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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Evaluation Of The Mechanisms And Effectiveness Of Nano-Hydroxides, Wood And Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars To Remove Fluoride And Heavy Metals From Water, Anna Rose Wallace, Wenjie Sun Dr, Chunming Su Dr Dec 2019

Evaluation Of The Mechanisms And Effectiveness Of Nano-Hydroxides, Wood And Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars To Remove Fluoride And Heavy Metals From Water, Anna Rose Wallace, Wenjie Sun Dr, Chunming Su Dr

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses and Dissertations

The development of effective treatment processes for the removal contaminants, such as fluoride and heavy metals, from polluted water have been urgently needed due to serious environmental health and safety concerns. In this dissertation, a variety of materials including various (hydro)oxide nanomaterials, biochars and surface modified biochar were studied to evaluate their effectiveness and mechanism on removing fluoride or mixed heavy metals from water.

In the Chapter 2, this study investigated the adsorptive removal of fluoride from water using various (hydro)oxide nanomaterials, focusing on ferrihydrite, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and brucite, which have the potential to be used as sorbents ...


Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire Dec 2019

Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire

Dissertations and Theses

The Portland area has an extensive flood history since it was founded in 1845. In the late 19th century, the Portland area was prone to flooding from snowmelt freshets (3-6 months duration) and brief winter rain or rain-on-snow events. Since that time the magnitude of spring freshets has been curtailed by 45% due to climate change, flow diversions, and reservoir management. Along with changes in hydrology, the bathymetry of the Lower Columbia River has been altered by the dredging of the navigation channel, diking, and land reclamation. To understand how these changes in hydrology and bathymetry have affected tidal and ...


Utility Of Bench Scale Sand Tank Experiments At Assessing Permeable Reactive Barrier Design, Brandon Meier Dec 2019

Utility Of Bench Scale Sand Tank Experiments At Assessing Permeable Reactive Barrier Design, Brandon Meier

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of bench scale sand tank experiments at assessing permeable reactive barrier (PRB) design. Our criteria for meeting this goal was that differences between PRB designs could be identified solely by measuring concentration in outflow from the sand tank models. For our PRB designs (funnel-and-gate, staggered wells, and parallel bars), numerical simulations clearly showed that PRB design had a quantifiable effect on outflow concentration, provided that the solute reacted with the PRB materials. Conversely, use of a conservative (non-reactive) solute did not allow us to discern between PRB design alternatives. Employing ...


Carbon Management And Volatile Fatty Acid Production In Primary Clarifiers At A Wastewater Treatment Plant, Brittany Nicole Radke Dec 2019

Carbon Management And Volatile Fatty Acid Production In Primary Clarifiers At A Wastewater Treatment Plant, Brittany Nicole Radke

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An increasing number of treatment plants are required to remove nutrients from domestic wastewater to lessen the impact of nutrient loading to water bodies. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is one of the processes commonly used to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater. The presence of an adequate quantity of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the wastewater influent to EBPR is important for process efficiency and stability. The objective of this research was to investigate the production of VFAs through fermentation of sludge in primary clarifiers as it related to improving nutrient removal, primarily targeting phosphorus.

The research tested, in full-scale ...


Application Of Data-Driven And Process-Based Modeling Approaches For Water Quality Simulation In Lakes And Freshwater Reservoirs, Ali Saber Sichani Dec 2019

Application Of Data-Driven And Process-Based Modeling Approaches For Water Quality Simulation In Lakes And Freshwater Reservoirs, Ali Saber Sichani

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Lakes and freshwater reservoirs often serve as the primary drinking and irrigation water sources for surrounding communities. They provide recreational and tourism opportunities, thereby promoting the prosperity of neighboring communities. Reliable estimates of water quality in lakes and reservoirs can improve management practices to protect water resources.

Seasonal water temperature and solar shortwave radiation variations, and their subsequent interactions with water column aquatic life, combined with seasonal variations of mixing intensity throughout the water column, result in variations of water quality constituents with depth during the annual cycle. The complexity of these variations entails the use of advanced water quality ...


A Game Modeling Of A Closed-Loop Supply Chain In A Water-Energy Nexus: Technology Advancement, Market Competition And Capacity Limit, Nabeel Hamoud Dec 2019

A Game Modeling Of A Closed-Loop Supply Chain In A Water-Energy Nexus: Technology Advancement, Market Competition And Capacity Limit, Nabeel Hamoud

Theses and Dissertations

Water and energy are two scarce and concerning resources interconnected in the water-energy nexus. In the nexus, production of energy needs water, and production of water needs energy. For better management of these resources in the nexus, this research considers a supply chain that consists of water suppliers, power suppliers, and consumers of these commodities. In the chain, water suppliers purchase power from power suppliers, and power suppliers purchase water from water suppliers. Other consumers can also buy these resources at the water and power markets. Each firm tries to maximize its own profit. The suppliers of water and power ...


