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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Micrococcal-Nuclease-Triggered On-Demand Release Of Vancomycin From Intramedullary Implant Coating Eradicates Staphylococcus Aureus Infection In Mouse Femoral Canals, Ananta Ghimire, Jordan D. Skelly, Jie Song Dec 2019

Micrococcal-Nuclease-Triggered On-Demand Release Of Vancomycin From Intramedullary Implant Coating Eradicates Staphylococcus Aureus Infection In Mouse Femoral Canals, Ananta Ghimire, Jordan D. Skelly, Jie Song

Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation Publications

Preventing orthopedic implant-associated bacterial infections remains a critical challenge. Current practices of physically blending high-dose antibiotics with bone cements is known for cytotoxicity while covalently tethering antibiotics to implant surfaces is ineffective in eradicating bacteria from the periprosthetic tissue environment due to the short-range bactericidal actions, which are limited to the implant surface. Here, we covalently functionalize poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate hydrogel coatings with vancomycin via an oligonucleotide linker sensitive to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) micrococcal nuclease (MN) (PEGDMA-Oligo-Vanco). This design enables the timely release of vancomycin in the presence of S. aureus to kill the bacteria both on the ...


Selection Of An Efficient Aav Vector For Robust Cns Transgene Expression, Killian S. Hanlon, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Eloise Hudry, Casey A. Maguire Dec 2019

Selection Of An Efficient Aav Vector For Robust Cns Transgene Expression, Killian S. Hanlon, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Eloise Hudry, Casey A. Maguire

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid libraries have generated improved transgene delivery vectors. We designed an AAV library construct, iTransduce, that combines a peptide library on the AAV9 capsid with a Cre cassette to enable sensitive detection of transgene expression. After only two selection rounds of the library delivered intravenously in transgenic mice carrying a Cre-inducible fluorescent protein, we flow sorted fluorescent cells from brain, and DNA sequencing revealed two dominant capsids. One of the capsids, termed AAV-F, mediated transgene expression in the brain cortex more than 65-fold (astrocytes) and 171-fold (neurons) higher than the parental AAV9. High transduction efficiency was sex-independent ...


Comparison Of Artifacts Between Paste And Collodion Method Of Electrode Application In Pediatric Eeg, Danielle Brigham, Yash Shah, Kanwaljit Singh, Ivan Pavkovic, Shefali Karkare, Sanjeev V. Kothare Nov 2019

Comparison Of Artifacts Between Paste And Collodion Method Of Electrode Application In Pediatric Eeg, Danielle Brigham, Yash Shah, Kanwaljit Singh, Ivan Pavkovic, Shefali Karkare, Sanjeev V. Kothare

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Objectives: Children pose challenges to obtain quality EEG data due to excessive artifact. Collodion is used in EEG electrodes due to its water resistance and strong adhesive qualities. This study was done to evaluate differences in artifacts between the collodion and paste method.

Methods: 115 subjects (children age > 3 years) were randomized into paste and collodion groups and artifacts evaluated at baseline and every hour over 30s increments. Age, sleep state, and number of electrodes with artifact were also documented. T-test was performed to determine differences in the various parameters between the two groups.

Results: 61 subjects were in the ...


Multi-Site Photoplethysmography Technology For Blood Pressure Assessment: Challenges And Recommendations, Gabriel Chan, Rachel Cooper, Manish Hosanee, Kaylie Welykholowa, Panayiotis A. Kyriacou, Dingchang Zheng, John Allen, Derek Abbott, Nigel H. Lovell, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi Nov 2019

Multi-Site Photoplethysmography Technology For Blood Pressure Assessment: Challenges And Recommendations, Gabriel Chan, Rachel Cooper, Manish Hosanee, Kaylie Welykholowa, Panayiotis A. Kyriacou, Dingchang Zheng, John Allen, Derek Abbott, Nigel H. Lovell, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases and is often called the "silent killer" because there are usually no early symptoms. Hypertension is also associated with multiple morbidities, including chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Early detection and intervention are therefore important. The current routine method for diagnosing hypertension is done using a sphygmomanometer, which can only provide intermittent blood pressure readings and can be confounded by various factors, such as white coat hypertension, time of day, exercise, or stress. Consequently, there is an increasing need for a non-invasive, cuff-less, and continuous blood pressure monitoring device. Multi-site photoplethysmography (PPG ...


Atrial Fibrillation Detection From Wrist Photoplethysmography Signals Using Smartwatches, Syed Khairul Bashar, Dong Han, Shirin Hajeb-Mohammadalipour, Eric Y. Ding, Cody Whitcomb, David D. Mcmanus, Ki H. Chon Oct 2019

Atrial Fibrillation Detection From Wrist Photoplethysmography Signals Using Smartwatches, Syed Khairul Bashar, Dong Han, Shirin Hajeb-Mohammadalipour, Eric Y. Ding, Cody Whitcomb, David D. Mcmanus, Ki H. Chon

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) from a wrist watch photoplethysmogram (PPG) signal is important because the wrist watch form factor enables long term continuous monitoring of arrhythmia in an easy and non-invasive manner. We have developed a novel method not only to detect AF from a smart wrist watch PPG signal, but also to determine whether the recorded PPG signal is corrupted by motion artifacts or not. We detect motion and noise artifacts based on the accelerometer signal and variable frequency complex demodulation based time-frequency analysis of the PPG signal. After that, we use the root mean square of successive ...


