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2019

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Civil Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

An Investigation On The Effects Of Cellulose Nanofibrils On The Performance Of Cement Based Composites, Hosain Haddad Kolour Dec 2019

An Investigation On The Effects Of Cellulose Nanofibrils On The Performance Of Cement Based Composites, Hosain Haddad Kolour

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are hydrophilic biodegradable nanoparticles (typically, less than 0.2 mm in length and 20-50 nm in width) that can be extracted from various plants, trees, and recycled paper stock. Their low density, low toxicity, relatively low cost, high aspect ratio, and high specific surface enable functionalization. In this work, the effects of CNFs on selected properties of cement paste, mortar, and concrete were investigated. For the cement pastes, rheology tests using a simple rheometer showed a reduction in workability as CNF dosage increased. Free shrinkage tests showed an increase in shrinkage at high w/c ratios but ...


A Laboratory Investigation Of Cement Based Materials With Cellulose Nanofibers, Parivash Takasi Dec 2019

A Laboratory Investigation Of Cement Based Materials With Cellulose Nanofibers, Parivash Takasi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cellulose Nanofibers (CNFs) are used as additives in cement-based products to modify their properties. Recent studies about the effects of CNFs on cement paste showed inconsistent results for several different important properties, including compressive strength and free shrinkage. There is reason to believe that the unsystematic results of the compressive strengths were affected by the lack of uniform dispersion of CNFs. As a potential remedy, two different mixing methods were applied. The first method used a basic mixer, but aggregates were added to the cement paste mixture to improve the blending process. The second method utilized a high-speed shear mixer ...


Effect Of Recycled Concrete Aggregates On The Long-Term, Elastic, Total Deflection And Strength Of Precast Prestressed Hollow Core Concrete Slabs, Lizeth Marisol Gomez Santana Dec 2019

Effect Of Recycled Concrete Aggregates On The Long-Term, Elastic, Total Deflection And Strength Of Precast Prestressed Hollow Core Concrete Slabs, Lizeth Marisol Gomez Santana

Civil Engineering Theses

Concrete constitutes the largest portion of construction and demolition waste generated each year in the United States. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the total production of construction and demolition of concrete waste during 2015 was 381.8 million tons. In order to reduce the economic and environmental effects of waste concrete, researchers have begun to incorporate it into concrete mixtures. However, the inherent variability in mechanical properties between RCA sources makes it difficult to quantify the maximum permissible replacement of natural aggregate and the end-result properties of concrete. This project investigates the use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA ...


Anaerobic Digestion Modeling Of A High Rate Acidification Pre-Treatment Technology, Connor Pritty Dec 2019

Anaerobic Digestion Modeling Of A High Rate Acidification Pre-Treatment Technology, Connor Pritty

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Through the application of a computerized model (BioWin), anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) of source separated organics (SSO) and a high rate acidification technology (pretreatment) for a conventional wastewater treatment plant was reviewed. Through this combined approach of high rate acidification, and co-digestion techniques it was found that the experimental modeling scenarios offered increases when compared to the existing base scenario production levels. With the addition of the high rate acidification technology and application of source separated organics the maximum increases in biogas production came when an OLR of 5.24 kg-COD/m³/day and 97g COD/L/d was experimentally modeled ...


Galena Creek Bridge Structural Health Monitoring Instrumentation And Modeling, Leopold Falkensammer Dec 2019

Galena Creek Bridge Structural Health Monitoring Instrumentation And Modeling, Leopold Falkensammer

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Structural health monitoring (SHM) of an instrumented structure provides numerous benefits when assessing the long-term condition of the structure against degradation, or the short-term condition after an extreme event, such as an earthquake. The Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) has an interest in expanding the use of SHM for such assessments. Accordingly, the objective of the current study is to develop and implement a permanent SHM system for the Galena Creek Bridge, the largest concrete cathedral arch bridge in the world, to monitor its response to routine traffic and seismic activity. Completed in 2012, the bridge connects Reno and Carson ...


Alkali-Silica Reactivity Of Mortars Containing Natural Pozzolan, Arash Kian Dec 2019

Alkali-Silica Reactivity Of Mortars Containing Natural Pozzolan, Arash Kian

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Alkali-silica reactivity is one of the most recognized deleterious phenomena in Portland cement concrete resulting in cracks, spalling, and other deleterious mechanisms.

The aim of this study was (i) to assess the extent of reactivity of the aggregates, quarried from seven different sources, suspected of being conducive to ASR, and (ii) to compare the effectiveness of industrial (Class F fly ash) and natural pozzolans in mitigation of alkali-silica reactivity of the studied aggregates. To this end, seven aggregate sources, four natural pozzolan sources, and one source of Class F fly ash were used. ASTM Type V Portland cement was replaced ...


Impact Of Design Cost Percentage On Cost Growth, Schedule Growth, And Construction Intensity Of Road Construction Projects, Elina Prajapati Dec 2019

Impact Of Design Cost Percentage On Cost Growth, Schedule Growth, And Construction Intensity Of Road Construction Projects, Elina Prajapati

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The performance of construction projects is measured in terms of cost and schedule variation. Studies have identified that such variations are mainly due to design changes, which are more frequent on projects executed through the design-bid-build (DBB) delivery method. Thus, the design factor is identified as one of the major parameters affecting the performance of DBB projects. Despite the majority of road projects being constructed following the DBB method, the impact of design cost on the performance of road projects has not been sufficiently studied yet. Therefore, this study focuses on determining the effect of design cost on the performance ...


Examining The Effectiveness Of A 4d Schedule And A Virtual Reality Model On A Modular Project: Unlv Solar Decathlon Case, Rajarshi Ghimire Dec 2019

Examining The Effectiveness Of A 4d Schedule And A Virtual Reality Model On A Modular Project: Unlv Solar Decathlon Case, Rajarshi Ghimire

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The use of a 4D schedule as technological advancement has brought significant improvement to the planning and execution of construction projects, through visualizing stepwise construction progress, following a sequence of pre-planned activities, and finalizing a baseline schedule with necessary changes. Moreover, the application of virtual reality (VR) to create interactive 3D models of a planned structure has made it possible to make a detailed planning of any construction project. Because of these benefits, the use of 4D schedules and VR in the construction industry has increased drastically, leading to improved planning and execution. However, past studies have given little attention ...


Development Of Natural Perlite Based Concrete For Sustainable Construction, Seyedmahmoud Motaharikarein Dec 2019

Development Of Natural Perlite Based Concrete For Sustainable Construction, Seyedmahmoud Motaharikarein

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study aimed to partially replace Portland Cement (PC) with environmentally friendly binders capable of improving the longevity of concrete. The new binders consisted of different proportions of natural pozzolan (perlite) with various fineness and particle size distributions. A step-by-step research program was designed to: (1) discover the optimum fineness of perlite powder and its optimum replacement level with cement; (2) investigate the rheological properties of the perlite-containing mixtures, and examine whether this binder can be used in selfconsolidating concrete; and (3) assess the weaknesses of the new binder, and improve its deficiencies by using nanomaterials such as nano-silica. The ...


Sizing A New Bike Sharing System For The University Of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nesley Orochena Dec 2019

Sizing A New Bike Sharing System For The University Of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nesley Orochena

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The strategic planning objectives for a novel Bike Sharing Systems (BSS) are to locate the BSS stations, size the stations, and determine the bicycle fleet size, among others. Current guidelines to design BSS programs are tailored to city centers with large coverage areas and high bicycle to population ratios, and thus not directly transferable to a university setting. An ordered probit model was created using data from a university online stated preference survey to determine the key factors that affect the uptake rates for the UNLV BSS program and to estimate the potential demand. The demand analysis was incorporated into ...


Application Of Data-Driven And Process-Based Modeling Approaches For Water Quality Simulation In Lakes And Freshwater Reservoirs, Ali Saber Sichani Dec 2019

Application Of Data-Driven And Process-Based Modeling Approaches For Water Quality Simulation In Lakes And Freshwater Reservoirs, Ali Saber Sichani

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Lakes and freshwater reservoirs often serve as the primary drinking and irrigation water sources for surrounding communities. They provide recreational and tourism opportunities, thereby promoting the prosperity of neighboring communities. Reliable estimates of water quality in lakes and reservoirs can improve management practices to protect water resources.

Seasonal water temperature and solar shortwave radiation variations, and their subsequent interactions with water column aquatic life, combined with seasonal variations of mixing intensity throughout the water column, result in variations of water quality constituents with depth during the annual cycle. The complexity of these variations entails the use of advanced water quality ...


Application Of Bayesian Networks To Integrity Management Of Energy Pipelines, Wei Xiang Dec 2019

Application Of Bayesian Networks To Integrity Management Of Energy Pipelines, Wei Xiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Metal-loss corrosion and third-party damage (TPD) are the leading threats to the integrity of buried oil and natural gas pipelines. This thesis employs Bayesian networks (BNs) and non-parametric Bayesian networks (NPBNs) to deal with four issues with regard to the reliability-based management program of corrosion and TPD. The first study integrates the quantification of measurement errors of the ILI tools, corrosion growth modeling and reliability analysis in a single dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model, and employs the parameter learning technique to learn the parameters of the DBN model from the ILI-reported and filed-measured corrosion depths. The second study develops the ...


Weigh-In-Motion Auto-Calibration Using Automatic Vehicle Identification, Fu Ren Zhang Zhang Durandal Dec 2019

Weigh-In-Motion Auto-Calibration Using Automatic Vehicle Identification, Fu Ren Zhang Zhang Durandal

Theses and Dissertations

Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) sensors are installed on mainline lanes at highway locations to record vehicle weights, axle spacing, vehicle class, travel speed, vehicle length, and traffic volume. These data elements support effective transportation planning, infrastructure design, and policy development. Therefore, it is important that WIM sensors supply accurate data. After initial installation and calibration, WIM systems may experience measurement drifts in weight and axle detection. Recalibration takes two general forms: (a) On-site calibration involving running trucks of known weight over WIM scales and (b) Auto-calibration methods involving comparisons to assumed reference weights. Auto-calibration can be more cost and time effective than ...


Evaluation Of Concrete Deck Curing Regimens Using Capillary Pressure Sensing System, Samuel Spann Dec 2019

Evaluation Of Concrete Deck Curing Regimens Using Capillary Pressure Sensing System, Samuel Spann

Theses and Dissertations

Early-age plastic shrinkage cracking is a common problem with the construction of concrete bridge decks due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio and exposure to potentially detrimental environmental effects. Curing regimens are utilized to mitigate cracking risk during the plastic stage of the concrete; the curing regimens evaluated for this study were wet burlap-polyethylene sheeting, two acrylic curing compounds, and one lithium compound. Capillary pressure in the water filled pores has been shown to correlate to the plastic shrinkage cracking risk of concrete. A new portable system has been developed to measure the capillary pressure that could potentially be used ...


Incorporating Geophysical Data In Slope Stability Modeling For Two Slopes In Arkansas, Vanessa Lebow Dec 2019

Incorporating Geophysical Data In Slope Stability Modeling For Two Slopes In Arkansas, Vanessa Lebow

Theses and Dissertations

Slope failures in the United States alone cause millions of dollars in damage to infrastructure, threaten national monuments, create environmental hazards, and take an average of 25-50 lives a year. With the inevitable construction that occurs on slopes, it is imperative that the slopes be properly designed which requires a thorough understanding of slope grade, subsurface soil conditions, soil strength parameters, water table locations, and depth to bedrock across the entire site. The preferred method of data collection would be to use borings and other in-situ methods; however, sometimes due to cost constraints or site accessibility only a very limited ...


Truck Activity Pattern Classification Using Anonymous Mobile Sensor Data, Taslima Akter Dec 2019

Truck Activity Pattern Classification Using Anonymous Mobile Sensor Data, Taslima Akter

Theses and Dissertations

To construct, operate, and maintain a transportation system that supports the efficient movement of freight, transportation agencies must understand economic drivers of freight flow. This is a challenge since freight movement data available to transportation agencies is typically void of commodity and industry information, factors that tie freight movements to underlying economic conditions. With recent advances in the resolution and availability of big data from Global Positioning Systems (GPS), it may be possible to fill this critical freight data gap. However, there is a need for methodological approaches to enable usage of this data for freight planning and operations.

To ...


Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin Dec 2019

Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin

Theses and Dissertations

Bioassays have been used extensively to assess various toxicity endpoints of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), but an emphasis on single compounds prevails. In this research, DBP mixtures were assessed using a cytotoxicity test with Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and an Ames fluctuation test with Salmonella typhimurium TA-98 and TA-100 with and without S9 rat liver homogenate. Seven whole mixture DBP concentrates were formulated using reconstituted natural organic matter (NOM) extracts from the Upper Mississippi River using scaled disinfectant dosing protocols with free chlorine and monochloramine in the presence and absence of added bromide. DBPs were identified by gas ...


Study Of Internal Strains Developed In Concrete Decks At Early Ages In Steel Continuous Bridges, Fernando R. Benitez Ortiz Dec 2019

Study Of Internal Strains Developed In Concrete Decks At Early Ages In Steel Continuous Bridges, Fernando R. Benitez Ortiz

Theses and Dissertations

The Arkansas Department of Transportation (ARDOT) has identified bridge deck cracking shortly after concrete decks are placed and prior to applying traffic loads. Previous researchers have confirmed improper construction practices and design methods can lead to deck cracking. Currently, many contractors throughout Arkansas are using continuous deck pours. This construction approach may restrict the concrete slab from movement during early age shrinkage, causing tensile stresses to develop. The final stresses at the end of construction must be lower than the concrete tensile strength, if not cracking issues will develop. Eventually, these cracks may enlarge due to service load stresses and ...


Underwater Particle Image Velocimetry (Piv) Measurement Of Turbulence Over Mussel Bed In A Deepsite Of Lake Michigan, Tong Jin Dec 2019

Underwater Particle Image Velocimetry (Piv) Measurement Of Turbulence Over Mussel Bed In A Deepsite Of Lake Michigan, Tong Jin

Theses and Dissertations

The influence of the benthic filter feeders, such as bivalves, on ecosystem plankton, and nutrient dynamics is considered significant in shallow marine and freshwater systems. Recent indirect evidence showed that the profundal quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) have fundamentally altered energy flow and dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton in Lake Michigan and other Great Lakes. To investigate the phytoplankton grazing rate of the quagga mussel and the mussel siphon currents induced bio-mixing, a self-contained in situ Underwater Particle Image Velocimetry was developed to measure the turbulence structure and the turbulent diffusion coefficient immediately above the profundal quagga mussel covered substrate ...


Model Block Press Design, Ben Todd Van Hamersveld, Chester Wong, Alexander Wing-Jon Giannousis Dec 2019

Model Block Press Design, Ben Todd Van Hamersveld, Chester Wong, Alexander Wing-Jon Giannousis

Mechanical Engineering

This project’s goal is to redesign the Center for Vocational Building Technology (CVBT) BP9 earth block press, which makes 1/3 scale compressed earth blocks to build demonstration model homes in Thailand. The full-scale block press, the BP6, provides a sustainable and affordable technique for constructing habitable homes in Thailand. The BP9 serves as a tool to inform the public of the advantages of human-powered earth block presses through demonstration. The BP9 press design has multiple problems: it is too expensive to manufacture, there is too much friction when used, it has several weak points due to users unintentionally ...


