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2019

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Long-Term Deflections Of Reinforced Concrete Beams, Ziad Elaghoury Aug 2019

Long-Term Deflections Of Reinforced Concrete Beams, Ziad Elaghoury

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The CSA A23.3 code provisions compute the long-term deflection of reinforced concrete flexural members by applying a multiplier to the short-term deflection, essentially ignoring the creep and shrinkage characteristics of concrete. The CAC Concrete Design Handbook presents more elaborate methods, but fails to account for the factors that influence the creep and shrinkage of concrete.

The four widely recognized models for computing creep and shrinkage strains yield predictions that differ by up to 30%. Studies by others to assess the accuracy of the models apply different of statistical analyses do different datasets and so yield contradicting outcomes, making it ...


Effects Of Building Scale Parameters On Pressure Equalization Capacity Of Roof Paver Systems, Matthew Sparks Aug 2019

Effects Of Building Scale Parameters On Pressure Equalization Capacity Of Roof Paver Systems, Matthew Sparks

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Roof pavers are commonly installed with a cavity beneath the paver that develops an internal suction pressure. These cavity pressures reduce the net pressure felt by a roof paver subject to uplift. Paver-scale parameter effects are well-understood, in this study, the effects of changing building-scale parameters such as height, aspect ratio, afterbody length, small and large scale roof obstructions, and paver to roof size ratio on cavity pressures are investigated. To do so pressure measurements were taken at the University of Western Ontario’s Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory on a modular flat roof building model at four different heights ...


Individual Variability Of Functional Connectivity In Resting-State And Naturalistic Fmri Paradigms, Mark O'Reilly Aug 2019

Individual Variability Of Functional Connectivity In Resting-State And Naturalistic Fmri Paradigms, Mark O'Reilly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are criticized for their lack of control over cognitive states of individuals during observation, which may lead to increased variability in estimates of functional connectivity (FC). Engaging movies have been used in an attempt to synchronize the cognitive states of individuals during the scan, potentially reducing intersubject variability in connectivity estimates. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in intersubject variability of FC between rest and movie conditions in a healthy cohort. The results demonstrate widespread reductions of intersubject variability of FC in the movie condition compared to the resting-state ...


Numerical Studies On Hydrodynamics In Various Circulating Fluidization Systems, Zeneng Sun Aug 2019

Numerical Studies On Hydrodynamics In Various Circulating Fluidization Systems, Zeneng Sun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Various circulating fluidized bed (CFB) systems including gas-solid fluidization, liquid-solid fluidization, and gas-liquid-solid three-phase fluidization are numerically studied. With a comprehensive knowledge from the experiments, improved computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are developed for detailed investigations on a wide operating range in the gas-solid CFB (GSCFB) system. The CFD model developed is also extended to study two new types of fluidized beds, an inverse liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed (ILSCFB) and a bubble induced fluidized bed (BIFB), as a supplement to the experimental work.

Flow structures and transitions from low-density operations to high-density operations in both GSCFB riser and downer are ...


An Experimental Study On The Impact Of Pressure Drop In The Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube, Mark Parker Aug 2019

An Experimental Study On The Impact Of Pressure Drop In The Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube, Mark Parker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A vortex tube converts a single stream of compressed gas into two outlet streams; one heated, and the other cooled. This phenomenon, referred to as energy separation, is not fully understood, thereby requires further experimentation and analysis. CFD can provide insight, however, such simulations require a complete set of information of the geometric, operational, and performance parameters of particular vortex tube experiments.

An experiment is developed to provide complete information for CFD simulations. The vortex tube under consideration is established by considering reported data from past studies and selecting parameters that yield significant energy separation. An experimental apparatus is developed ...


In Vitro Biomechanical Analyses Of The Pcl And Medial Ligaments Of The Human Knee, Alireza Moslemian Aug 2019

In Vitro Biomechanical Analyses Of The Pcl And Medial Ligaments Of The Human Knee, Alireza Moslemian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Previous studies have shown that surgical treatments of PCL injuries are not successful in all cases and there is room for improvement. The effectiveness of an isolated PCL reconstruction, in the setting of what actually is a multi-ligament injury, may be inadequate, and therefore the biomechanical contribution of other ligaments in a PCL-deficient knee need to be better understood.

A new apparatus was used to analyze the effect of medial ligaments transection on the kinematics of the PCL-deficient knee during simulated clinical tests and activities of daily living. We observed that the anterior translation of the medial side of the ...


Predicting And Preventing Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Computational Approach, Kewei Bian Aug 2019

Predicting And Preventing Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Computational Approach, Kewei Bian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a severe health problem for society. Meanwhile, predicting and preventing TBI remains challenging in the field. Peak rotational velocity was demonstrated to be correlated to brain strain responses, and hence could potentially serve as a good predictor for brain injury. Brain strain was influenced by impact direction, deceleration and impact loading curve shapes. Wearing helmets is an effective way to protect the brain from TBI, but there lacks a study on evaluating helmet performance based on both energy absorption and brain strain response, which this study addressed. Interestingly, helmet shell absorbed around half of the ...


Pneumatic Hyperelastic Robotic End-Effector For Grasping Soft Curved Organic Objects, Alexandre Galley Aug 2019

Pneumatic Hyperelastic Robotic End-Effector For Grasping Soft Curved Organic Objects, Alexandre Galley

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pneumatically-driven soft robotic grippers can elastically deform to grasp delicate, curved organic objects with minimal surface damage. However, common actuators have complex geometries and are fabricated with ultra-soft hyperelastic elastomers not originally intended for scientific applications. The complexity of the actuator geometry and extreme nonlinearity of their material’s stress-strain behaviour make it difficult to predict the actuator’s deformation prior to experimentation. In this work, a compact soft pneumatic gripper made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is developed for grasping delicate organic objects, analyzed through computational modelling and experimentally validated. COMSOL Multiphysics is used to simulate the impact of geometrical parameters ...


In-Line Monitoring Of Lubricant Addition Through Passive Vibration Measurements In A V-Blender, Austin Cameron Aug 2019

In-Line Monitoring Of Lubricant Addition Through Passive Vibration Measurements In A V-Blender, Austin Cameron

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Process analytical technologies can improve product monitoring and process efficiency in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Passive vibration measurements were evaluated for their potential as a technique to monitor lubricant dispersal in a V-blender. An accelerometer was attached to the lid of a V-blender shell to measure vibrations from particle collisions. Lubricants formed a layer around the surface of particles, altering energy dissipation upon impact. With mixing, vibrational amplitudes approached a stable value indicating a mixing end-point. Mixing profiles were sensitive to changes in particle type, particle size and distribution, and lubricant concentrations for ideal particles and pharmaceutical granules. Axial loading configurations provided ...


A Methodology For Assessing Dynamic Resilience Of Coastal Cities To Climate Change Influenced Hydrometeorological Disasters, Angela Peck Aug 2019

A Methodology For Assessing Dynamic Resilience Of Coastal Cities To Climate Change Influenced Hydrometeorological Disasters, Angela Peck

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Confronted with rapid urbanization, intensified tourism, population densification, increased migration, and climate change impacts, coastal cities are facing more challenges now than ever before. Traditional disaster management approaches are no longer sufficient to address the increased pressures facing urban areas. A paradigm shift from disaster risk reduction to disaster resilience building strategies is required to provide holistic, integrated, and sustainable disaster management looking forward. To address some of the shortcomings in current disaster resilience assessment research, a mathematical and computational framework was developed to help quantify, compare, and visualize dynamic disaster resilience. The proposed methodological framework for disaster resilience combines ...


