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2019

Theses/Dissertations

Environmental Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

An Integrated Framework To Assess Compound Flood Risks For Interdependent Critical Infrastructure In A Coastal Environment, Ying Zhang Sep 2019

An Integrated Framework To Assess Compound Flood Risks For Interdependent Critical Infrastructure In A Coastal Environment, Ying Zhang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Compound flooding refers to flood events caused by multiple factors, including marine processes (e.g. storm tides and waves), hydrometeorological signals (e.g. rainfall and river flows) among others. Saint Lucia is a tropical island in eastern Caribbean Sea, which is frequently affected by weather-related extreme events such as tropical storms and the associated risks are exacerbated due to its mountainous topography and high concentrations of infrastructure and human communities close to the coast. At the southern coast of Saint Lucia, significant infrastructures such as Hewanorra International Airport and Vieux Fort Seaport, and human settlements such as towns of Vieux ...


Review Of Polymer Gels For Conformance Control In Oil Reservoirs, Saman Kazemi Sep 2019

Review Of Polymer Gels For Conformance Control In Oil Reservoirs, Saman Kazemi

Major Papers

Excess water production due to conformance problems is a serious issue in oil extraction with severe environmental and economic implications. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity of the reservoir and existence of thief zones which uptake the injected water. Polymer gels have been successfully used to improve the sweep efficiency and to mitigate excess water production. However, due to the complexity of the reservoir, reservoir temperature, salinity, pH, lithology, and permeability, selection of proper gel system is still challenging. This paper aims to provide a literature review on six widely applied polymer gel systems used for conformance control applications ...


Visualizing The Fate And Distribution Of Pahs In Spartina And Avicennia Tissues From Barataria Basin, La, Kristina Jeannette Sebastian Aug 2019

Visualizing The Fate And Distribution Of Pahs In Spartina And Avicennia Tissues From Barataria Basin, La, Kristina Jeannette Sebastian

LSU Master's Theses

During crude oil spill events, vegetation in marsh environments sequester polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the crude oil by partitioning from the air phase through the waxy cuticle on the leaf surface. Recent studies from Macondo oil-impacted marshes have demonstrated that cycling of low molecular weight petrogenic PAHs occurs through the cuticle and other leaf tissue. At present, our understanding of how PAHs travel through the cuticle is coarse and limited by grab samples across the entire leaf, which preventing a full understanding the dynamics of PAH cycling in this environment. Multiphoton (MP) confocal microscopy visualizes the distribution of PAHs ...


Application Of Cation Exchange And Nanofiltration To Treat Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater, Ayush R. Shahi Jul 2019

Application Of Cation Exchange And Nanofiltration To Treat Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater, Ayush R. Shahi

Civil Engineering ETDs

Flue gas emitted from coal-fired power plants is one of the major sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides emissions to the atmosphere in the world today. Although coal use has decreased, it is still a major contributor to such emissions. The Clean Air Act in the United States established regulations for coal-fired power plants to limit SOx and NOx emissions into the atmosphere. To meet regulatory requirements, power plants have been using scrubbers to limit their air emissions. Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a pollution prevention method that is employed to limit sulfur dioxide emissions directly in the environment ...


Is Transportation Planning Effective? A Critical Review Of Long-Range Regional Transportation Planning In The United States, Razieh Nadafianshahamabadi Jul 2019

Is Transportation Planning Effective? A Critical Review Of Long-Range Regional Transportation Planning In The United States, Razieh Nadafianshahamabadi

Civil Engineering ETDs

The Federal-Aid Highway Act requires urban areas with a population greater than 50,000 to create Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) to ensure that funding for transportation projects and programs are based on a continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive planning process. A major responsibility of each MPO is the creation of a long-range transportation plan (LRTP) that addresses the transportation needs of a metropolitan region over the next twenty years or more. While long-range regional transportation planning goals have grown to include a wide range of concerns and technical methods for evaluating planning scenarios have advanced substantially over the past 50 years ...


Low Loading Gold Vapor Deposited Electrode For High Sensitivity As (Iii) Detection, Tybur Casuse Jul 2019

Low Loading Gold Vapor Deposited Electrode For High Sensitivity As (Iii) Detection, Tybur Casuse

Civil Engineering ETDs

The objective of this thesis is to develop a method for detection of arsenite, As (III), using a thin film of gold (Au) vapor deposited onto carbon paper as an electrode. Currently, availability of drinking water arsenic (As) concentration information for rural communities is diminished due to high cost per sample analysis and limited access to analytical laboratories which can accurately determine concentrations near the 10 maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The use of a minimal amount of gold aids in decreasing the cost of an electrode ...