Analyzing Impacts Of Transportation And Non-Transportation Activities On Human Health With An Advanced Platform For Collecting Travel And Physical Activity Data, Raed Abdullah Hasan Dec 2019

Analyzing Impacts Of Transportation And Non-Transportation Activities On Human Health With An Advanced Platform For Collecting Travel And Physical Activity Data, Raed Abdullah Hasan

Dissertations

Recently much attention is paid to the lack of physical activities that may cause the health problems in many counties. Travel activities provide a certain amount of physical activities, and the active transportation, such as walking and cycling, becomes more important as an essential element of transportation. The active transportation is expected to contribute to improving human health by reducing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and premature death. However, detailed relationship between the transportation choices and human health has not been well understood. Therefore, there is a need for investigating traveler behaviors and how their choices affect physical activities and public health ...


Dynamic Vehicular Trajectory Optimization For Bottleneck Mitigation And Safety Improvement, Wenqing Chen Dec 2019

Dynamic Vehicular Trajectory Optimization For Bottleneck Mitigation And Safety Improvement, Wenqing Chen

Theses and Dissertations

Traffic bottleneck is defined as a disruption of traffic flow through a freeway or an arterial, which can be divided as two categories: stationary bottleneck and moving bottleneck. The stationary bottleneck is mainly formed by the lane drops in the multi-lane roadways, while the moving bottleneck are due to the very slowing moving vehicles which disrupt the traffic flow. Traffic bottlenecks not only impact the mobility, but also potentially cause safety issues.

Traditional strategies for eliminating bottlenecks mainly focus on expanding supply including road widening, green interval lengthening and optimization of intersection channelization. In addition, a few macroscopic methods are ...


Application Of Survival Analysis Techniques To Probabilistic Assessment Of Fatigue In Steel Bridges, Azam Nabizadehdarabi Dec 2019

Application Of Survival Analysis Techniques To Probabilistic Assessment Of Fatigue In Steel Bridges, Azam Nabizadehdarabi

Theses and Dissertations

The fatigue of engineering materials under repetitive loading is a significant issue affecting the design and durability of components and systems in a variety of engineering-related applications including civil, mechanical, aerospace, automotive, and electronics. Many factors can affect the service life of a component or system under repetitive loading, such as the type of structure, loading, connection details, stress state, peak stress or stress range, surface condition, temperature, and environmental exposure. Currently, there is no comprehensive probabilistic approach that can systematically address all the factors that contribute to fatigue on a single mathematical platform. However, advanced analysis techniques developed for ...


Pilot-Scale Test Of Water Wash Carbon Dioxide Absorption System For Purifying Landfill Gas At Jones Island Wastewater Reclamation Facility, Rebecca Schruender Dec 2019

Pilot-Scale Test Of Water Wash Carbon Dioxide Absorption System For Purifying Landfill Gas At Jones Island Wastewater Reclamation Facility, Rebecca Schruender

Theses and Dissertations

Biogas, a product of the digestion of organic material, consists primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. By purifying raw biogas, or removing the carbon dioxide, it can be upgraded to biomethane, which can be used to generate heat and electricity or as a substitute for natural gas. An effective method of biogas purification is the water wash process, which consists of an absorption column in which a stream of biogas runs counter-current to a stream of water. The carbon dioxide dissolves in the water, increasing the methane concentration of the gas. A pilot scale system was operated at Jones Island ...


Interdisciplinary Student Competition For California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo, Forest G. Gobble Dec 2019

Interdisciplinary Student Competition For California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo, Forest G. Gobble

Construction Management

Cal Poly has a reputation for producing some of the best qualified graduates in their respective fields of study. While this is very important, curricular activities involving collaboration between students within the same college are limited (excluding same major). Beyond that, collaboration opportunities across colleges are even more rare. When graduates enter the workforce, many are thrust into highly collaborative environments across various disciplines. Industry professionals have shown a strong desire for young people who have had exposure to realistic problems and experience working with other professions outside of their own field of expertise. The question needing answering is, would ...