Optimal Decentralized Coordination Of Sources In Islanded And Grid-Connected Microgrids, Mithun Mallick Jul 2019

Optimal Decentralized Coordination Of Sources In Islanded And Grid-Connected Microgrids, Mithun Mallick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rising climate change concerns in recent years have instigated the emergence of sustainable sources to reduce dependence on high-emission, isolated bulk generation systems. The microgrid framework relies on integrating these distributed energy resources (DERs) to achieve regional energy independence that leads to a reliable and environment-friendly power grid. In this work, highly granular and decentralized coordination schemes are proposed that will enable fast computation of source dispatch set-points, thereby appropriately accounting for frequent changes in regional load-supply configuration of a microgrid. The mathematical models utilized in the study sufficiently represent the steady-state electrical interdependencies and feasibility limits in islanded or ...


Adaptation Of A Deep Learning Algorithm For Traffic Sign Detection, Jose Luis Masache Narvaez Jul 2019

Adaptation Of A Deep Learning Algorithm For Traffic Sign Detection, Jose Luis Masache Narvaez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Traffic signs detection is becoming increasingly important as various approaches for automation using computer vision are becoming widely used in the industry. Typical applications include autonomous driving systems, mapping and cataloging traffic signs by municipalities. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown state of the art performances in classification tasks, and as a result, object detection algorithms based on CNNs have become popular in computer vision tasks. Two-stage detection algorithms like region proposal methods (R-CNN and Faster R-CNN) have better performance in terms of localization and recognition accuracy. However, these methods require high computational power for training and inference that make ...


Hydrodynamics Studies Of Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed With Binary Mixtures For Dry Coal Beneficiation, Zhijie Fu Jul 2019

Hydrodynamics Studies Of Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed With Binary Mixtures For Dry Coal Beneficiation, Zhijie Fu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A systematic and comprehensive study of fluidization hydrodynamics and separation properties was conducted in a bench-scale and a semi-industrial Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed (ADMFB) systems for dry coal beneficiation. In order to achieve the adjustment of fluidized bed density for efficient dry gravity separation, various types of binary mixtures of solid particles were tested and used as the medium materials in ADMFB. Fluidization hydrodynamics including minimum fluidization velocity, fluidized bed expansion, solids mixing/segregation, and bed density distribution were carefully investigated. A series of continuous experiments of raw coal dry beneficiation were successfully implemented in a semi-industrial ADMFB system ...


Characterization Of Tetrazolium Salts And Formazans Using Computational Chemistry For Radiochromic Dosimetry, Teshome G. Bedada Jul 2019

Characterization Of Tetrazolium Salts And Formazans Using Computational Chemistry For Radiochromic Dosimetry, Teshome G. Bedada

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Computational chemistry is a powerful tool to model different materials and predict their physical and chemical properties. The goal of this thesis was to apply different computational chemistry tools to model the properties of two classes of closely related organic compounds: formazans and tetrazolium salts for ionizing radiation dosimetry in water-based gels, whereby the absorbed dose is registered by optical detection of formazan formation from tetrazolium salts. The structural parameters of phenyl and benzothiazolyl-substituted tetrazolium salts and formazans were computed using the APFD density functional theory (DFT) model and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis set. Conformational searching of stereoisomers (TSCA ...


A Novel Method For In Vivo Evaluation Of Finger Kinematics For Analysis Of Activities Of Daily Living, Ahmed M. Tanashi Jul 2019

A Novel Method For In Vivo Evaluation Of Finger Kinematics For Analysis Of Activities Of Daily Living, Ahmed M. Tanashi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examines the development of a six degrees of freedom finger coordinate system that employs electromagnetic tracking to measure finger kinematics. Secondarily, this thesis validated the in vivo finger coordinate system, and is then used to examine range of motion in the fingers in patients with hand osteoarthritis. Lastly, this thesis examines the range of motion of individuals with and without hand arthritis during various activities of daily living, performed with and with joint protection program principles. This study presents a foundation for finger kinematic evaluation and describes a methodology that will be used for larger studies to be ...