Sodium-Ion Concentration Flow Cell Stacks For Salinity Gradient Energy Recovery: Power Generation Of Series And Parallel Configurations, Elizabeth Whiddon Jul 2019

Sodium-Ion Concentration Flow Cell Stacks For Salinity Gradient Energy Recovery: Power Generation Of Series And Parallel Configurations, Elizabeth Whiddon

LSU Master's Theses

Salinity gradient (SG) energy is a renewable and clean energy resource that exists worldwide from the change in Gibbs free energy when two solutions with different salinities are mixed. More recently, concentration flow cells (CFCs) have been introduced as a new technology for SG energy recovery with the highest reported power density output to date, as a result of the utilization of both the electrode potential and Donnan potential. In this study, multiple CFCs were connected to form a consecutive number of stacks, and systematic analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of both parallel and series electrical wire connections ...


Application Of Photothermal Floats For Mine Water Disposal, Ross Monasmith Jul 2019

Application Of Photothermal Floats For Mine Water Disposal, Ross Monasmith

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Photothermal materials can efficiently translate incoming solar radiation into water evaporation. The application of photothermal materials to enhance evaporative water disposal may be limited by material durability, scale formation, and interactions between the photothermal materials and variable water chemistries. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was chosen as a photothermal material based on previous results (Monasmith et al. 2019, pending review). Using a custom-built bench-scale evaporation platform, evaporation trials were performed to determine the effect of water quality, GAC grain sizes, and float adhesives on water evaporation rates. Adhesives to attach the GAC to HDPE floats were tested for bond strength and ...


Field Trials Of Ex Situ Smouldering Treatment (Starx) Of Oil Sludge, Cody Murray Jun 2019

Field Trials Of Ex Situ Smouldering Treatment (Starx) Of Oil Sludge, Cody Murray

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Growing environmental concern and regulations around petroleum producing and refining facilities, along with the divesting of legacy properties, have necessitated the need for rapid, high capacity, and cost-effective treatment technologies for remediating these sites and their produced wastes. Self-sustained liquid smouldering – known as STAR technology - has been studied extensively at small scales and has been proven as an effective in situ remediation technique for heavy hydrocarbons. However, STAR as a large-scale ex situ waste disposal method (STARx) has yet to be demonstrated. Here STARx is evaluated for the first time in soil pile configurations, using an engineered base concept called ...


Case Study: Using Geofoam On A School Project In Encinitas, Ca, Matthew D. Gaebe Jun 2019

Case Study: Using Geofoam On A School Project In Encinitas, Ca, Matthew D. Gaebe

Construction Management

This paper is a case study that identifies why Geofoam was used as in-fill material for a construction project located at a high school in Encinitas, CA. The Geofoam was installed under a stairway that connects to a structural retaining wall. The concrete formwork was connected directly to the foam and the stairs were poured in place onsite. The foam acted as the on-grade material, so the concrete stairs did not have to be self-supporting. The purpose of this study is to understand the benefits of using Geofoam, as the in-fill material, as opposed to other traditional materials. An analysis ...


Carbonate Chemistry Characterization In A Low-Inflow Estuary With Recent Seagrass Loss, Jolie Higgins Jun 2019

Carbonate Chemistry Characterization In A Low-Inflow Estuary With Recent Seagrass Loss, Jolie Higgins

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Estuaries are dynamic environments that are strongly affected by natural variability, as well as direct and indirect anthropogenic impacts. A better understanding of the drivers of carbon fluxes and biogeochemical variability in estuarine systems is needed, particularly with the increasing threat of ocean acidification. Morro Bay in Central California is a small nationally protected estuary, with seasonally low freshwater inputs. Since 2007, the bay has experienced a significant loss of native seagrass, Zostera marina, which is an important component of the marine ecosystem. Because seagrass photosynthesis decreases carbon dioxide and increases oxygen in the water column, the loss of seagrass ...


Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu May 2019

Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu

Dissertations

Membrane filtration has been extensively used in water and wastewater treatment, desalination, dairy making, and biomass/water separation. However, membrane fouling, aging and insufficient removal efficiency for dissolved organic matters remain major challenges for wider industrial applications. In order to tackle these challenges, this doctoral dissertation investigates mechanisms of membrane fouling and development of antifouling membrane filtration technologies. Specifically, four major research areas are explored: (i) nanoscale physicochemical characterization of the chemically modified polymeric membranes; (ii) quantitative modelling between membrane properties and membrane fouling and defouling kinetics; (iii) development of quantitative structure-activity relationships for membranes that undergo thermal and chemical ...