Optimizing Hydrogen Sulfide Removal And Biogas Production Using The Water Wash Method, Brian Leightner Dec 2019

Optimizing Hydrogen Sulfide Removal And Biogas Production Using The Water Wash Method, Brian Leightner

Theses and Dissertations

Biogas forms from decomposing organic material in agricultural digesters, landfills, and wastewater treatment plant digesters. Biogas is mostly composed of methane, and can be used as a carbon-based fuel. Microorganisms that consume organics in these waste streams also produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as part of the biogas, in varying trace amounts. H2S is corrosive to engines and pipes for machinery, a human health hazard when inhaled, and an aquatic hazard when dissolved in water. Water washing is an absorption process that dissolves hydrogen sulfide and other water soluble compounds in this process and carries it away from the gas, thereby ...


Nematode Populations As Affected By Residue And Water Management In A Long-Term Wheat-Soybean Double Crop In Eastern Arkansas, Lucia Emperatriz Escalante Ortiz Dec 2019

Nematode Populations As Affected By Residue And Water Management In A Long-Term Wheat-Soybean Double Crop In Eastern Arkansas, Lucia Emperatriz Escalante Ortiz

Theses and Dissertations

Soybeans (Glycine max) are one of the major row crops in the United States, particularly in Arkansas. Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) and southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) are two of the most damaging pests that cause major economic losses in soybeans. Little is known concerning the effects of common and alternative agronomic practices on nematodes in fields with nematode population densities below threshold levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the combination of tillage (conventional tillage and no-tillage), irrigation (irrigated and non-irrigated), wheat (Triticum aestivum) residue burning (burned and no burned ...


Surface Modification Of Pvdf Membranes For Treating Produced Waters By Direct Contact Membrane Distillation, Zahra Anari Dec 2019

Surface Modification Of Pvdf Membranes For Treating Produced Waters By Direct Contact Membrane Distillation, Zahra Anari

Theses and Dissertations

Direct contact membrane distillation is a promising unit operation for treating hydraulic fracturing flow back and produced water. However, while a hydrophobic membrane is essential to prevent the passage of water from the feed to the permeate side, fouling by dissolved organic species can compromise membrane performance and result in wetting of the membrane pores. Here four monomers, hydroxyethylmethacrylate, acrylic acid, 1-vinyl-3-allylimidazolium bromide, and 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium bromide have been grafted from the surface of a PVDF membrane. The modified and base membranes were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation system. All membranes were challenged with real produced water. In addition ...


Stakeholder Engagement In Marine Spatial Planning Of Bangladesh, Mohammad Samsul Mannan Nov 2019

Stakeholder Engagement In Marine Spatial Planning Of Bangladesh, Mohammad Samsul Mannan

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Modeling Of Buildings With Electrochromic Windows And Thermochromic Roofs, Hua-Ting Kao Oct 2019

Modeling Of Buildings With Electrochromic Windows And Thermochromic Roofs, Hua-Ting Kao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Air conditioning and heating have increased substantially during the past two decades. According to a survey, buildings consume about 73% of the total electricity in the United States, accounting for 41% of all other energy in the world. At the same time, building skin technologies are constantly improving. Electrochromic and thermochromic are two exciting new technologies that can help reduce the energy consumption of a building. The purpose of this work is to increase our understanding of how much the use of electrochromic (EC) and thermochromic (TC) technologies can reduce the energy consumption of residential and commercial buildings in two ...


Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation Reactions Of Lipids, Alexander Asiedu Oct 2019

Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation Reactions Of Lipids, Alexander Asiedu

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) of lipids was investigated using 2-propanol as hydrogen donor for producing liquid hydrocarbons, e.g. jet fuels. The main sources of lipids selected in this study were waste cooking oil (WCO) and oil-laden algae-derived biofuel intermediate (BI). Two different catalysts were employed in this study, namely activated carbon and trimetallic-doped zeolite.

The CTH reaction was between WCO and 2-propanol in a continuous flow reactor over a packed-bed activated carbon at near atmospheric pressure. Results revealed a high level of alkenes and aromatics compounds, which are not stable and are not environmentally unfriendly. To reduce these compounds ...