Nonlinear Attitude And Pose Filters With Superior Convergence Properties, Hashim Abdellah Hashim Mohamed Jul 2019

Nonlinear Attitude And Pose Filters With Superior Convergence Properties, Hashim Abdellah Hashim Mohamed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, several deterministic and stochastic attitude filtering solutions on the special orthogonal group SO(3) are proposed. Firstly, the attitude estimation problem is approached on the basis of nonlinear deterministic filters on SO(3) with guaranteed transient and steady-state measures. The second solution to the attitude estimation problem considers nonlinear stochastic filters on SO(3) with superior convergence properties with two filters being developed in the sense of Ito, and one in the sense of Stratonovich.

This thesis also presents several deterministic and stochastic pose filtering solutions developed on the special Euclidean group SE(3). The first solution ...


Remote Navigation And Contact-Force Control Of Radiofrequency Ablation Catheters, Daniel Gelman Jun 2019

Remote Navigation And Contact-Force Control Of Radiofrequency Ablation Catheters, Daniel Gelman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common and clinically significant heart rhythm disorder, is characterized by rapid and irregular electrical activity in the upper chambers resulting in abnormal contractions. Radiofrequency (RF) cardiac catheter ablation is a minimally invasive curative treatment that aims to electrically correct signal pathways inside the atria to restore normal sinus rhythm. Successful catheter ablation requires the complete and permanent elimination of arrhythmogenic signals by delivering transmural RF ablation lesions contiguously near and around key cardiac structures. These procedures are complex and technically challenging and, even when performed by the most skilled physician, nearly half of patients undergo ...


Enhanced Multimedia Exchanges Over The Internet, Fuad Shamieh Jun 2019

Enhanced Multimedia Exchanges Over The Internet, Fuad Shamieh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although the Internet was not originally designed for exchanging multimedia streams, consumers heavily depend on it for audiovisual data delivery. The intermittent nature of multimedia traffic, the unguaranteed underlying communication infrastructure, and dynamic user behavior collectively result in the degradation of Quality-of-Service (QoS) and Quality-of-Experience (QoE) perceived by end-users. Consequently, the volume of signalling messages is inevitably increased to compensate for the degradation of the desired service qualities. Improved multimedia services could leverage adaptive streaming as well as blockchain-based solutions to enhance media-rich experiences over the Internet at the cost of increased signalling volume. Many recent studies in the literature ...


Analysis, Design And Demonstration Of Control Systems Against Insider Attacks In Cyber-Physical Systems, Xirong Ning Jun 2019

Analysis, Design And Demonstration Of Control Systems Against Insider Attacks In Cyber-Physical Systems, Xirong Ning

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation aims to address the security issues of insider cyber-physical attacks and provide a defense-in-depth attack-resilient control system approach for cyber-physical systems.

Firstly, security analysis for cyber-physical systems is investigated to identify potential risks and potential security enhancements. Vulnerabilities of the system and existing security solutions, including attack prevention, attack detection and attack mitigation strategies are analyzed.

Subsequently, a methodology to analyze and mathematically characterize insider attacks is developed. An attack pattern is introduced to represent key features in an insider cyber-physical attack, which includes attack goals, resources, constraints, modes, as well as probable attack paths. Patterns for such ...


Field Trials Of Ex Situ Smouldering Treatment (Starx) Of Oil Sludge, Cody Murray Jun 2019

Field Trials Of Ex Situ Smouldering Treatment (Starx) Of Oil Sludge, Cody Murray

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Growing environmental concern and regulations around petroleum producing and refining facilities, along with the divesting of legacy properties, have necessitated the need for rapid, high capacity, and cost-effective treatment technologies for remediating these sites and their produced wastes. Self-sustained liquid smouldering – known as STAR technology - has been studied extensively at small scales and has been proven as an effective in situ remediation technique for heavy hydrocarbons. However, STAR as a large-scale ex situ waste disposal method (STARx) has yet to be demonstrated. Here STARx is evaluated for the first time in soil pile configurations, using an engineered base concept called ...