Electrochemically Reactive Membranes For Efficient Biomass Recovery, Pollutant Degradation And Commercialization, Likun Hua May 2019

Electrochemically Reactive Membranes For Efficient Biomass Recovery, Pollutant Degradation And Commercialization, Likun Hua

Dissertations

Micropollution in natural waters such as rivers and groundwater aquifers is a widespread problem that prevents these potentially potable sources from being used as drinking water. In the United States, approximately two-thirds of the over 1,200 most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation are contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), a potentially carcinogenic compound. Other emerging and environmentally persistent organic micropollutants include polyromantic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate flame retardants, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Membrane filtration is one of the most efficient separation processes widely used for water treatment and pollutant removal. However, traditional ...


Investigating The Rapid Curing Possibility Of Geopolymer Concrete, Ashlesh Banjara May 2019

Investigating The Rapid Curing Possibility Of Geopolymer Concrete, Ashlesh Banjara

Master's Theses

Recent studies of heat-cured fly ash based green geopolymer concrete have shown its suitability for fabrication of structural members. Fabrication of these structural members requires continuous moderate heating (145°F) for 24 hrs, and an oven essential, for a large member can quickly turn into an energy guzzler, potentially eliminating the green credentials of the product. The proposed research involves the development of a frontal polymerization (FP) method that achieves rapid curing of geopolymer at ambient condition after short-term heat application. Initial work shows thermal FP in geopolymer is a possibility and might be a solution to the problem. The ...


Evaluation Of Total Fume And Heavy Metal Emission Factors Applicable To Gas Metal Arc Welding, Abhinay Jilla May 2019

Evaluation Of Total Fume And Heavy Metal Emission Factors Applicable To Gas Metal Arc Welding, Abhinay Jilla

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Welding is a metal joining process widely used in many manufacturing facilities around the world. It involves the process of heating the base and filler metals to a high temperature that leads to the formation of fumes. Welding emissions consist of gaseous pollutants and micron and sub-micron particles consisting of different heavy metals. Health risks associated with exposures to weld fume is well recognized in the literature. This research evaluates emissions and emission factors applicable to gas metal arc welding (GMAW) on AH 36 (mild steel) and 316 L (stainless steel). Emission factors evaluated consisted, total fume, chromium, cobalt, lead ...


Total Fume Emissions And Emission Factors Applicable To Gas Metal Arc Welding, Nayara De Souza May 2019

Total Fume Emissions And Emission Factors Applicable To Gas Metal Arc Welding, Nayara De Souza

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Welding is a common industrial practice that has the potential to emit air pollutants. Emission factors are useful indicators to help in the understanding of the extent of pollution from a process and managing them to reduce or minimize health impacts. The objective of this thesis is to determine emission factors applicable to the gas metal arc welding (GMAW), under varying current and voltage conditions. The most used base metals and an electrode for the shipbuilding industry were considered. A weld fume chamber was used to achieve the project goals along with standard sampling and analytical procedures. Three test runs ...


Recent Advances In Low-Cost Particulate Matter Sensor: Calibration And Application, Jiayu Li May 2019

Recent Advances In Low-Cost Particulate Matter Sensor: Calibration And Application, Jiayu Li

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Particulate matter (PM) has been monitored routinely due to its negative effects on human health and atmospheric visibility. Standard gravimetric measurements and current commercial instruments for field measurements are still expensive and laborious. The high cost of conventional instruments typically limits the number of monitoring sites, which in turn undermines the accuracy of real-time mapping of sources and hotspots of air pollutants with insufficient spatial resolution. The new trends of PM concentration measurement are personalized portable devices for individual customers and networking of large quantity sensors to meet the demand of Big Data. Therefore, low-cost PM sensors have been studied ...


Dry River Watershed Valuation And Management Plan, Julia Hutchens May 2019

Dry River Watershed Valuation And Management Plan, Julia Hutchens

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Water quality has become a major environmental and human welfare concern in the world today, it’s no longer just for developing countries. There have been many incidences in the US of health problems related to water quality and a shortage of water. The City of Harrisonburg and the surrounding community also have a need for a well-developed watershed management plan. The focus of this study will be the Dry River because that is a main source of the city’s water. The Dry River watershed is threatened by illegal dumping, erosion from primitive roads and future road building sedimentation ...