The Water/Energy Nexus: Climate, Consumption And Ecosystem Services, Hildegaard D. Link Sep 2019

The Water/Energy Nexus: Climate, Consumption And Ecosystem Services, Hildegaard D. Link

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Water and energy are drivers of living systems. This work provides an assessment of the Water Energy Nexus in the United States, comparing the well-watered north-east and the arid west. Electric grid systems are most stressed on hot summer afternoons. Grid stress can lead to cascading failures of electricity, water and wastewater treatment systems. (Zimmerman, 2017) Water for power generation and/or water supply depend on ecosystem services. The ecosystem services and resource trade-offs embedded in provision of a watt of power and an ounce of potable water, however, have yet to be comprehensively enumerated nor have the cost relationships ...


Visualizing The Fate And Distribution Of Pahs In Spartina And Avicennia Tissues From Barataria Basin, La, Kristina Jeannette Sebastian Aug 2019

Visualizing The Fate And Distribution Of Pahs In Spartina And Avicennia Tissues From Barataria Basin, La, Kristina Jeannette Sebastian

LSU Master's Theses

During crude oil spill events, vegetation in marsh environments sequester polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the crude oil by partitioning from the air phase through the waxy cuticle on the leaf surface. Recent studies from Macondo oil-impacted marshes have demonstrated that cycling of low molecular weight petrogenic PAHs occurs through the cuticle and other leaf tissue. At present, our understanding of how PAHs travel through the cuticle is coarse and limited by grab samples across the entire leaf, which preventing a full understanding the dynamics of PAH cycling in this environment. Multiphoton (MP) confocal microscopy visualizes the distribution of PAHs ...


Metabolic Engineering Of Cyanobacteria For Production Of Chemicals, Po-Cheng Lin Aug 2019

Metabolic Engineering Of Cyanobacteria For Production Of Chemicals, Po-Cheng Lin

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Concerns over the impact of climate change caused by CO2 emission have driven the research and development of renewable energies. Microbial production of chemicals is being viewed as a feasible approach to reduce the use of fossil fuels and minimize the impact of climate change. With recent advances in synthetic biology, microorganisms can be engineered to synthesize petroleum-based chemicals and plant-derived compounds. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that use only sunlight, CO2, and trace minerals for growth. Compared to other microbial hosts, cyanobacteria are attractive platforms for sustainable bioproduction, because they can directly convert CO2 into products. However, the major challenge ...


Metabolic Engineering Of Cyanobacteria For Production Of Chemicals, Po-Cheng Lin Aug 2019

Metabolic Engineering Of Cyanobacteria For Production Of Chemicals, Po-Cheng Lin

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Concerns over the impact of climate change caused by CO2 emission have driven the research and development of renewable energies. Microbial production of chemicals is being viewed as a feasible approach to reduce the use of fossil fuels and minimize the impact of climate change. With recent advances in synthetic biology, microorganisms can be engineered to synthesize petroleum-based chemicals and plant-derived compounds. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that use only sunlight, CO2, and trace minerals for growth. Compared to other microbial hosts, cyanobacteria are attractive platforms for sustainable bioproduction, because they can directly convert CO2 into products. However, the major challenge ...


Investigating Sources Of Selenium In Shallow Groundwater In The Las Vegas Valley, Sahar Ehsani Aug 2019

Investigating Sources Of Selenium In Shallow Groundwater In The Las Vegas Valley, Sahar Ehsani

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Selenium concentrations above EPA safe levels are of potential concern in various parts of the Las Vegas Valley (Valley) in both water and sediment media. Previous studies suggest that the source of elevated selenium in the Valley is possibly resurfacing groundwater. Shallow groundwater flows into Las Vegas Wash wetlands, and therefore, it has important environmental implications as it affects the quality of tributaries and surface water. However, to date, there have not been any studies to determine the origins of selenium in Las Vegas Valley shallow groundwater. Identifying and understanding the source, spatial distribution and mobility of selenium regarding the ...


Self-Assembly Of Conducting Polymer Nano- And Microstructures For Energy Storage, Luciano Matteo Santino Aug 2019

Self-Assembly Of Conducting Polymer Nano- And Microstructures For Energy Storage, Luciano Matteo Santino

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plastics are materials composed of many long chains of molecules with repeating subunits; strong interactions between neighboring molecules lead to the material used throughout the world. Plastics are commonly thought to be insulating, in stark contrast to the conductivity of metals. However, certain polymer structures were discovered to exhibit semiconducting properties, the subject of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2000. Conducting polymers have a unique molecular structure with an electronically conjugated backbone, allowing electrons to freely travel both across the chain and in between chains. This work focuses on controlling the kinetics of the reaction between the vapors of ...


Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli Jul 2019

Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli

Doctoral Dissertations

Known in the building industry throughout the world, Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a massive timber building material with outstanding structural, fire, and seismic properties. CLT is a cost-competitive, sustainable construction material is a good candidate as a substitute material for concrete, masonry, and steel, in mid-rise and high-rise buildings. CLT is perpendicular layers of dimensional lumbers usually laminated together and forming a massive structural panel. This dissertation explores the viability of utilizing Massachusetts grown Eastern Hemlock and Eastern White Pine in CLT panels as pure or in conjunction with other high-value wood products. 59% of Massachusetts’ lands are covered ...


Design Of Variable Wall Thickness Geometry And Performance Mapping Of Scroll Expanders For Distributed Power Generation, Arun Kumar Narasimhan Jul 2019

Design Of Variable Wall Thickness Geometry And Performance Mapping Of Scroll Expanders For Distributed Power Generation, Arun Kumar Narasimhan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Low-temperature heat sources such as industrial waste heat, solar, and geothermal are more suitable for small-scale power generation rather than utility scale. In order to maximize the electricity generated from low-temperature heat sources, an efficient expansion device for small-scale power output is necessary. This research work has focused on evaluating the use of a scroll expander and improving its geometrical design for the power output range of 1-25 kWe.

The first part of the work focusses on modeling the performance of a scroll expander using two non-dimensionless parameters, namely, specific speed and specific diameter. Performance of a scroll expander ...


A Decision-Making Framework For Hybrid Resource Recovery Oriented Wastewater Systems, Nader Rezaei Jun 2019

A Decision-Making Framework For Hybrid Resource Recovery Oriented Wastewater Systems, Nader Rezaei

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Water shortage, water contamination, and the emerging challenges in sustainable water resources management (e.g., the likely impacts of climate change and population growth) necessitate adopting a reverse logistics approach, which is the process of moving wastewater from its typical final destination back to the water supply chain for reuse purposes. This practice not only reduces the negative impacts of wastewater on the environment, but also provides an alternative to withdrawal from natural water resources, forming a closed-loop water supply chain. However, the design of such a supply chain requires an appropriate sustainability assessment, which simultaneously accounts for economic, environmental ...


Prioritizing Rehabilitation Of Sanitary Sewers In Pinellas County, Fl, Jesse T. Hillman Jun 2019

Prioritizing Rehabilitation Of Sanitary Sewers In Pinellas County, Fl, Jesse T. Hillman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Following large rain events, extraneous freshwater contributions known as inflow and infiltration (I/I) bypass the storm sewer and enter the sanitary sewer system. In areas with a high water table, like Pinellas County and the surrounding Tampa Bay area, a majority of the wastewater infrastructure is submerged year round exacerbating the rate of groundwater infiltration. This excess flow overloads the existing wastewater infrastructure leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). These SSOs result in serious problems for municipalities and utilities across the country.

This study was performed in order to assist Pinellas County Utilities in rehabilitating their southern sewer system ...


Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu May 2019

Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu

Dissertations

Membrane filtration has been extensively used in water and wastewater treatment, desalination, dairy making, and biomass/water separation. However, membrane fouling, aging and insufficient removal efficiency for dissolved organic matters remain major challenges for wider industrial applications. In order to tackle these challenges, this doctoral dissertation investigates mechanisms of membrane fouling and development of antifouling membrane filtration technologies. Specifically, four major research areas are explored: (i) nanoscale physicochemical characterization of the chemically modified polymeric membranes; (ii) quantitative modelling between membrane properties and membrane fouling and defouling kinetics; (iii) development of quantitative structure-activity relationships for membranes that undergo thermal and chemical ...


Perspectives On Water Resources Risk, Policy, And Stewardship, Anne Marie Lausier May 2019

Perspectives On Water Resources Risk, Policy, And Stewardship, Anne Marie Lausier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Water management approaches have historically optimized water for human use and placed lower emphasis on the relationship between ecosystems and humans. Despite efforts to balance human and ecosystem needs, existing management approaches tend to prioritize some needs, knowledges, and values over others. Natural and anthropogenic changes pose challenges to water governance institutions due to policy inflexibility, and may lead to ecosystem degradation, water stress, and conflict among water users. This work seeks to redress these shortcomings through three scholarly contributions. First, a conceptual framework for Water Resources Stewardship is developed in support of equitable and adaptive solutions under changing conditions ...