Investigating The Addition Of Suicide Prevention Barriers To The Natchez Trace Parkway Bridge, Jaideep Thota, Nancy Abdo, Payne Susong, Connor Campbell, Joseph Allston, Meet Patel Dec 2019

Investigating The Addition Of Suicide Prevention Barriers To The Natchez Trace Parkway Bridge, Jaideep Thota, Nancy Abdo, Payne Susong, Connor Campbell, Joseph Allston, Meet Patel

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Safety Assessment Of Road Vehicle In Crosswind Considering Driver Behavior, Jiexuan Hu Nov 2019

Safety Assessment Of Road Vehicle In Crosswind Considering Driver Behavior, Jiexuan Hu

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

With expansion of the economy, more and more highway networks extend to coastal areas and mountain valley areas. Vehicles will be exposed to strong crosswinds when driven on these highway roads, especially in hurricane season and in winter in these two different topographic areas. Strong crosswinds threaten the safety of transportation infrastructure and passing vehicles in forms of vehicle accidents that usually result in traffic blockage and driver injury, posing negative effects on economic growth. This dissertation aimed to evaluate the vehicle safety when running through crosswinds in consideration of driver behaviors.

Firstly, the aerodynamic characteristics of road vehicles were ...


Strengthening Of Concrete Deep Beams With Extreme Discontinuities Using Near-Surface Mounted Composites, Moustafa Seifeddin Mansour Nov 2019

Strengthening Of Concrete Deep Beams With Extreme Discontinuities Using Near-Surface Mounted Composites, Moustafa Seifeddin Mansour

Civil and Environmental Theses

Installation of a web opening that fully interrupts the natural load path in concrete deep beams produces regions of extreme discontinuities and reduces the shear strength. This research examined the effectiveness of using near-surface-mounted carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (NSM-CFRP) reinforcement to restore the shear strength of deep beams with extreme discontinuities. The strut-and-tie model (STM) procedures were utilized to develop three different strengthening solutions around the discontinuity regions. A total of eight deep beam specimens (150 x 500 x2700 mm) with a shear span-to-depth ratio of a/h = 0.8 were constructed and tested. One beam was solid. Seven beams had ...


Behavior Of Prestressed Concrete Bridges With Closure Pour Connections And Diaphragms, Gercelino Ramos Oct 2019

Behavior Of Prestressed Concrete Bridges With Closure Pour Connections And Diaphragms, Gercelino Ramos

Masters Theses

Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) has gained substantial popularity in new bridge construction and bridge deck replacement because it offers innovative construction techniques that result in time and cost savings when compared to traditional bridge construction practice. One technology commonly implemented in ABC to effectively execute its projects is the use of prefabricated bridge components (precast/prestressed bridge components). Precast/prestressed bridge components are fabricated offsite or near the site and then connected on-site using small volume closure pour connections. Diaphragms are also commonly used to strengthen the connection between certain prefabricated components used in ABC, such as beam elements. Bridges ...


Impact Of The Number Of Lane-Changing Times On Throughput By Fundamental Diagram Based On Ngsim Data, Gangyan Zhang Oct 2019

Impact Of The Number Of Lane-Changing Times On Throughput By Fundamental Diagram Based On Ngsim Data, Gangyan Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the present report, the characteristics of the fundamental diagram (FD) are exploited to delve into the effect of the number of times of lane changes on traffic throughput. The NGSIM data are classified and screened by splitting the regions of US-101 and I-80; the relevant traffic variables (e.g., traffic flow, density and speed) are calculated. Appropriate statistical approaches are employed to verify the correlation of the impact of lane changes on different traffic variables. Lane changes could affect traffic throughput in light congestion instead of in heavy congestion. The causes of the effects of lane changes on throughput ...