Removal And Reuse Of Phosphorus As A Fertilizer From Cafo Runoff, Kristin Moore May 2019

Removal And Reuse Of Phosphorus As A Fertilizer From Cafo Runoff, Kristin Moore

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Eutrophication is the process in which nutrient saturated waters promote algal blooms on the surface of the water. This limits the amount of dissolved oxygen content in the water, effectively limiting the range of species that can survive in a body of water. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can contribute to this issue. The animals in a CAFO produce large amounts of nutrient-rich waste streams that can enter natural waterways if not properly managed and increase the problem of eutrophication. The ability to treat these waste streams and recover the excess nutrients would allow for not only the reduction of ...


Ecological Co2 Flux Of A Green Roof Ecosystem And A Typical Grassland Ecosystem, Madeline Oxner May 2019

Ecological Co2 Flux Of A Green Roof Ecosystem And A Typical Grassland Ecosystem, Madeline Oxner

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Hillside Auditorium Green Roof is a low impact development feature on the University of Arkansas campus. It retains storm water and allows plants living on the roof to take up and transpire the water. Green roofs work to mimic natural ecosystems in urban environments. A key property is ecosystem respiration, which plays a large role in the global carbon cycle and is an important biologic activity indicator. The ecosystem respiration of Hillside Auditorium Green Roof was compared to a typical grassland ecosystem at the University of Arkansas farm to determine how closely the green roof is able to mimic ...


Effectiveness Of Titanium And Iron Nanoparticles In Treating M. Aeruginosa For Harmful Algal Bloom Remediation, Natalie Von Tress May 2019

Effectiveness Of Titanium And Iron Nanoparticles In Treating M. Aeruginosa For Harmful Algal Bloom Remediation, Natalie Von Tress

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are a growing issue worldwide, posing harm to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water quality. This issue could be potentially mitigated using nanoparticle (NP) treatment, simultaneously removing cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins in HABs. This research seeks to discern the effectiveness of using titanium dioxide and iron (III) oxide NP treatment at removing cyanobacteria via flocculation and sedimentation. Each NP at 25 mg/L and 50 mg/L were used to treat suspended culture of Microcystis aeruginosa, the representative cyanobacteria, up to 72 hours. Cell concentration and morphology in the supernatant were measured via a Coulter counter ...


Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould May 2019

Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is the agricultural technique of growing plants without soil, using other growing media and added nutrients in a solvent. It is an attractive agricultural method over conventional agriculture because it is more water efficient, is less labor intensive, yields higher quality crops in less time, and is easier to control. According to the Digital Journal, “hydroponics crop value is anticipated to grow to USD 27.29 Billion by 2022 at an estimated CAGR of 6.39% from 2015 to 2020” (Sawant, 2016). Alongside this growing market acceptance for hydroponics, there is also a local demand that requires only a ...


Silver-Based Microbial Check Valve For Spacecraft Potable Water Systems, Rogelio E. Garcia May 2019

Silver-Based Microbial Check Valve For Spacecraft Potable Water Systems, Rogelio E. Garcia

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

As human space exploration increases, the development of a more efficient potable water treatment system suited for spacecraft becomes crucial. This Waste-management Education Research Consortium (WERC) challenge was designed to explore the viability of microbial control through the utilization of silver ions as a biocide for possible integration into the Tranquility Node 3 water purification system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Current systems using iodine risk causing hyperthyroidism from overexposure; however, silver can be safely ingested without this side effect. After researching silver delivery methods including electrochemical ion production, controlled release, or a combination of the two, our team ...


Recovery Of Water And Salts From Hyper-Saline Mine Water Using Freeze Crystallization, Miriam Gonzalez May 2019

Recovery Of Water And Salts From Hyper-Saline Mine Water Using Freeze Crystallization, Miriam Gonzalez

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the mining industry, usage of large volumes of water enables mines to conduct multiple processes within one location. Hypersaline brine waters exit the processes of the mine to be utilized for other roles; some of these roles include leaching, recirculation, and extraction operations. These waters are highly concentrated with salt components and are released to different sections of the mine. The salts of highest concentration in the brine are aluminum sulfate and magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, along with low concentrations of many other elements. There are multiple ways to recover purified water from the brine solution: freeze crystallization, evaporative processes ...