Neutral Diagnosis: An Innovative Concept For Medical Device Clinical Trials, Bo Zhang, Shangyuan Ye, Sravya B. Shankara, Hui Zhang, Qingfeng Zheng Aug 2019

Neutral Diagnosis: An Innovative Concept For Medical Device Clinical Trials, Bo Zhang, Shangyuan Ye, Sravya B. Shankara, Hui Zhang, Qingfeng Zheng

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Study design and statistical analysis are crucial in pivotal clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of new medical devices under investigation. In recent years, innovative intraoperative in vivo breast tumor diagnostic devices have been proposed to improve the accuracy and surgical outcomes of breast tumor patients undergoing resection. Although such technologies are promising, investigators need to obtain statistical evidence for the effectiveness and safety of these devices by conducting valid clinical trials. However, the study design and statistical analysis for these clinical trials are complicated. While these trials are designed to provide real-time intraoperative diagnosis of cancerous tissue ...


Multimodal Quantitative Imaging Of Brain Cancer In Cultured Cells, Xin Feng, Alona Muzikansky, Alonzo H. Ross, Michael R. Hamblin, Peter R. Jermain, Anna N. Yaroslavsky Jul 2019

Multimodal Quantitative Imaging Of Brain Cancer In Cultured Cells, Xin Feng, Alona Muzikansky, Alonzo H. Ross, Michael R. Hamblin, Peter R. Jermain, Anna N. Yaroslavsky

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Fluorescence emission, polarization and subcellular localization of methylene blue (MB) were studied in four cancerous and two normal human brain cell lines. Fluorescence emission and polarization images were acquired and analyzed. The co-localization of MB with mitochondria, lysosomes and nuclei of the cells was evaluated. Glioblastoma cells exhibited significantly higher MB fluorescence polarization compared to normal astrocytes. Preferential accumulation of MB in mitochondria of glioblastoma cells may explain higher fluorescence polarization values in cancer cells as compared to normal. These findings may lead to the development of a quantitative method for the detection of brain cancer in single cells.


Generation Of Functional Human Adipose Tissue In Mice From Primed Progenitor Cells, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, So Yun Min, Tiffany Desouza, Patrick Teebagy, Anand Desai, Heather Tessier, Robert Slamin, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Cara Berg, Angel Baez, Janice F. Lalikos, Silvia Corvera Jun 2019

Generation Of Functional Human Adipose Tissue In Mice From Primed Progenitor Cells, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, So Yun Min, Tiffany Desouza, Patrick Teebagy, Anand Desai, Heather Tessier, Robert Slamin, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Cara Berg, Angel Baez, Janice F. Lalikos, Silvia Corvera

Senior Scholars Program

Adipose tissue (AT) is used extensively in reconstructive and regenerative therapies, but transplanted fat often undergoes cell death, leading to inflammation, calcification, and requirement for further revision surgery. Previously, we have found that mesenchymal progenitor cells within human AT can proliferate in three-dimensional culture under proangiogenic conditions. These cells (primed ADipose progenitor cells, PADS) robustly differentiate into adipocytes in vitro (ad-PADS). The goal of this study is to determine whether ad-PADS can form structured AT in vivo, with potential for use in surgical applications. Grafts formed from ad-PADS were compared to grafts formed from AT obtained by liposuction after implantation ...


Accuracy And Usability Of A Novel Algorithm For Detection Of Irregular Pulse Using A Smartwatch Among Older Adults: Observational Study, Eric Y. Ding, Dong Han, Cody Whitcomb, Syed Khairul Bashar, Oluwaseun Adaramola, Apurv Soni, Jane Saczynski, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Majaz Moonis, Steven A. Lubitz, Darleen M. Lessard, Mellanie True Hills, Bruce A. Barton, Ki Chon, David D. Mcmanus May 2019

Accuracy And Usability Of A Novel Algorithm For Detection Of Irregular Pulse Using A Smartwatch Among Older Adults: Observational Study, Eric Y. Ding, Dong Han, Cody Whitcomb, Syed Khairul Bashar, Oluwaseun Adaramola, Apurv Soni, Jane Saczynski, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Majaz Moonis, Steven A. Lubitz, Darleen M. Lessard, Mellanie True Hills, Bruce A. Barton, Ki Chon, David D. Mcmanus

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is often paroxysmal and minimally symptomatic, hindering its diagnosis. Smartwatches may enhance AF care by facilitating long-term, noninvasive monitoring.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the accuracy and usability of arrhythmia discrimination using a smartwatch.

METHODS: A total of 40 adults presenting to a cardiology clinic wore a smartwatch and Holter monitor and performed scripted movements to simulate activities of daily living (ADLs). Participants' clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were abstracted from medical records. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing different domains of the device's usability. Pulse recordings were analyzed blindly using a real-time realizable algorithm and ...


Tissue-Specific Genome Editing In Vivo By Microrna-Repressible Anti-Crispr Proteins [Preprint], Jooyoung Lee, Haiwei Mou, Raed Ibraheim, Shun-Qing Liang, Wen Xue, Erik J. Sontheimer May 2019

Tissue-Specific Genome Editing In Vivo By Microrna-Repressible Anti-Crispr Proteins [Preprint], Jooyoung Lee, Haiwei Mou, Raed Ibraheim, Shun-Qing Liang, Wen Xue, Erik J. Sontheimer

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

CRISPR-Cas systems are bacterial adaptive immune pathways that have revolutionized biotechnology and biomedical applications. Despite the potential for human therapeutic development, there are many hurdles that must be overcome before its use in clinical settings. Some clinical safety concerns arise from persistent activity of Cas9 after the desired editing is complete, or from editing activity in unintended cell types or tissues upon in vivo delivery [e.g. by adeno-associated viruses (AAV)]. Although tissue-specific promoters and serotypes with tissue tropisms can be used, suitably compact promoters are not always available for desired cell types, and AAV tissue tropisms are not absolute ...