Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2019

Selected Works

Discipline
Keyword
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 729

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Jual Obat Aborsi Malang 082242266717 Toko Obat Aborsi Di Malang, Acep Shop Nov 2019

Jual Obat Aborsi Malang 082242266717 Toko Obat Aborsi Di Malang, Acep Shop

acep shop

Obat Aborsi Malang, Obat Aborsi Di Malang, Jual Obat Aborsi Di Malang, Jual Obat Aborsi Malang, Jual Obat Penggugur Kandungan Malang, Jual Obat Cytotec Malang, Jual Obat Aborsi Malang, Jual Obat Abirsi Malang Yang Aman Dan Terpercaya, Obat Aborsi Di Malang, Obat Aborsi Asli Malang.

KENALI TANDA - TANDA HAMIL MUDA
Telatnya haid atau datang bulan memang adalah salah satu tanda-tanda kehamilan yang utama. Namun, ada juga lho beberapa gejala atau tanda-tanda kehamilan lainnya yang muncul sebelum kamu telat haid. Berikut penjelasannya:

dokter / apotik / bidan yang jual obat aborsi malang mengatakan Mudah lelah
Rasa mudah lelah tanpa sebab seringkali muncul di ...


Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann Sep 2019

Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann

David Eisenmann

Planting depth (PD) plays an essential role in crop production by substantially impacting germination rates and yield potential. However, techniques to measure PD nondestructively have not been developed. A two-dimensional gprMax simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil electromagnetic properties on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) waves. The primary objective was to examine the possibility of using GPR as a nondestructive sensor to detect subsurface corn seeds with the goal of measuring PD. A conventional fixed-offset gprMax antenna in contact with the soil surface was used in the simulations. Corn seed models of different materials and sizes were simulated ...


Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann Sep 2019

Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann

Brian L. Steward

Planting depth (PD) plays an essential role in crop production by substantially impacting germination rates and yield potential. However, techniques to measure PD nondestructively have not been developed. A two-dimensional gprMax simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil electromagnetic properties on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) waves. The primary objective was to examine the possibility of using GPR as a nondestructive sensor to detect subsurface corn seeds with the goal of measuring PD. A conventional fixed-offset gprMax antenna in contact with the soil surface was used in the simulations. Corn seed models of different materials and sizes were simulated ...


Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann Sep 2019

Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann

Stuart J. Birrell

Planting depth (PD) plays an essential role in crop production by substantially impacting germination rates and yield potential. However, techniques to measure PD nondestructively have not been developed. A two-dimensional gprMax simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil electromagnetic properties on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) waves. The primary objective was to examine the possibility of using GPR as a nondestructive sensor to detect subsurface corn seeds with the goal of measuring PD. A conventional fixed-offset gprMax antenna in contact with the soil surface was used in the simulations. Corn seed models of different materials and sizes were simulated ...


Discrete Element Modeling Of Cultivator Sweep-To-Soil Interaction: Worn And Hardened Edges Effects On Soil-Tool Forces And Soil Flow, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Loran R. Balvanz, Jerry L. Hatfield, Sadaf Ghorbani Sep 2019

Discrete Element Modeling Of Cultivator Sweep-To-Soil Interaction: Worn And Hardened Edges Effects On Soil-Tool Forces And Soil Flow, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Loran R. Balvanz, Jerry L. Hatfield, Sadaf Ghorbani

Mehari Tekeste

Simulation of tool-to-soil interaction provides opportunities to accelerate new equipment design and evaluate performance of tillage tools. Simulation based evaluation of worn tillage tools performance on soil flow has not been done. Discrete Element Modelling (DEM) has a potential to simulate worn tool to soil interaction problems, where worn tools CAD can be generated using 3D scanning. The DEM parameters of Hertz-Mindlin with Parallel Bond model were calibrated to match draft force and soil failure zone measured from a tool bar moving at 0.22 m/s and 38 mm cutting depth. The draft force and soil forward failure zone ...


Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann Sep 2019

Using Gprmax To Model Ground-Penetrating Radar (Gpr) To Locate Corn Seed As An Attempt To Measure Planting Depth, Kenneth O. M. Mapoka, Stuart J. Birrell, Mehari Z. Tekeste, Brian L. Steward, David J. Eisenmann

Mehari Tekeste

Planting depth (PD) plays an essential role in crop production by substantially impacting germination rates and yield potential. However, techniques to measure PD nondestructively have not been developed. A two-dimensional gprMax simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil electromagnetic properties on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) waves. The primary objective was to examine the possibility of using GPR as a nondestructive sensor to detect subsurface corn seeds with the goal of measuring PD. A conventional fixed-offset gprMax antenna in contact with the soil surface was used in the simulations. Corn seed models of different materials and sizes were simulated ...