Removal And Reuse Of Phosphorus As A Fertilizer From Cafo Runoff, Hannah Young May 2019

Removal And Reuse Of Phosphorus As A Fertilizer From Cafo Runoff, Hannah Young

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Eutrophication is the process in which nutrient saturated waters promote algal blooms on the surface of the water. This limits the amount of dissolved oxygen content in the water, effectively limiting the range of species that can survive in a body of water. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can contribute to this issue. The animals in a CAFO produce large amounts of nutrient-rich waste streams that can enter natural waterways if not properly managed and increase the problem of eutrophication. The ability to treat these waste streams and recover the excess nutrients would allow for not only the reduction of ...


Characterization Of Florida Landfills With Elevated Temperatures, Ryan Joslyn May 2019

Characterization Of Florida Landfills With Elevated Temperatures, Ryan Joslyn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The occurrence of elevated temperatures within landfills is a very challenging issue for landfill operators to detect and correct. Little is known regarding the causes of elevated temperatures (ETs) and the number of landfills currently operating under such conditions. Therefore, the goal of this research was to determine which landfills within Florida have been impacted by ETs, and to develop a more complete understanding of the factors that may lead to these landfills becoming elevated temperature landfills (ETLFs). Historical landfill gas wellhead data, waste deposition reports, and landfill site geometry were collected for 27 landfill cells through the FDEP OCULUS ...


Macrobenthos Responses To Dam Removal And Habitat Restoration In The West River, Connecticut, Robert W. Sheridan May 2019

Macrobenthos Responses To Dam Removal And Habitat Restoration In The West River, Connecticut, Robert W. Sheridan

Master's Theses

Dam removal is being increasingly used nationwide to restore impaired rivers and streams. While dam removals are becoming more prevalent, little is known about whether these efforts create conditions for the enhancement and or establishment of desired biota.

Ongoing monitoring of these projects is an important step in the restoration process to ensure project goals are being met and the restoration has been successful.

This thesis focuses on the Pond Lily Dam removal and restoration which took place in October 2015 along the West River in New Haven Connecticut that removed an aging mill dam with the objective of restoring ...


The Effect Of Low Temperature And Low Light Intensity On Nutrient Removal From Municipal Wastewater By Purple Phototrophic Bacteria (Ppb), Peyman Dalaei Apr 2019

The Effect Of Low Temperature And Low Light Intensity On Nutrient Removal From Municipal Wastewater By Purple Phototrophic Bacteria (Ppb), Peyman Dalaei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There has been increased interest in alternative wastewater treatment systems to improve nutrient recovery while achieving acceptable TCOD, TN, and TP discharge limits. Purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) have a high potential for simultaneous nutrient removal and recovery from wastewater. This study evaluated the PPB performance and its growth at different operating conditions with a focus on HRT and light optimization using a continuous-flow membrane photobioreactor (PHB). Furthermore, the effect of low temperature on PPB performance was assessed to evaluate the PPB’s application in cold-climate regions. In order to evaluate PPB performance, TCOD, TN, and TP removal efficiencies and Monod ...


Effect Of Coagulant Recycling On Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment Performance, Tulip Chakraborty Apr 2019

Effect Of Coagulant Recycling On Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment Performance, Tulip Chakraborty

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process is a promising method for carbon redirection and improving the performance and efficiency of wastewater treatment processes. CEPT is employed to precipitate colloidal and suspended matter from wastewater; however, this requires a significant amount of coagulant and produces large volumes of sludge. Coagulant recovery (CR) from the precipitated sludge has the potential to reduce sludge quantities, associated costs for disposal of sludge, cost of dosing fresh coagulant by regenerating and purifying the coagulant before reuse. This research was conducted to understand the feasibility and implications of CR in municipal wastewater.

In order to evaluate ...


Nitrate Dynamics In An Arid Irrgation Network: Can Nutrient Loops Be Closed With Management Techniques?, Kelsey B. Bicknell Apr 2019

Nitrate Dynamics In An Arid Irrgation Network: Can Nutrient Loops Be Closed With Management Techniques?, Kelsey B. Bicknell

Civil Engineering ETDs

Nutrients are the third leading cause of impairment in aquatic ecosystems, yet they remain necessary to support our growing agriculture system. Mining (as with phosphorus) and manufacturing (as with synthetic nitrogen) fertilizers deplete non-renewable resources and consume large amounts of energy. We have opportunities to optimize food-energy-water (FEW) resources, particularly in arid regions where wastewater, rather than agriculture, is the number one contributor of nutrients. This study evaluates the capacity of three unique channels (i.e., the Drain canal, the Delivery canal, and the Rio Grande River) within the agriculture system of the Middle Rio Grande Valley to process nutrients ...