Structural Optimization Of Cable-Stayed Bridges Considering The Action Of Permanent And Transitory Loads, Carolina Almeida Novaes Dos Santos Jun 2019

Structural Optimization Of Cable-Stayed Bridges Considering The Action Of Permanent And Transitory Loads, Carolina Almeida Novaes Dos Santos

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cable-stayed bridges are complex structures with several advantages such as aesthetical appeal, economic use of materials, and efficient construction method. Due to these advantages and the extensive knowledge gained from projects over the years, longer cable-stayed bridges are being constructed. As span lengths increase, structures become more flexible, which makes the accurate evaluation of wind loads critically important in the design of cable-stayed bridges. A large number of variables are involved in the design of cable-stayed bridges. Those include overall geometric dimensions, cross-sectional dimensions, number of stay-cables and pre-tensioning forces to be applied to the cables. Taking all variables into ...


Effect Of The Nonlinear Material Viscosity On The Performance Of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers, Yuanping Li Jun 2019

Effect Of The Nonlinear Material Viscosity On The Performance Of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers, Yuanping Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As a typical type of soft electroactive materials, dielectric elastomers (DEs) are capable of producing large voltage-induced deformation, which makes them desirable materials for a variety of applications in transduction technology, including tunable oscillators, resonators, biomimetics and energy harvesters. The dynamic and energy harvesting performance of such DE-based devices is strongly affected not only by multiple failure modes such as electrical breakdown, electromechanical instability, loss-of-tension and fatigue, but also by their material viscoelasticity. Moreover, as suggested by experiments and theoretical studies, DEs possess nonlinear relaxation processes, which makes modeling of the performance of DE-based devices more challenging.

In this thesis ...


Evaluation Of Individual Finger Forces During Activities Of Daily Living In Healthy Individuals And Those With Hand Arthritis, Michael Riddle May 2019

Evaluation Of Individual Finger Forces During Activities Of Daily Living In Healthy Individuals And Those With Hand Arthritis, Michael Riddle

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hand-Osteoarthritis (H-OA) leads to pain, loss of grip strength, and decreased hand function. Current treatment for H-OA involves joint protection programs (JPP) which seek to reduce joint loading during activity. The use of wearable technology to measure hand forces during activity has the potential to determine the effectiveness of JPP. The objective of this thesis was to develop and validate a method of directly measuring finger forces during the performance of activities of daily living, and then use that system to measure the envelope of hand forces during activity in healthy individuals and in patients with H-OA. A commercially-available capacitive ...


Optimization Of Window Confirguration In Buildings For Sustainable Thermal And Lighting Performance, Meseret Tesfay Kahsay May 2019

Optimization Of Window Confirguration In Buildings For Sustainable Thermal And Lighting Performance, Meseret Tesfay Kahsay

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years, there is an urban architectural evolution towards significant use of glazing in high-rise buildings. Windows play a critical role in moderating the elements of the climate. Although good for outdoor viewing and daylighting, glazing has very little ability to control heat flow and solar heat gain. As a result, about 20 - 40% of the energy in a building is wasted through windows. Finding an optimal configuration of windows is a complex task due to its conflicting objectives, such as outdoor view, daylighting, and thermal comfort demands. Further buildings interact with the microclimate in a complex manner, the ...


Investigating Grip Range Of Motion And Force Exerted By Individuals With And Without Hand Arthritis During Functional Tasks And While Swinging A Golf Club, Sara Frances Holland May 2019

Investigating Grip Range Of Motion And Force Exerted By Individuals With And Without Hand Arthritis During Functional Tasks And While Swinging A Golf Club, Sara Frances Holland

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hand arthritis is the leading cause of disability in individuals over the age of 50; resulting in dysfunction and pain, making activities of daily living and recreational activities such as golf difficult. Few studies have been conducted on the biomechanical response of individuals with hand arthritis when performing functional activities. This research quantified hand grip movements and strength differences seen in individuals with hand arthritis. Using a video-based motion capture system (Dartfish), a grip limitation of 17.2% (maximum flexion), and 12.7% (maximum extension) was discovered. A wireless finger force measurement system (FingerTPS), was used to show that larger ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Collagen-Polypyrrole Constructs Using Direct-Ink Write Additive Manufacturing, Rooshan Arshad May 2019