Parameter Determination And Modeling Of Transformer Windings For Fast Transients Including Frequency Dependent Effects, Yazid Al-Kraimeen Sep 2019

Parameter Determination And Modeling Of Transformer Windings For Fast Transients Including Frequency Dependent Effects, Yazid Al-Kraimeen

Yazid Al-Kraimeen

Power transformers are static devices capable of transferring energy from one electrical circuit to another by means of electromagnetic induction at the same frequency. The most common application of transformers in an electric power system is to step up or down the voltage level of an electric grid. This is essential for the efficient transmission and distribution of electricity from generating plants to different types of consumers. Electrical energy used in residential, commercial and industrial settings is delivered to consumers by means of transformers, which normally operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Therefore, design improvements that result ...


An Under-Hand Steering Wheel Grasp Produces Significant Risk To The Upper Extremity During Airbag Deployment, Patrick J. Atkinson, Prem Hariharan, Shresta Mari-Gowda, Paul Telehowski, Sidney Martin, Jack Van Hoof, Cynthia Bir, Theresa Atkinson Sep 2019

An Under-Hand Steering Wheel Grasp Produces Significant Risk To The Upper Extremity During Airbag Deployment, Patrick J. Atkinson, Prem Hariharan, Shresta Mari-Gowda, Paul Telehowski, Sidney Martin, Jack Van Hoof, Cynthia Bir, Theresa Atkinson

Theresa Atkinson

Recent laboratory investigations suggest that a deploying airbag may fracture the forearm. These studies positioned the arm in an overhand grasp placing the forearm over the airbag module. However, there is little published data on how drivers grip the steering wheel and the general proximity of the upper extremity to the airbag module. The objective of the current study was to identify 'real world' upper extremity positions and to correlate these with accident and experimental data. A survey of the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) for the years 1995-99 revealed an increase in the number of forearm fractures due to ...


Injury Severity Data For Front And Second Row Passengers In Frontal Crashes, Theresa Atkinson, Leszek Gawarecki, Massoud Tavakoli Sep 2019

Injury Severity Data For Front And Second Row Passengers In Frontal Crashes, Theresa Atkinson, Leszek Gawarecki, Massoud Tavakoli

Theresa Atkinson

The data contained here were obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration׳s National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2008–2014. This publically available data set monitors motor vehicle crashes in the United States, using a stratified random sample frame, resulting in information on approximately 5000 crashes each year that can be utilized to create national estimates for crashes. The NASS-CDS data sets document vehicle, crash, and occupant factors. These data can be utilized to examine public health, law enforcement, roadway planning, and vehicle design issues. The data provided in this brief are a ...


Valorization Of Sewage Sludge Via Gasification And Transportation Of Compressed Syngas, Marek Mysior, Maciej Tomaszewski, Paweł Stepien, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Sep 2019

Valorization Of Sewage Sludge Via Gasification And Transportation Of Compressed Syngas, Marek Mysior, Maciej Tomaszewski, Paweł Stepien, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Jacek A. Koziel

A significant challenge in the utilization of alternative gaseous fuels is to use their energy potential at the desired location, considering economic feasibility and sustainability. A potential solution is a compression, transportation in pressure tanks, and generation of electricity and heat directly at the recipient. In this research, the potential for generating syngas from abundant waste substrates was analyzed. The sewage sludge (SS) was used as an example of a bulky and abundant resource that could be valorized via gasification, compression, and transport to end-users in containers. A model was developed, and theoretical analyses were completed to examine the influence ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren Sep 2019

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Jacek A. Koziel

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


The Proof-Of-Concept Of Biochar Floating Cover Influence On Water Ph, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Chumki Banik, Robert C. Brown Sep 2019

The Proof-Of-Concept Of Biochar Floating Cover Influence On Water Ph, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Chumki Banik, Robert C. Brown

Jacek A. Koziel

Studies have shown that biochar has the potential to remove organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater. pH is known to have a crucial role in the transformation of pollutants. In this research, we explore the feasibility of using biochars properties to control the pH near the water–air interface, so the gaseous emissions from water (or wastewater) could be mitigated. This study aimed to test the effects of a thin layer biochar addition on the spatial and temporal variation of water pH. Two types of biochar and water were tested. Highly alkaline porous (HAP; pH 9.2) biochars made of ...


Ethanol Purification With Ozonation, Activated Carbon Adsorption, And Gas Stripping, Shinnosuke Onuki, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Johannes Van Leeuwen Sep 2019

Ethanol Purification With Ozonation, Activated Carbon Adsorption, And Gas Stripping, Shinnosuke Onuki, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Johannes Van Leeuwen

Somchai Rice

Fermentation of sugar to produce ethanol also produces volatile byproducts. This study was aimed at purifying corn-based ethanol for industrial and pharmaceutical use. The research was on treatment for 10 impurities removal after distillation. The ethanol headspace was sampled with solid-phase microextraction and analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. A 40 mg/L ozone treatment resulted in >56% and >36% removal of styrene and 2-pentylfuran, respectively, without significant generation of byproducts. A 60 g/L activated carbon (AC) treatment with 270 min adsorption time resulted in 84%, >72%, and >78% removal of ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate respectively ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren Sep 2019

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Somchai Rice

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Odour Reducing Microbial-Mineral Additive For Poultry Manure Treatment, Kajetan Kalus, Sebastian Opaliński, Devin Maurer, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Mariusz Korczyński, Zbigniew Dobrzański, Roman Kołacz, Beata Gutarowska Sep 2019

Odour Reducing Microbial-Mineral Additive For Poultry Manure Treatment, Kajetan Kalus, Sebastian Opaliński, Devin Maurer, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Mariusz Korczyński, Zbigniew Dobrzański, Roman Kołacz, Beata Gutarowska

Somchai Rice

Poultry production systems are associated with emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), greenhouse gases, and particulate matter. Development of mitigation technologies for these emissions is important. Previous laboratory-scale research on microbial-mineral treatment has shown to be effective for mitigation of NH3, H2S and amines emissions from poultry manure. The aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness of surface application of a microbial-mineral treatment for other important odorants, i.e., phenolics and sulfur-containing VOCs. Microbial-mineral litter additive consisting of 20% (w/w) of bacteria powder (six strains of heterotrophic bacteria) and 80% of ...


Optimization Of Extraction Parameters For Quantification Of Fermentation Volatile By‐Products In Industrial Ethanol With Solid‐Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography, Shinnosuke Onuki, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Johannes Van Leeuwen Sep 2019

Optimization Of Extraction Parameters For Quantification Of Fermentation Volatile By‐Products In Industrial Ethanol With Solid‐Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography, Shinnosuke Onuki, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Johannes Van Leeuwen

Somchai Rice

The rapid growth of the biofuels industry resulted in new research needs in chemical analysis. Methods for screening and quantification of impurities resulting from changes in feedstock, process and purification are needed. Direct sample injection methods are often not sensitive for lower concentrations. This research, developed an analytical method to simultaneously quantify fermentation volatile by‐products in industrial corn‐based ethanol. These include acetaldehyde, ethyl vinyl ether, 1,1‐diethoxyethane, isoamyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, styrene, 2‐pentylfuran, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate. Headspace solid‐phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and GC‐FID ...


Evaluation Of Volatile Metabolites Emitted In-Vivo From Cold-Hardy Grapes During Ripening Using Spme And Gc-Ms: A Proof-Of-Concept, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Sep 2019

Evaluation Of Volatile Metabolites Emitted In-Vivo From Cold-Hardy Grapes During Ripening Using Spme And Gc-Ms: A Proof-Of-Concept, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Somchai Rice

In this research, we propose a novel concept for a non-destructive evaluation of volatiles emitted from ripening grapes using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). This concept is novel to both the traditional vinifera grapes and the cold-hardy cultivars. Our sample models are cold-hardy varieties in the upper Midwest for which many of the basic multiyear grape flavor and wine style data is needed. Non-destructive sampling included a use of polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) chambers temporarily enclosing and concentrating volatiles emitted by a whole cluster of grapes on a vine and a modified 2 mL glass vial for a vacuum-assisted sampling of volatiles from ...


Further Purification Of Food‐Grade Alcohol To Make A Congener‐Free Product, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Johannes Van Leeuwen Sep 2019

Further Purification Of Food‐Grade Alcohol To Make A Congener‐Free Product, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Johannes Van Leeuwen

Somchai Rice

Most alcoholic beverages contain small amounts of chemicals other than ethanol, the congeners. These are byproducts of the fermentation process of the substrate. Congeners are implicated in contributing to hangover (veisalgia) symptoms and it is therefore considered expedient to remove these substances. This research compared 12 established vodka brands with a new product by GC‐MS‐olfactometry. A new vodka produced in Iowa from corn was found to be the purest while another corn‐based vodka and a potato‐based vodka contained eight and 12 impurities each. Eight other commercially available vodkas contained 15–19 impurities and three vodkas showed ...


Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel Sep 2019

Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel

Somchai Rice

The Midwest wine industry has shown a marked increase in growers, hectares planted, wineries, and wine production. This growth coincides with the release of cold-hardy cultivars such as Brianna and Frontenac gris, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. These white grape varieties account for one-third of the total area grown in the state of Iowa. It is generally accepted that the wine aroma profile plays a crucial role in developing a local, sustainable brand. However, the identity of Brianna/Frontenac Gris-based wine aromas and their link to the grape berry chemistry at harvest is unknown. This study aims to preliminarily characterize ...


Determination Of Selected Aromas In Marquette And Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-Spme Coupled With Gc-Ms And Simultaneous Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Nanticha Lutt, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell Sep 2019

Determination Of Selected Aromas In Marquette And Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-Spme Coupled With Gc-Ms And Simultaneous Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Nanticha Lutt, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell

Somchai Rice

Understanding the aroma profile of wines made from cold climate grapes is needed to help winemakers produce quality aromatic wines. The current study aimed to add to the very limited knowledge of aroma-imparting compounds in wines made from the lesser-known Frontenac and Marquette cultivars. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with simultaneous olfactometry was used to identify and quantify selected, aroma-imparting volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wines made from grapes harvested at two sugar levels (22° Brix and 24° Brix). Aroma-imparting compounds were determined by aroma dilution analysis (ADA). Odor activity values (OAV) were also used to ...


Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Sep 2019

Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Somchai Rice

In this research dataset, we summarize for the first time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in vivo from ripening wine grapes. We studied four cold-hardy cultivars grown in the Midwestern U.S.: St. Croix, Frontenac, Marquette, and La Crescent. These cultivars have gained popularity among local growers and winemakers, but still very little is known about their performance compared with long-established V. viniferagrapes. Volatiles were collected using two novel approaches: biogenic emissions from grape clusters on a vine and single grape berries. A third approach was headspace collection of volatiles from crushed grapes. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to collect ...


Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Sep 2019

Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Devin L. Maurer

In this research dataset, we summarize for the first time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in vivo from ripening wine grapes. We studied four cold-hardy cultivars grown in the Midwestern U.S.: St. Croix, Frontenac, Marquette, and La Crescent. These cultivars have gained popularity among local growers and winemakers, but still very little is known about their performance compared with long-established V. viniferagrapes. Volatiles were collected using two novel approaches: biogenic emissions from grape clusters on a vine and single grape berries. A third approach was headspace collection of volatiles from crushed grapes. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to collect ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren Sep 2019

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Devin L. Maurer

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Injury Severity Data For Front And Second Row Passengers In Frontal Crashes, Theresa Atkinson, Leszek Gawarecki, Massoud S. Tavakoli Sep 2019

Injury Severity Data For Front And Second Row Passengers In Frontal Crashes, Theresa Atkinson, Leszek Gawarecki, Massoud S. Tavakoli

Leszek Gawarecki

The data contained here were obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration׳s National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2008–2014. This publically available data set monitors motor vehicle crashes in the United States, using a stratified random sample frame, resulting in information on approximately 5000 crashes each year that can be utilized to create national estimates for crashes. The NASS-CDS data sets document vehicle, crash, and occupant factors. These data can be utilized to examine public health, law enforcement, roadway planning, and vehicle design issues. The data provided in this brief are a ...


Development Of A Mobile Robotic Phenotyping System For Growth Chamber-Based Studies Of Genotype X Environment Interactions, Dylan Shah, Lie Tang, Jingyao Gai, Rajesh Putta-Venkata Sep 2019

Development Of A Mobile Robotic Phenotyping System For Growth Chamber-Based Studies Of Genotype X Environment Interactions, Dylan Shah, Lie Tang, Jingyao Gai, Rajesh Putta-Venkata

Lie Tang

To increase understanding of the interaction between phenotype and genotype x environment to improve crop performance, large amounts of phenotypic data are needed. Studying plants of a given strain under multiple environments can greatly help to reveal their interactions. To collect the labor-intensive data required to perform experiments in this area, a Mecanum-wheeled, magnetic-tape-following indoor rover has been developed to accurately and autonomously move between and inside growth chambers. Integration of the motor controllers, a robot arm, and a Microsoft Kinect (v2) 3D sensor was achieved in a customized C++ program. Detecting and segmenting plants in a multi-plant environment is ...


