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2019

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Thermal Decomposition Of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate And Tributyl Phosphate, Patrick Sanderson Jan 2019

Thermal Decomposition Of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate And Tributyl Phosphate, Patrick Sanderson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The pyrolysis of chemical warfare agent simulants, diisopropyl methylphosphonate

(DIMP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP), were studied in a constant volume heated cell

using infrared spectroscopy (9:35 μm to 10:55 μm) over a temperature range of 50 C to

550 C. DIMP began decomposing at 130 C and was undetectable by 280 C. The ex-

pected decomposition products observed were propene, 2-propanol and methylphospho-

nic acid. One unexpected species, methanol, was observed, and isopropyl methylphospho-

nate was not observed. Tributyl phosphate began decomposing as low as 130 C and was

undetectable by 270 C. The pyrolysis of TBP had ...


Design And Development Of Cellulose Based Composites For The Built Environment, Melvin Glenn Veigas Jan 2019

Design And Development Of Cellulose Based Composites For The Built Environment, Melvin Glenn Veigas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cellulose is a versatile material with numerous contemporary applications in textiles, food, and biomaterials. Contemporary research is focused on modifying the structural and thermal properties of cellulose to create novel composites with cellulose nano-crystals, lignocellulosic pulp, and foamed cellulose to name a few. Significant advances have been made in improving the properties of cellulose. Adding aligned cellulose nano-fibers to concrete to improve its mechanical properties or combining with polymers for better durability can lead to new applications specifically in design and construction. These new forms of cellulose through optimization and combination with other materials provide opportunities for reducing material usage ...


A Locally-Implicit Lax-Wendroff Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme With Limiters That Guarantees Moment-Realizability For Quadrature-Based Moment Closures, Christine Wiersma Jan 2019

A Locally-Implicit Lax-Wendroff Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme With Limiters That Guarantees Moment-Realizability For Quadrature-Based Moment Closures, Christine Wiersma

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A polydisperse multiphase flow is one in which one of the thermodynamic phases can be considered discrete while the other is assumed to be continuous. Examples include sprays and bubbly flows. Such flows can be modeled by kinetic models that describe the evolution of a probability density function (PDF) in phase space. Moments of this PDF describe physical observable quantities such as the mass, momentum, and energy in

the flow. From a computational perspective, kinetic models are expensive to solve since they require the resolution of a very high-dimensional phase space. In many polydisperse multiphase flow applications, the phase space ...


A Path For Microsecond Structural Health Monitoring For High-Rate Nonstationary Time-Varying Systems, Jonathan Hong Jan 2019

A Path For Microsecond Structural Health Monitoring For High-Rate Nonstationary Time-Varying Systems, Jonathan Hong

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, a new area of research identified as high-rate state estimation is established along with its associated research challenges, and a path for a solution is provided. High-rate dynamic systems are defined as systems being exposed to highly dynamic environments that are comprised of high-rate and high-amplitude events (greater than 100 g for a duration under 100 ms). Engineering systems experiencing high-rate dynamic events, including airbag, debris detection, and active blast protection systems, could benefit from real-time observability for enhanced performance. This task of high-rate state estimation is particularly challenging for real-time applications, where the rate of an ...


Collaborative Product Review Using Virtual Reality Interface Devices Performance Studying, Mihir Radia Jan 2019

Collaborative Product Review Using Virtual Reality Interface Devices Performance Studying, Mihir Radia

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The study presents two research questions: 1) Can stereoscopic 3-D visualization (like Virtual Reality) improve a design reviewer’s ability to detect errors when reviewing a product model over a traditional CAD system in which 3D product models are viewed on a flat 2D computer screen? 2) Can two collaborating individuals be more effective (faster time or detect more errors) during a product design review than one individual operating alone? The answer to the first question will help provide product design reviewers, managers, and software designers in product design firms decide what features to include, and whether it is worthwhile ...


Performance Archery Shooting, Hunter Sabers Jan 2019

Performance Archery Shooting, Hunter Sabers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bows and arrows can be traced all the way back to 65,000 BC and have evolved from a tool used for hunting, to a tool for war, and today used by hobbyists in competition. The evolution of this technology has progressed for the most part without an understanding of the effect it has on humans. The present study aims to connect how technology effects humans specifically looking at archery. The study measured the muscle activity in the bow arm of the archer and the vibration experienced on the bow arm of the archer during the shooting process. From those ...


Airline Fleet Planning And Utilization Hours Comparison Studies, Daniel Zhou Jan 2019

Airline Fleet Planning And Utilization Hours Comparison Studies, Daniel Zhou

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

After the latest mechanical malfunction accidents involving Allegiant and Southwest Airlines, a special interest was taken to investigate whether low-cost carriers (LCC) are taking an overly aggressive stance in regards to the utilization of aircraft within their respective fleets. Based on summary reports obtained from incident logs generated by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board), it was observed that Allegiant Airlines was almost three and a half times as likely to encounter a mid-air breakdown as legacy carriers are. On the economic front, the fallout that Southwest Airlines has faced from the Flight 1380 incident ...


Modeling Minority Carrier Transport And Μτ Determination In Cadmium Selenide Thin Film Solar Cells, Benjamin Reichert Jan 2019

Modeling Minority Carrier Transport And Μτ Determination In Cadmium Selenide Thin Film Solar Cells, Benjamin Reichert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A simple model for the transport of minority holes in Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) solar cells is presented. Further, via a fitting scheme, the model is shown to permit the subsequent determination of the minority carrier mobility-lifetime (μτ) product in CdSe solar cells.

The mobility-lifetime (μτ) product is an essential characterization parameter in solar cells, and semiconductors in general. For materials such as CdSe, whose diffusion lengths are insufficient to efficiently collect photogenerated carriers, devices must rely on the presence of an internal electric field to aid in collection – in these devices, transport is noted to be “range dominated”.

As the ...


Applications Of Fixed Point Theory To Distributed Optimization, Robust Convex Optimization, And Stability Of Stochastic Systems, Seyyed Shaho Alaviani Jan 2019

Applications Of Fixed Point Theory To Distributed Optimization, Robust Convex Optimization, And Stability Of Stochastic Systems, Seyyed Shaho Alaviani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Large-scale multi-agent networked systems are becoming more and more popular due to applications in robotics, machine learning, and signal processing. Although distributed algorithms have been proposed for efficient computations rather than centralized computations for large data optimization, existing algorithms are still suffering from some disadvantages such as distribution dependency or B-connectivity assumption of switching communication graphs. This study applies fixed point theory to analyze distributed optimization problems and to overcome existing difficulties such as distribution dependency or B-connectivity assumption of switching communication graphs. In this study, a new mathematical terminology and a new mathematical optimization problem are defined. It is ...


Experimental Investigations On Bio-Inspired Surface Coatings For Aircraft Icing Mitigation, Liqun Ma Jan 2019

Experimental Investigations On Bio-Inspired Surface Coatings For Aircraft Icing Mitigation, Liqun Ma

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aircraft icing is widely recognized as a significant hazard to aircraft operations in cold weathers. Bio-inspired water- and ice-phobic coatings are currently being investigated for use as viable strategies for aircraft in-flight icing mitigation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-/de-icing performance of a number of bioinspired hydro-/ice-phobic coatings and explore their potentials for aircraft in-flight icing mitigation.

In the present study, the bioinspired hydro-/ice-phobic coatings examined include the lotus-leaf-inspired super-hydrophobic surface (SHS), the pitcher-plant-inspired slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) and the goose-feather-inspired textured surface. Firstly, a comprehensive experimental study was conducted to investigate ...


Co2 Sequestration In A Capillary Tube Via An Interfacial Chemical Reaction Between Pressurized Co2 Gas And Aqueous Glycerol Ca(Oh)2 Solution., Sravya Sasetty Jan 2019

Co2 Sequestration In A Capillary Tube Via An Interfacial Chemical Reaction Between Pressurized Co2 Gas And Aqueous Glycerol Ca(Oh)2 Solution., Sravya Sasetty

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to current global climate conditions, it has become imperative to reduce CO2 emissions all around the world. The capture of CO2 gas from the environment and storing it into carbon sinks (underground or oceanic storage) is well known as carbon sequestration. In this project, we seek to understand the feasibility of carbon sequestration through chemical reaction of CO2 gas and aqueous Ca(OH)2 which is known to generate CaCO3 precipitates. The experiments on displacement of aqueous glycerol Ca(OH)2 solution with different molar concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mM) and viscosity (0.186 and 0 ...


Process Generalizations And Rules Of Thumb For Scaling Up Biobased Processes, Mothi Bharath Viswanathan Jan 2019

Process Generalizations And Rules Of Thumb For Scaling Up Biobased Processes, Mothi Bharath Viswanathan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The premise of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC) is that a joint fermentative-catalytic process can be exercised to manufacture commodity chemicals from bio-based carbon (e.g., five and six carbon sugar) at prices that are competitive with existing petro-derived chemicals, and with development costs that are far low. Strong technoeconomic analysis (TEA) capabilities exist commercially in tools such as SuperPro Designer® and Aspen Plus®, both of which provide estimations of capital and operating costs. These tools also require a level of detail that is typically unavailable at early stages of process evaluation. To address early – stage ...


Solid-State Synthesis Of Germanium Nanocrystals From A Chloride-Derived Germania Glass And Colloidal Synthesis Of Germanium Nanocrystals From Germanium Halides With Trisilane, Yujie Wang Jan 2019

Solid-State Synthesis Of Germanium Nanocrystals From A Chloride-Derived Germania Glass And Colloidal Synthesis Of Germanium Nanocrystals From Germanium Halides With Trisilane, Yujie Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to the size-tunable properties and their potential application in many areas, nanocrystals (NCs) have been the focus of research over the past several decades. Among them, germanium (Ge) NCs are promising candidates for many optical applications such as LEDs and integrated photonics. In this thesis, we report the solid-state synthesis of Ge NCs at the temperature of 325 °C of higher as well as colloidal synthesis of Ge NCs at room temperature. For the solid-state synthesis, we use GeCl2 · dioxane as the precursor and performed hydrolysis to get germania (GeOX) glass, which was then thermally annealed at elevated temperatures ...


Controlling The Deterioration Of Harvested Grain/Seed To Improve Food Security, Bernard Darfour Jan 2019

Controlling The Deterioration Of Harvested Grain/Seed To Improve Food Security, Bernard Darfour

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The agriculture sector is the largest source of employment for Ghanaians and it is dominated by smallholder farmers. The challenges in the agriculture sector are many which include food insecurity. Maize offers a significant source of calories, and accounts for 50% of the total cereal production in Ghana, with the reported postharvest loss (PHL) between 5% and 70%. Improving food security through a reduction of PHL is imperative for meeting current development objectives. Sitophilus zeamais can inflict serious damage to maize in storage leading to about 20% to 50% or more losses within 3 to 6 months. The lack of ...


Comparison Of Urans And Des Models For Dynamic Stall Of Naca 0012 At Low Reynolds Number, Anshul Chandel Jan 2019

Comparison Of Urans And Des Models For Dynamic Stall Of Naca 0012 At Low Reynolds Number, Anshul Chandel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Designing wings and rotor blades to mitigate the adverse effects of dynamic stall is of current interest. For example, unmanned air vehicles with vertical take-off and landing capability are particularly susceptible to dynamic stall as they operate entirely in the highly unsteady planetary boundary layer. The intense unsteady loads generated as the vehicle undergoes dynamic stall can lead to catastrophic failure as well as fatigue failure. A passive mechanism to mitigate dynamic stall is a desirable alternative to active control as it is simpler, robust, and economical. Innovative wing and rotor blade designs can be developed using numerical simulations and ...


In-Service Evaluation Of Culvert Extensions, Hitesh Chawla Jan 2019

In-Service Evaluation Of Culvert Extensions, Hitesh Chawla

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 18% of fatal run-off-road crashes in the US are associated with either a culvert or a ditch. To reduce the risk of such crashes, safety treatments that can be implemented include installation of safety grates or guardrails or extending the culvert outside the clear zone, as mentioned in AASHTO’s Roadside Design Guide. The existing design practices do not indicate when a particular safety treatment should be chosen over others based on the given roadway and traffic conditions. The existing literature has also been quite limited with respect to this problem. To that end, this study aims to determine ...


Graphene Humidity Sensor With Gold Nanoparticles, Jiawei Bao Jan 2019

Graphene Humidity Sensor With Gold Nanoparticles, Jiawei Bao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Humidity sensors can be used to monitor body sweat. Here, we studied a humidity sensor that comprised of a graphene layer between two electrodes. The operating principle is that the humidity sensor will respond when vapor reaches the graphene layer from the top. Based on the humidity diffusion, the sensor measures the relative humidity (RH) with different response times. Graphene is a material with high diffusivity and small thickness that can increase the sensitivity of a sensor. Based on the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) method, we modeled the humidity sensor using COMSOL Multiphysics transport of diluted species software. Finally ...


Use Of Soft Computing And Numerical Analysis In Design, Analysis And Management Of Pavement Systems, Orhan Kaya Jan 2019

Use Of Soft Computing And Numerical Analysis In Design, Analysis And Management Of Pavement Systems, Orhan Kaya

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are a number of components of pavement engineering, including pavement management, pavement analysis and design, and pavement materials. Historically, the field of pavement management has been interested in monitoring post-construction condition, timing of preventive maintenance and rehabilitation treatments, and economic analysis of alternatives. On the other hand, the field of pavement analysis and design has dealt with optimizing pavement structure; with optimum structure, a pavement system is expected to survive during its service life for given traffic and climate conditions. The performance of pavement materials has been improved to achieve the long-lasting and lower-maintenance pavement systems. A data-driven comprehensive ...


Embedding Runtime Verification Post-Deployment For Real-Time Health Management Of Safety-Critical Systems, Brian Christopher Schwinkendorf Kempa Jan 2019

Embedding Runtime Verification Post-Deployment For Real-Time Health Management Of Safety-Critical Systems, Brian Christopher Schwinkendorf Kempa

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As cyber-physical systems increase in both complexity and criticality, formal methods have gained traction for design-time verification of safety properties.

A lightweight formal method, runtime verification (RV), embeds checks necessary for safety-critical system health management; however, these techniques have been slow to appear in practice despite repeated calls by both industry and academia to leverage them.

Additionally, the state-of-the-art in RV lacks a best practice approach when a deployed system requires increased flexibility due to a change in mission, or in response to an emergent condition not accounted for at design time.

Human-robot interaction necessitates stringent safety guarantees to protect ...


Interdisciplinary Research Into Architecture And Music: An Evaluation Of Acoustic Performance Of A Selection Of Spaces And Of Materials, Boram Kim Jan 2019

Interdisciplinary Research Into Architecture And Music: An Evaluation Of Acoustic Performance Of A Selection Of Spaces And Of Materials, Boram Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research examines the acoustic comforts of different occupational building types and investigates the combination of building elements, especially focusing on building layout and materials that are considered significant sources of unwanted sound. A major part of the thesis relies on a series of sound pressure (decibel) measurements in three distinctive occupational types: residential, educational, and theater buildings on the Iowa State University campus, and evaluates them with the current standard of allowable sound levels. In addition, this thesis analyzes the existing spatial and material strategies of the three types. The selected materials and their acoustic qualities will be investigated ...