Environmental Monitoring Using A Drone-Enabled Wireless Sensor Network, Gina Valentino, Laura Yates, Brooke Potter May 2019

Environmental Monitoring Using A Drone-Enabled Wireless Sensor Network, Gina Valentino, Laura Yates, Brooke Potter

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

Water quality monitoring traditionally occurs via resource intensive field surveys, such as when a researcher manually collects data in a stream. Limiting factors such as time, money, and accessibility often result in less oversight of impaired water bodies, significantly threatening ecosystemic health and related ecosystem services. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, 84% of rivers and streams within the United States remain unassessed, resulting in significant lapses in available data. Such lapses prohibit efficient and effective monitoring, restoration, and conservation efforts throughout the United States. The objective of this project was to employ an unmanned aerial vehicle to ...


Lighting And Economic Considerations For A Hydroponic S-Based Greenhouse At Tri Cycle Farms, Laura Gray May 2019

Lighting And Economic Considerations For A Hydroponic S-Based Greenhouse At Tri Cycle Farms, Laura Gray

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is an agricultural technology that involves growing plants without soil, instead using other growth media with added nutrients, typically inside a controlled facility such as a greenhouse. Hydroponics-based agriculture has a number of benefits, namely that it is more water efficient, requires less intensive labor, yields higher quality crops consistently in shorter time, and is easier to control. It also has the potential to be economically advantageous, due to its ability to grow certain crops in the off-season. In Fayetteville, Arkansas, a non-profit urban farm known as Tri Cycle Farms has been seeking a way to design, build, and ...


Rating Curve Development For The Upper James Fork, Lower James Fork And Hinkle Jones Creek In The Upper Poteau River Watershed In Arkansas, Meagan O'Hare May 2019

Rating Curve Development For The Upper James Fork, Lower James Fork And Hinkle Jones Creek In The Upper Poteau River Watershed In Arkansas, Meagan O'Hare

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Stream discharge is necessary to estimate loads and calibrate and validate watershed models. Access to long-term water quality data and discharge measurements allows for modeling of water quality changes across a watershed over time. However, discharge monitoring stations are often expensive to install and maintain, particularly in small rivers. A more cost-effective method for monitoring streamflow has been implemented in the Upper Poteau River Watershed (UPRW) in Arkansas. This method consists of an SonTek acoustic doppler instrument for measuring storm stream flow, with is combined with manual baseflow discharge measurements. The combined stormflow and baseflow measurements are combined with a ...


Novel Non-Invasive Technology For The Detection Of Thin Biofilm In Piping Systems (Phase - 1), Sachin Davis May 2019

Novel Non-Invasive Technology For The Detection Of Thin Biofilm In Piping Systems (Phase - 1), Sachin Davis

Theses and Dissertations

Biofilms are formed when a group of cells of microorganisms stick to each other and often on a surface. The development of biofilm has been a major issue in many fields (medical field, food, chemical, and water industry are a few such fields). In the medical field alone, biofilm infections have reportedly cost over five billion USD in additional healthcare expenses. The food industry usually halts the operation of its plant eight hours, every day to ensure that their equipment and transportation channels are clean and free from any biofilm presence. Similarly, the water and chemical industry need to ensure ...


H2 Control For Improved Stability Of Multi-Area Electric Power System With High Levels Of Inverter-Based Generation, Muthanna Abdulkareem Al-Sarray May 2019

H2 Control For Improved Stability Of Multi-Area Electric Power System With High Levels Of Inverter-Based Generation, Muthanna Abdulkareem Al-Sarray

Theses and Dissertations

Increased generation capacity from non-dispatchable energy resources such as wind and solar has created challenges to ensuring the reliable delivery of electric power. This research develops a systematic three-step method of assessing the reliability of electric power systems under a variety of different possible fault conditions to ensure that overall system stability is preserved in a manner the meets regulatory requirements. The first step is a risk-based reliability method (RBRM) that accounts for the probability of a line outage versus the severity of impact. This allows system planners to judiciously allocate expenses for reliability improvements based on the greatest economic ...


Novel Non-Invasive Technology For The Detection Of Thin Biofilm In Piping Systems (Phase - 1), Sachin Davis May 2019

Novel Non-Invasive Technology For The Detection Of Thin Biofilm In Piping Systems (Phase - 1), Sachin Davis

Theses and Dissertations

Biofilms are formed when a group of cells of microorganisms stick to each other and often on a surface. The development of biofilm has been a major issue in many fields (medical field, food, chemical, and water industry are a few such fields). In the medical field alone, biofilm infections have reportedly cost over five billion USD in additional healthcare expenses. The food industry usually halts the operation of its plant eight hours, every day to ensure that their equipment and transportation channels are clean and free from any biofilm presence. Similarly, the water and chemical industry need to ensure ...