Automatic Morphological Trait Characterization For Corn Plants Via 3d Holographic Reconstruction, Supawadee Chaivivatrakula, Lie Tang, Matthew N. Dailey, Akash D. Nakarmi Sep 2019

Automatic Morphological Trait Characterization For Corn Plants Via 3d Holographic Reconstruction, Supawadee Chaivivatrakula, Lie Tang, Matthew N. Dailey, Akash D. Nakarmi

Lie Tang

Plant breeding is an extremely important route to genetic improvements that can increase yield and plant adaptability. Genetic improvement requires careful measurement of plant phenotypes or plant trait characteristics, but phenotype measurement is a tedious and error-prone task for humans to perform. High-throughput phenotyping aims to eliminate the problems of manual phenotype measurement. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate the efficacy of an automatic corn plant phenotyping system based on 3D holographic reconstruction. Point cloud image data were acquired from a time-of-flight 3D camera, which was integrated with a plant rotating table to form a screening station. Our method ...


Crop Recognition Under Weedy Conditions Based On 3d Imaging For Robotic Weed Control, Ji Li, Lie Tang Sep 2019

Crop Recognition Under Weedy Conditions Based On 3d Imaging For Robotic Weed Control, Ji Li, Lie Tang

Lie Tang

A 3D time‐of‐flight camera was applied to develop a crop plant recognition system for broccoli and green bean plants under weedy conditions. The developed system overcame the previously unsolved problems caused by occluded canopy and illumination variation. An efficient noise filter was developed to remove the sparse noise points in 3D point cloud space. Both 2D and 3D features including the gradient of amplitude and depth image, surface curvature, amplitude percentile index, normal direction, and neighbor point count in 3D space were extracted and found effective for recognizing these two types of plants. Separate segmentation algorithms were developed ...


Developing A Low-Cost 3d Plant Morphological Traits Characterization System, Ji Li, Lie Tang Sep 2019

Developing A Low-Cost 3d Plant Morphological Traits Characterization System, Ji Li, Lie Tang

Lie Tang

A low-cost three-dimensional (3D) plant reconstruction and morphological traits characterization system was developed. Corn plant seedlings were used as research objects for development and validation of the 3D reconstruction and point cloud data analysis algorithms. In this application, precise alignment of multiple 3D views generated by a 3D time-of-flight (ToF) sensor is critical to the 3D reconstruction of a plant. Previous research indicated that there is strong need for high-throughput, high-accuracy, and low-cost 3D plant reconstruction and trait characterization phenotyping systems. This research produced a 3D reconstruction system for indoor plant phenotyping by innovatively integrating a low-cost 2D camera, a ...


Field-Based Robotic Phenotyping For Sorghum Biomass Yield Component Traits Characterization Using Stereo Vision, Yin Bao, Lie Tang Sep 2019

Field-Based Robotic Phenotyping For Sorghum Biomass Yield Component Traits Characterization Using Stereo Vision, Yin Bao, Lie Tang

Lie Tang

Sorghum is known as a major potential feedstock for biofuel production. Being able to efficiently discover genetic control of many traits over a large number of genotypes, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become a powerful tool for studying sorghum biomass yield components. However, automated high-throughput field-based plant phenotyping is now the bottleneck for scaling up such experiments. This paper presents an auto-guidance enabled utility tractor which navigates itself between crop rows with a predefined path while collecting stereo images of sorghum samples from both sides of the vehicle. Three levels of stereo camera heads were instrumented to capture images of ...


Within-Row Spacing Sensing Of Maize Plants Using 3d Computer Vision, Akash D. Nakarmi, Lie Tang Sep 2019

Within-Row Spacing Sensing Of Maize Plants Using 3d Computer Vision, Akash D. Nakarmi, Lie Tang

Lie Tang

Within-row plant spacing plays an important role in uniform distribution of water and nutrients among plants which affects the final crop yield. While manual in-field measurements of within-row plant spacing is time and labour intensive, little work has been done on an alternative automated process. We have attempted to develop an automatic system making use of a state-of-the-art 3D vision sensor that accurately measures within-row maize plant spacing. Misidentification of plants caused by low hanging canopies and doubles were reduced by processing multiple consecutive images at a time and selecting the best inter-plant distance calculated. Based on several small scale ...