Project-Level Instantaneous Emission Modeling From Mobile Sources For Freeway Lane Closure Using Shrp2 Naturalistic Driving Study Data And Microscopic Traffic Simulation, Georges Elias Bou-Saab Jan 2019

Project-Level Instantaneous Emission Modeling From Mobile Sources For Freeway Lane Closure Using Shrp2 Naturalistic Driving Study Data And Microscopic Traffic Simulation, Georges Elias Bou-Saab

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is one of the first studies which used the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data to perform modal emission modeling at the project-level. SHRP2 NDS was the largest naturalistic driving study to date conducted in the U.S. which included instrumented vehicles with over 3,000 drivers that were recruited from six states. There is great potential to apply this data in modeling emissions as it will capture differences in driver behavior, roadway geometry, traffic conditions and their impact on emissions. The dissertation had two primary objectives: (1) apply the SHRP2 NDS data ...


Analyzing Energy Savings In An Fpga Video Processing System Using Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration, Robert Cole Wernsman Jan 2019

Analyzing Energy Savings In An Fpga Video Processing System Using Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration, Robert Cole Wernsman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR) can be a useful tool for maximizing FPGA performance while minimizing power consumption and FPGA size requirements. This work explores the application of the DPR technique in a computer vision application that implements two different edge detection algorithms (FASTX and Sobel). This technique could allow for a similar computer vision system to be realized on a smaller, low-power chipset. Different algorithms can have unique characteristics that yield better performance in certain scenarios; the best algorithm for the current scenario may change during runtime. However, implementing all available algorithms in hardware increases the space and power requirements ...


Construction And Performance Of Chemically And Mechanically Stabilized Granular Road Test Sections, Yijun Wu Jan 2019

Construction And Performance Of Chemically And Mechanically Stabilized Granular Road Test Sections, Yijun Wu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Granular-surfaced roadways in Iowa rural area frequently experience damage and degradation from the effect of rainfall, flooding, seasonal freeze-thaw cycles, heavy agricultural machinery and steadily increasing traffic loads. Rutting, potholes and frost boil problems appeared usually and leading these granular roads to unpassable. As a result, many counties have to close damaged roads for repairs and spend significant portions of their budgets on maintenance and rehabilitation of granular roads. Several stabilization methods for granular roads were examined for improving the performance and minimizing damages in Iowa by the previous completed Phase II Iowa Highway Research Board Project TR-664 “Low-Cost Rural ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Interstate Crashes And Various Speed Metrics Based Upon Probe Vehicle Data, Chao Zhou Jan 2019

Exploring The Relationship Between Interstate Crashes And Various Speed Metrics Based Upon Probe Vehicle Data, Chao Zhou

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, a considerable amount of research has been aimed at discerning the determinants of traffic crashes and those circumstances under which crash risk is increased. This is particularly important when considering the potential safety impacts of geometric design or transportation policy decisions. For example, research has consistently demonstrated that crashes are affected by various factors related to the roadway, the surrounding environment, and the involved drivers. This study has two principal goals. The first is to understand how driver speed selection varies with respect to traffic and roadway geometric characteristics. The second goal is to explore the relationship ...


An Efficient Framework For Privacy-Preserving Computations On Encrypted Iot Data, Shruthi Ramesh Jan 2019

An Efficient Framework For Privacy-Preserving Computations On Encrypted Iot Data, Shruthi Ramesh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are two fundamental expectations from Cloud-IoT applications using sensitive and personal data: data utility and user privacy. With the complex nature of cloud-IoT ecosystem, there is a growing concern about data utility at the cost of privacy. While the current state-of-the-art encryption schemes protect users’ privacy, they preclude meaningful computations on encrypted data. Thus, the question remains “how to help IoT device users benefit from cloud computing without compromising data confidentiality and user privacy”? Cloud service providers (CSP) can leverage Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes to deliver privacy-preserving services. However, there are limitations in directly adopting FHE-based solutions for ...


Electrical Sensor Development For The Dielectric Properties Measurement And Moisture Content Estimation Of Switchgrass And Corn Stover, Augusto Cesar Magalhaes De Souza Jan 2019

Electrical Sensor Development For The Dielectric Properties Measurement And Moisture Content Estimation Of Switchgrass And Corn Stover, Augusto Cesar Magalhaes De Souza

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The dielectric properties of material play a relevant role when developing moisture content sensors of agricultural products. However, little is known about the permittivity of switchgrass and corn stover in a wider frequency band. Thus, this research goal was to determine their dielectric constant and loss factor at different moisture contents and frequency range of 5 Hz to 13 MHz. Also, an electrical sensor system was developed to predict the amount of water in agricultural products with the material static and in movement.

The dielectric properties of switchgrass and corn stover were calculated by measuring their admittance using an impedance ...


Nanostructured Surfaces Fabricated By Modified Interference Lithographic Technique For Modulation Of Interfacial Processes, Russell Mahmood Jan 2019

Nanostructured Surfaces Fabricated By Modified Interference Lithographic Technique For Modulation Of Interfacial Processes, Russell Mahmood

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this dissertation is two-pronged: 1. Extending the capability of laser interference lithographic technique to fabricate novel nanostructured surfaces and 2. Application of the fabricated nanostructured surfaces to modulate interfacial processes, e.g. coupling of light with metallic nanostructures to excite surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and directing self-assembly of colloidal crystals.

The first part of the dissertation focuses on modifying the laser interference lithography (LIL) technique. The traditional LIL is limited to fabrication of only single-pitch linear gratings. We mitigated this drawback by incorporating non-planar Lloyds mirror to the LIL technique. The proposed modified LIL technique has the ...


Investigating The Viability Of Bio-Additives With Rejuvenating Properties In 50% Rap Hma Mix Designs: A Multi-Faceted Approach Of Analyzing Mix Performance, Nicholas Manke Jan 2019

Investigating The Viability Of Bio-Additives With Rejuvenating Properties In 50% Rap Hma Mix Designs: A Multi-Faceted Approach Of Analyzing Mix Performance, Nicholas Manke

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), though the most recycled material by weight in the U.S. and Europe, is not currently most effectively utilized. The material RAP is readily available due to the vast amount of infrastructure surfaced with flexible pavements. Recycled materials are often desired for reduced material costs in construction, reduced environmental costs, and reduced impacts on non-renewable resources. While RAP has been a commonly used material for decades in the U.S. and other nations, it has been used primarily as base aggregate material, construction site fill, and as a partial aggregate and binder replacement in HMA mixes ...


Multiplexed Detection Of Autoantibodies For Type 1 Diabetes Using Nanopore Thin-Film Based Sensors, Subin Mao Jan 2019

Multiplexed Detection Of Autoantibodies For Type 1 Diabetes Using Nanopore Thin-Film Based Sensors, Subin Mao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis reports on using label-free optical sensors for multiplexed detection of autoantibodies for Type 1 Diabetes. An autoimmune disease that occurs when the body either does not produce enough or stops producing insulin, the hormone that controls blood-sugar levels. Autoantibodies working against islet antigens such as insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and insulinoma associated protein-2 (IA-2) have been well-confirmed in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) panels. While clinical diagnosis of T1D can be performed by detecting the level of autoantibodies in a blood sample, sensitive detections are especially crucial for predictive analysis and early screening of potential diabetes victims.

The ...


Evaluating Boom Height Control Performance With Variable Boom Roll Damping In A Suspended Boom System On Self-Propelled Sprayers, Evan Mellott Jan 2019

Evaluating Boom Height Control Performance With Variable Boom Roll Damping In A Suspended Boom System On Self-Propelled Sprayers, Evan Mellott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this research, a method for improving spray boom height stability was developed and tested. Self-propelled sprayers played a critical role in agriculture by applying chemicals to crops to control the presence of weeds and pests. The spraying process needed to be controlled in a manner such that the spray boom maintained the necessary target height for uniform coverage. Deviation from target height allowed outside factors such as wind to become more prevalent during chemical application which generated opportunities for spray drift to occur and potentially harm neighboring crops and environment.

On a suspended spray boom system, terrain influences on ...