Fabrication And Characterization Of Collagen-Polypyrrole Constructs Using Direct-Ink Write Additive Manufacturing, Rooshan Arshad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Current efforts in the tissue engineering field are being directed towards the creation of platforms which will facilitate in instructing cells towards biologically relevant outcomes such as stem cell differentiation and disease pathophysiology. Traditional fabrication methods serve as a limiting factor for the production of such platforms as they lack feature and geometric complexity. Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers advantage over said methods by affording designers creative freedom and great control over printed constructs. Such constructs can then be used to create appropriate models for study- ing a plethora of tissues and structures. An AM methodology for Direct-Ink Write (DIW) printing ...


Risk Analysis Of Natural Gas Distribution Pipelines With Respect To Third Party Damage, Joseph S. Santarelli Apr 2019

Risk Analysis Of Natural Gas Distribution Pipelines With Respect To Third Party Damage, Joseph S. Santarelli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative method of evaluating the risk of third party damage (TPD) on natural gas distribution pipelines using available industry data and practical engineering experience. A risk model for TPD of gas distribution pipelines is developed to allow for a more robust decision making process and better prioritization of the allocation of resources for operators of natural gas distribution pipelines. The model consists of likelihood and consequence classification procedures to estimate the severity of TPD events within an area.

The TPD model consists of a fault tree (FTA) model to estimate the ...


The Effect Of Low Temperature And Low Light Intensity On Nutrient Removal From Municipal Wastewater By Purple Phototrophic Bacteria (Ppb), Peyman Dalaei Apr 2019

The Effect Of Low Temperature And Low Light Intensity On Nutrient Removal From Municipal Wastewater By Purple Phototrophic Bacteria (Ppb), Peyman Dalaei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There has been increased interest in alternative wastewater treatment systems to improve nutrient recovery while achieving acceptable TCOD, TN, and TP discharge limits. Purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) have a high potential for simultaneous nutrient removal and recovery from wastewater. This study evaluated the PPB performance and its growth at different operating conditions with a focus on HRT and light optimization using a continuous-flow membrane photobioreactor (PHB). Furthermore, the effect of low temperature on PPB performance was assessed to evaluate the PPB’s application in cold-climate regions. In order to evaluate PPB performance, TCOD, TN, and TP removal efficiencies and Monod ...


Gabor Filter Initialization And Parameterization Strategies In Convolutional Neural Networks, Long Pham Apr 2019

Gabor Filter Initialization And Parameterization Strategies In Convolutional Neural Networks, Long Pham

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been widely known in literature to be extremely effective for classifying images. Some of the filters learned during training of the first layer of a CNN resemble the Gabor filter. Gabor filters are extremely good at extracting features within an image. We have taken this as an incentive by replacing the first layer of a CNN with the Gabor filter to increase speed and accuracy for classifying images. We created two simple 5-layer AlexNet-like CNNs comparing grid-search to random-search for initializing the Gabor filter bank. We trained on MNIST, CIFAR-10, and CIFAR-100 as well as ...


Experimental Investigations On The Instantaneous Flow Structure In Circulating Fluidized Beds, Xiaoyang Wei Apr 2019

Experimental Investigations On The Instantaneous Flow Structure In Circulating Fluidized Beds, Xiaoyang Wei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Knowing the instantaneous flow structure is of great importance for the understanding of gas-particle interaction and for the prediction of reactor performances. In this thesis, a systematic and comprehensive study has been conducted on the instantaneous flow structure in a narrow rectangular riser (19 mm in thickness, 114 mm in width and 7.6 m in height), in a cylindrical riser (76 mm in diameter, 10.2 m in height) and in a cylindrical downer (50 mm in diameter, 4.9 m in height). A wider range of operating conditions has been achieved in risers and downer with superficial gas ...