. In the nexus, production of energy needs water, and production of water needs energy. For better management of these resources in the nexus, this research considers a supply chain that consists of water suppliers, power suppliers, and consumers of these commodities. In the chain, water suppliers purchase power from power suppliers, and power suppliers purchase water from water suppliers. Other consumers can also buy these resources at the water and power markets. Each firm tries to maximize its own profit. The suppliers of water and power ...


Scatter Reduction By Exploiting Behaviour Of Convolutional Neural Networks In Frequency Domain, Carlos Ivan Jerez Gonzalez Dec 2019

Scatter Reduction By Exploiting Behaviour Of Convolutional Neural Networks In Frequency Domain, Carlos Ivan Jerez Gonzalez

Theses and Dissertations

In X-ray imaging, scattered radiation can produce a number of artifacts that greatly

undermine the image quality. There are hardware solutions, such as anti-scatter grids.

However, they are costly. A software-based solution is a better option because it is

cheaper and can achieve a higher scatter reduction. Most of the current software-based

approaches are model-based. The main issues with them are the lack of flexibility, expressivity, and the requirement of a model. In consideration of this, we decided to apply

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), since they do not have any of the previously

mentioned issues.

In our approach we split ...


Optimizing Hydrogen Sulfide Removal And Biogas Production Using The Water Wash Method, Brian Leightner Dec 2019

Optimizing Hydrogen Sulfide Removal And Biogas Production Using The Water Wash Method, Brian Leightner

Theses and Dissertations

Biogas forms from decomposing organic material in agricultural digesters, landfills, and wastewater treatment plant digesters. Biogas is mostly composed of methane, and can be used as a carbon-based fuel. Microorganisms that consume organics in these waste streams also produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as part of the biogas, in varying trace amounts. H2S is corrosive to engines and pipes for machinery, a human health hazard when inhaled, and an aquatic hazard when dissolved in water. Water washing is an absorption process that dissolves hydrogen sulfide and other water soluble compounds in this process and carries it away from the gas, thereby ...


Evaluating The Resiliency Of Industrial Internet Of Things Process Control Using Protocol Agnostic Attacks, Hector L. Roldan Dec 2019

Evaluating The Resiliency Of Industrial Internet Of Things Process Control Using Protocol Agnostic Attacks, Hector L. Roldan

Theses and Dissertations

Improving and defending our nation's critical infrastructure has been a challenge for quite some time. A malfunctioning or stoppage of any one of these systems could result in hazardous conditions on its supporting populace leading to widespread damage, injury, and even death. The protection of such systems has been mandated by the Office of the President of the United States of America in Presidential Policy Directive Order 21. Current research now focuses on securing and improving the management and efficiency of Industrial Control Systems (ICS). IIoT promises a solution in enhancement of efficiency in ICS. However, the presence of ...


Nematode Populations As Affected By Residue And Water Management In A Long-Term Wheat-Soybean Double Crop In Eastern Arkansas, Lucia Emperatriz Escalante Ortiz Dec 2019

Nematode Populations As Affected By Residue And Water Management In A Long-Term Wheat-Soybean Double Crop In Eastern Arkansas, Lucia Emperatriz Escalante Ortiz

Theses and Dissertations

Soybeans (Glycine max) are one of the major row crops in the United States, particularly in Arkansas. Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) and southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) are two of the most damaging pests that cause major economic losses in soybeans. Little is known concerning the effects of common and alternative agronomic practices on nematodes in fields with nematode population densities below threshold levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the combination of tillage (conventional tillage and no-tillage), irrigation (irrigated and non-irrigated), wheat (Triticum aestivum) residue burning (burned and no burned ...


Development Of A Comsol Microdialysis Model, Towards Creation Of Microdialysis On A Chip With Improved Geometries And Recovery, Patrick Pysz Dec 2019

Development Of A Comsol Microdialysis Model, Towards Creation Of Microdialysis On A Chip With Improved Geometries And Recovery, Patrick Pysz

Theses and Dissertations

Microdialysis (µD) sampling is a diffusion-limited sampling method that has been widely used in different biomedical fields for greater than 35 years. Device calibration for in vivo studies is difficult for current non-steady state analytes of interest correlated with both inflammatory response and microbial signaling molecules (QS); which exist in low ng/mL to pg/mL with molecular weights over a wide range of 170 Da to 70 kDa. The primary performance metric, relative recovery (RR), relating the collected sample to the extracellular space concentration varies from 10% to 60% per analyte even under controlled bench-top conditions. Innovations in microdialysis ...


Surface Modification Of Pvdf Membranes For Treating Produced Waters By Direct Contact Membrane Distillation, Zahra Anari Dec 2019

Surface Modification Of Pvdf Membranes For Treating Produced Waters By Direct Contact Membrane Distillation, Zahra Anari

Theses and Dissertations

Direct contact membrane distillation is a promising unit operation for treating hydraulic fracturing flow back and produced water. However, while a hydrophobic membrane is essential to prevent the passage of water from the feed to the permeate side, fouling by dissolved organic species can compromise membrane performance and result in wetting of the membrane pores. Here four monomers, hydroxyethylmethacrylate, acrylic acid, 1-vinyl-3-allylimidazolium bromide, and 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium bromide have been grafted from the surface of a PVDF membrane. The modified and base membranes were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation system. All membranes were challenged with real produced water. In addition ...


Interfacial Contact With Noble Metal - Noble Metal And Noble Metal - 2d Semiconductor Nanostructures Enhance Optical Activity, Ricardo Raphael Lopez Romo Dec 2019

Interfacial Contact With Noble Metal - Noble Metal And Noble Metal - 2d Semiconductor Nanostructures Enhance Optical Activity, Ricardo Raphael Lopez Romo

Theses and Dissertations

Noble metal nanoparticles and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) crystals offer unique optical and electronic properties that include strong exciton binding, spin-orbital coupling, and localized surface plasmon resonance. Controlling these properties at high spatiotemporal resolution can support emerging optoelectronic coupling and enhanced optical features. Excitation dynamics of these optical properties on physicochemically bonded mono- and few-layer TMD crystals with metal nanocrystals and two overlapping spherical metal nanocrystals were examined by concurrently (i) DDA simulations and (ii) far-field optical transmission UV-vis spectroscopic measurements. Initially, a novel and scalable method to unsettle van der Waals bonds in bulk TMDs to prepare ...


Towards Completely Automated Glycan Synthesis, Matteo Panza Nov 2019

Towards Completely Automated Glycan Synthesis, Matteo Panza

Dissertations

Carbohydrates are ubiquitous both in nature as biologically active compounds and in medicine as pharmaceuticals. Although there has been continued interest in the synthesis of carbohydrates, chemical methods require specialized knowledge and hence remain cumbersome. The need for development of rapid, efficient and operationally simple procedures has come to the fore. This dissertation focuses on the development of a fully automated platform that will enable both experts and non-specialists to perform the synthesis of glycans. Existing automated methods for the synthesis of oligosaccharides are highly sophisticated, operationally complex, and require significant user know-how. By contrast, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC ...