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2019

Doctoral Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Modeling And Optimizing Routing Decisions For Travelers And On-Demand Service Providers, Xinlian Yu Mar 2019

Modeling And Optimizing Routing Decisions For Travelers And On-Demand Service Providers, Xinlian Yu

Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis investigates the dynamic routing decisions for individual travelers and on-demand service providers (e.g., regular taxis, Uber, Lyft, etc).

For individual travelers, this thesis models and predicts route choice at two time-scales: the day-to-day and within-day. For day-to-day route choice, methodological development and empirical evidences are presented to understand the roles of learning, inertia and real-time travel information on route choices in a highly disrupted network based on data from a laboratory competitive route choice game. The learning of routing policies instead of simple paths is modeled when real-time travel information is available, where a routing policy is ...


A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana Mar 2019

A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana

Doctoral Dissertations

Floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) hold great potential for the renewable energy industry, but capital costs remain high. In efforts to increase FOWT substructure efficiency and reduce costs, this thesis investigates a novel multiline anchor concept in which FOWTs share anchors instead of being moored separately. The goal of this thesis is to evaluate the force dynamics, design, and potential cost reduction of the system. Anchor forces are simulated using the NREL 5 MW reference turbine and OC4-DeepCwind semisubmersible platform, and multiline anchor force is computed as the vector sum of the contributing mooring line tensions.

The use of a ...


Sequence Design Via Semidefinite Programming Relaxation And Randomized Projection, Dian Mo Mar 2019

Sequence Design Via Semidefinite Programming Relaxation And Randomized Projection, Dian Mo

Doctoral Dissertations

Wideband is a booming technology in the field of wireless communications. The receivers in wideband communication systems are expected to cover a very wide spectrum and adaptively extract the parts of interest. The literature has focused on mixing the input spectrum to baseband using a pseudorandom sequence modulation and recovering the received signals from linearly independent measurements by parallel branches to mitigate the pressures from required extreme high sampling frequency. However, a pseudorandom sequence provides no rejection for the strong interferers received together with weak signals from distant sources. The interferers cause significant distortion due to the nonlinearity of the ...


Application Of Ground Penetrating Radar For Use In Thermal Conductivity Site Investigations, Aaron J. Rubin Mar 2019

Application Of Ground Penetrating Radar For Use In Thermal Conductivity Site Investigations, Aaron J. Rubin

Doctoral Dissertations

Measurement of soil thermal conductivity in-situ is important for many practical geotechnical and civil engineering applications. However, for a variety of reasons it can be difficult to measure in-situ. A novel method to estimate the thermal conductivity of sands based on electrical relative permittivity (dielectric constant) measurements and GPR data is presented. First, an analytical model to estimate thermal conductivity of soils was developed and validated using a database of thermal conductivity measurements. The new thermal conductivity model was then compared to existing models using a larger database of new and pervious thermal conductivity measurements conducted on a wide range ...


Development Of An Astrocyte/Glioma Co-Culture System For Measuring Cellular Dynamics, Urna Kansakar Feb 2019

Development Of An Astrocyte/Glioma Co-Culture System For Measuring Cellular Dynamics, Urna Kansakar

Doctoral Dissertations

Gliomas are brain tumors that primarily arise from glial cells. Gliomas account for 70% of the brain tumors and they are more prevalent in older adults. About 60% of the people with gliomas experience at least one seizure. Brain tumors can grow and metastasize to neighboring areas, thereby destroying normal brain cells. In a brain tumor microenvironment, both malignant cancer cells and healthy brain cells are present. Studies have shown that astrocytes may have a role in tumor growth in the brain. Monocultures cannot evaluate interactions between two cell types and does not accurately represent in vivo conditions. Thus, a ...


Development Of A Counter-Flow Thermal Gradient Microfluidic Device, Shayan Davani Feb 2019

Development Of A Counter-Flow Thermal Gradient Microfluidic Device, Shayan Davani

Doctoral Dissertations

This work presents a novel counter-flow design for thermal stabilization of microfluidic thermal reactors. In these reactors, precise control of temperature of the liquid sample is achieved by moving the liquid sample through the thermal zones established ideally through the conduction in the solid material of the device. The goal here is to establish a linear thermal distribution when there is no flow and to minimize the temperature change at flow condition. External convection as well as internal flowinduced effects influence the prescribed thermal distribution. The counter-flow thermal gradient device developed in this study is capable of both stabilizing the ...


Passive Harmonic Generation At Spring Contacts, Sen Yang Jan 2019

Passive Harmonic Generation At Spring Contacts, Sen Yang

Doctoral Dissertations

"In the first paper, the RF passive harmonic generation phenomenon on the spring contact is studied. A spring contact harmonic generation measurement system is developed. The factors that may have an impact on the spring contact harmonic generation, such as contact material, contact force, and contact resistance are characterized by the measurement system. The gold-to-gold contact is found to be much superior to the stainless-steel contacts. It is also found that the passive nonlinearity at the spring contact is the semiconductor-like junction formed by the surface oxide film.

In the second paper, we show that the maximum E-field coupling occurs ...


The Tabu Ant Colony Optimizer And Its Application In An Energy Market, David Donald Haynes Jan 2019

The Tabu Ant Colony Optimizer And Its Application In An Energy Market, David Donald Haynes

Doctoral Dissertations

"A new ant colony optimizer, the 'tabu ant colony optimizer' (TabuACO) is introduced, tested, and applied to a contemporary problem. The TabuACO uses both attractive and repulsive pheromones to speed convergence to a solution. The dual pheromone TabuACO is benchmarked against several other solvers using the traveling salesman problem (TSP), the quadratic assignment problem (QAP), and the Steiner tree problem. In tree-shaped puzzles, the dual pheromone TabuACO was able to demonstrate a significant improvement in performance over a conventional ACO. As the amount of connectedness in the network increased, the dual pheromone TabuACO offered less improvement in performance over the ...


Improving Base Metal Electrowinning, Charles Ebenezer Abbey Jan 2019

Improving Base Metal Electrowinning, Charles Ebenezer Abbey

Doctoral Dissertations

"In zinc electrowinning, Mn oxidizes to form MnO2 on Pb-Ag anodes, cell walls and pipes. MnO2 reduces anode corrosion but also leads to short circuits and maintenance issues. MnO2 is thought to interact with chloride ions and produce oxidized chlorine species. The interactions between Mn and Cl are not well understood. Bench scale experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the manganese to chloride ratio on anode corrosion rate and electrolyte chemistry using rolled Pb-Ag anodes. Increasing the average Mn/Cl- ratio from ~7:1 to ~11:1 reduced the anode corrosion rate. Anode scales produced ...


Transient Multiphase Flow Simulation For Unloading Of Frac Hit Gas Wells, Miguel Angel Cedeno Moreno Jan 2019

Transient Multiphase Flow Simulation For Unloading Of Frac Hit Gas Wells, Miguel Angel Cedeno Moreno

Doctoral Dissertations

"This work seeks to develop a fully step-by-step transient multiphase flow simulation valid for unloading gas wells using nitrogen. It studies the behavior of nitrogen for unloading horizontal gas wells with gas injection in the annulus. The work investigates unloading non-Newtonian fluids such as those which invade offset wells when a frac hit occurs during hydraulic fracturing operations in unconventional wells. The effect of varying tubing depth and injection pressure are included in the study.

Results show that as the plastic viscosity increases, the nitrogen volume and time to unload will be increased. As tubing depth increases, the nitrogen volume ...


The Effects Of Low Aspect Ratio And Heat Exchanging Internals On The Bubble Properties And Flow Regime In A Pilot-Plant Bubble/Slurry Bubble Column For Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Hayder Al-Naseri Jan 2019

The Effects Of Low Aspect Ratio And Heat Exchanging Internals On The Bubble Properties And Flow Regime In A Pilot-Plant Bubble/Slurry Bubble Column For Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Hayder Al-Naseri

Doctoral Dissertations

"Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (F-T) is a process utilized to convert the syngas mixture of CO and H2 to synthetic fuel and chemicals that executed commercially by using the bubble/slurry bubble column reactor. The experimental results reveal that the investigated parameters, in terms the presence of internals, and reducing the aspect ratio and the solids loading, increase the local gas holdup, interfacial area, bubble passage frequency, and decrease the bubble rise velocity, bubble chord length. Meanwhile, the aspect ratio H/D = 4, and 5 provide enough height to established the fully developed flow regime. As a result of the variation ...


Time-Dependent Reliability Methodologies With Saddlepoint Approximation, Zhangli Hu Jan 2019

Time-Dependent Reliability Methodologies With Saddlepoint Approximation, Zhangli Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

"Engineers always encounter time-dependent uncertainties that ubiquitously exist, such as the random deterioration of material properties and time-variant loads. Therefore the reliability of engineering systems becomes time-dependent. It is crucial to predict the time-dependent reliability in the design stage, given possible catastrophic consequences of a failure. Although extensive research has been conducted on reliability analysis, estimating the reliability accurately and efficiently is still challenging. The objective of this work is to develop accurate and efficient reliability methodologies for engineering design. The basic idea is the integration of traditional reliability methods with saddlepoint approximation (SPA), which can accurately approximate the tail ...


Reliability Analysis For Systems With Outsourced Components, Zhengwei Hu Jan 2019

Reliability Analysis For Systems With Outsourced Components, Zhengwei Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

"The current business model for many industrial firms is to function as system integrators, depending on numerous outsourced components from outside component suppliers. This practice has resulted in tremendous cost savings; it makes system reliability analysis, however, more challenging due to the limited component information available to system designers. The component information is often proprietary to component suppliers. Motivated by the need of system reliability prediction with outsourced components, this work aims to explore feasible ways to accurately predict the system reliability during the system design stage. Four methods are proposed. The first method reconstructs component reliability functions using limited ...


Atomistic Simulations Of Deformation In Metallic Nanolayered Composites, Sixie Huang Jan 2019

Atomistic Simulations Of Deformation In Metallic Nanolayered Composites, Sixie Huang

Doctoral Dissertations

"The mechanical behavior of Metallic Nanolayered Composites (MNCs) is governed by their underlying microstructure. In this dissertation, the roles of the interlayer spacing (grain size, d) and the intralayer biphase spacing (layer thickness, h) on mechanical response of Cu/Nb MNCs are examined by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The study of the strength of MNCs show that small changes in both d and h play a profound role in the relative plastic contributions from grain boundary sliding and dislocation glide. The interplay of d and h leads to a very broad transition region from grain boundary sliding dominated flow, where ...


Solvent-Free Additive Manufacturing Of Electrodes For Li-Ion Batteries, Brandon Joshua Ludwig Jan 2019

Solvent-Free Additive Manufacturing Of Electrodes For Li-Ion Batteries, Brandon Joshua Ludwig

Doctoral Dissertations

"A new Li-ion battery electrode manufacturing process using a solvent free additive manufacturing method has been developed. Li-ion battery electrodes consist of active material particles, a binder additive, and a conductive additive. Traditionally, Li-ion battery electrodes are manufacturing using the "slurry casting" technique. In this method, the electrode materials are mixed with a solvent to create a slurry. Electrodes fabricated in this method are readily implemented for small platforms, such as portable electronics. However, this method isn't as economically viable in large platforms due to high material and manufacturing costs. High material and manufacturing costs are mostly attributed to ...


Oxide Inclusion Evolution And Factors That Influence Their Size And Morphology, Obinna M. Adaba Jan 2019

Oxide Inclusion Evolution And Factors That Influence Their Size And Morphology, Obinna M. Adaba

Doctoral Dissertations

"The evolution of oxide inclusion size distribution and the shape of the distribution during steelmaking and casting and the process variables that influence the inclusion characteristics at different stages were investigated and documented. A statistical method for transforming the 2D size distribution to their actual 3D distributions and the application of a kinetic model to determine nucleation and growth mechanisms were tested. Finally, laboratory experiments were performed to study the effects of preexisting inclusions, steel active oxygen content, and supersaturation on the size and morphology of Al2O3 inclusions.

The inclusion size, composition, and morphology following steel deoxidation ...


Underwater Acoustic Communications And Adaptive Signal Processing, Mohammadhossein Behgam Jan 2019

Underwater Acoustic Communications And Adaptive Signal Processing, Mohammadhossein Behgam

Doctoral Dissertations

"This dissertation proposes three new algorithms for underwater acoustic wireless communications. One is a new tail-biting circular MAP decoder for full tail-biting convolution (FTBC) codes for very short data blocks intended for Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT). The proposed algorithm was evaluated by ocean experiments and computer simulations on both Physical (PHY) and Media access control (MAC) layers. The ocean experimental results show that without channel equalization, the full tail-biting convolution (FTBC) codes with short packet lengths not only can perform similarly to zero-tailing convolution (ZTC) codes in terms of bit error rate (BER) in the PHY layer. Computer simulation ...


Non-Invasive Microwave And Millimeter Wave Reflectometry And Imaging For Human Skin Diagnosis And Materials Characterization, Yuan Gao Jan 2019

Non-Invasive Microwave And Millimeter Wave Reflectometry And Imaging For Human Skin Diagnosis And Materials Characterization, Yuan Gao

Doctoral Dissertations

"Microwave and millimeter wave reflectometry and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging techniques have been successfully applied in many applications, such as nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E), security inspection and medical diagnosis. In this dissertation, the feasibility of using microwave and millimeter reflectometry and SAR imaging for burn diagnosis is investigated through both simulations and measurements, with promising results. To correctly model the interaction between electromagnetic waves and skin, the proper knowledge of the complex permittivity of healthy skin is critically important. To this end, the common used measurement methods for in vivo skin complex permittivity are reviewed and analyzed ...


Using Lidar To Measure Subsurface Movement Of Slow-Moving Landslides And Study The Interaction Between The Soil And Lidar Scanning Targets, Chengxun Lu Jan 2019

Using Lidar To Measure Subsurface Movement Of Slow-Moving Landslides And Study The Interaction Between The Soil And Lidar Scanning Targets, Chengxun Lu

Doctoral Dissertations

"Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technology has been used for predicting and researching geological hazards for two decades. This research focuses on using LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) to measure the slow-moving displacement of both surface and subsurface soil of landslides. Two kinds of computer simulation software, FLAC3D® and PFC3D® were used to simulate the landslide process to compare with the LiDAR scanning results.

The primary contributions from this research are as follows:

1. Several error tests were done to prove that the three-dimensional LiDAR scanner used in this research can precisely obtain the three-dimensional position, the displacement and the rotational ...


Dynamic Impact Induced By Tornadoes Through Simulations Based On Two-Way Wind-Structure Interactions, Tiantian Li Jan 2019

Dynamic Impact Induced By Tornadoes Through Simulations Based On Two-Way Wind-Structure Interactions, Tiantian Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"Tornadoes have become a significant cause of property damage, injuries and life losses. Investigations of tornadoes indicate that most fatalities were caused by building failure. For example, in the Joplin, MO tornado of 22 May 2011, 161 people were killed, and 84% fatalities were related to building failure. Therefore, it is imperative to develop science-based tornado-resistant building codes, in order to provide a better level of occupant protection from tornadoes and to minimize the tornado-induced damage. This requires in-depth understanding of the wind characteristics of tornadoes and their wind effects on civil structures, based on which design tornadic wind loading ...


Hydrodynamics Of Trickle Bed Reactors (Tbrs) Packed With Industrial Catalyst Using Advanced Measurement Techniques, Mohammed Jaber Al-Ani Jan 2019

Hydrodynamics Of Trickle Bed Reactors (Tbrs) Packed With Industrial Catalyst Using Advanced Measurement Techniques, Mohammed Jaber Al-Ani

Doctoral Dissertations

"The impacts of the packing characteristics on the hydrodynamics od a trickle bed reactor (TBR) have been investigated using advanced measurements techniques of Gamma-ray densitometry (GRD) and Optical fiber probe and conventional measurement techniques of high-frequency differential pressure transducer and load cell. Two different reactor sizes of bench and pilot plant scale were used. Bench-scale TBR carried out the experiments to assess phase distribution and catalyst utilization with 1.18 cm inside diameter and 72 cm length at ambient pressure and temperature. The mixture of catalyst and fine particles displayed considerable improvements in the phase distribution, liquid holdup profile, and ...


Investigating The Use Of Different Types Of Sealant Materials For Cement Remedial Applications, Murad Mohammedahmed Abdulfarraj Jan 2019

Investigating The Use Of Different Types Of Sealant Materials For Cement Remedial Applications, Murad Mohammedahmed Abdulfarraj

Doctoral Dissertations

"The overall objective is to investigate the ability of several material to mitigate cement failures such as channels, fractures, and micro-annuli in oil and gas wells. The sealant material that can also be used in the wells that are used for geologic storage of carbon dioxide CO2. Evaluating the sealant material is critical to improve the zonal isolation of the wells, which would lead to safer operations. The approach of this dissertation is to utilize particles gel that has been used successfully in conformance control application, and epoxy resin systems, that have superior seal characteristics compared to conventional Portland ...


Characterization Of A Green Electric Solid Propellant For Electric Propulsion, Matthew Scott Glascock Jan 2019

Characterization Of A Green Electric Solid Propellant For Electric Propulsion, Matthew Scott Glascock

Doctoral Dissertations

"Electric solid propellants are advanced solid chemical rocket propellants that can be controlled (ignited, throttled and extinguished) through the application and removal of an electric current. These propellants are also being considered for use in ablative pulsed plasma thruster and multimode systems. In this work, the behavior and performance of a novel green electric solid propellant operating in an electrothermal ablation-fed pulsed plasma thruster was investigated. Using an inverted pendulum micro-Newton thrust stand, the impulse bit and specific impulse of the device using the electric solid propellant were measured for short-duration and long-duration runs to end-of-life, at energy levels of ...


Deep Understanding Of Degradation In Lithium Ion Batteries Through Experimental And First-Principles Study, Yufang He Jan 2019

Deep Understanding Of Degradation In Lithium Ion Batteries Through Experimental And First-Principles Study, Yufang He

Doctoral Dissertations

"The growing interests in Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs) have significantly accelerated the development of active materials. However, the key challenge is that electrode materials suffer from degradation, which include transition metal dissolution, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation, and mechanical fracture. To address these issues, applying an ultrathin coating onto active materials via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is an efficient way. Although numerious works have been done for active material performance improvement via ALD technology, the fundamental enhancement mechanisms of ALD coating on battery performance improvement are not yet known. Therefore, this dissertation consists of four papers, which focused on the ...


Biofuel Supply Chain Restructuring -- An Economic Viability And Environmental Sustainability Investigation For Enhancing Second Generation Biofuel Adoption, Rajkamal Kesharwani Jan 2019

Biofuel Supply Chain Restructuring -- An Economic Viability And Environmental Sustainability Investigation For Enhancing Second Generation Biofuel Adoption, Rajkamal Kesharwani

Doctoral Dissertations

"Biofuel is a promising clean alternative to fossil fuels. Currently, first generation biofuels are commercially produced by using corn grain as biomass feedstock. However, the use of edible matter of crops, may lead to a competition between food and fuel. Therefore, there is a significant push in both industry and academia to commercialize second generation biofuel manufacturing technology, which uses non-edible matter from crops. Most research focuses on individual manufacturing processes for producing second generation biofuel, but the economic and environmental impacts of a large-scale adoption of second generation biofuel manufacturing have been less widely reported.

This work investigates the ...


Application Of Computational Intelligence To Explore And Analyze System Architecture And Design Alternatives, Gene Lesinski Jan 2019

Application Of Computational Intelligence To Explore And Analyze System Architecture And Design Alternatives, Gene Lesinski

Doctoral Dissertations

"Systems Engineering involves the development or improvement of a system or process from effective need to a final value-added solution. Rapid advances in technology have led to development of sophisticated and complex sensor-enabled, remote, and highly networked cyber-technical systems. These complex modern systems present several challenges for systems engineers including: increased complexity associated with integration and emergent behavior, multiple and competing design metrics, and an expansive design parameter solution space. This research extends the existing knowledge base on multi-objective system design through the creation of a framework to explore and analyze system design alternatives employing computational intelligence. The first research ...


The Effects Of Fatigue And Weathering On The Failure Behavior Of Commercial Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass, Erica Ann Ronchetto Jan 2019

The Effects Of Fatigue And Weathering On The Failure Behavior Of Commercial Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass, Erica Ann Ronchetto

Doctoral Dissertations

"The principle objective of this research is to advance our understanding of the effects of humid conditions on the strength and susceptibility to fatigue of soda-lime silicate (SLS) glass. The two-point bend method was used to evaluate the fatigue characteristics and the degradation of failure strain of fibers drawn from melts of commercial soda-lime silicate glass and exposed to various environmental conditions. Soda lime silicate glasses from two commercial products but with similar nominal compositions were examined. One glass had pristine failure strains about 10% greater than the other, but both had similar fatigue parameters. The fatigue parameter increased from ...


Plugging Performance Of Preformed Particle Gels In Fractures And Its Influencing Factors, Ze Wang Jan 2019

Plugging Performance Of Preformed Particle Gels In Fractures And Its Influencing Factors, Ze Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Preformed particle gels (PPG) has been successfully applied to combat the water channeling caused by fractures or fracture-like channels. Understanding the placement and plugging of PPG in fractures is crucial for gel treatment design. The objective of the dissertation is to explore the plugging performance of three PPG products in two types of fracture models, the partially and fully open fractures. The following studies has been conducted and conclusions have been drawn based on the results and analysis. First, the placement and plugging performance of conventional PPG was investigated using core flooding experiments conducted partially open fractures. The plugging efficiency ...


Developing And Evaluating A Partition-Cavity Solar Thermochemical Reactor For Syngas Production Via Computational Fluid Dynamics, Han Zhang Jan 2019

Developing And Evaluating A Partition-Cavity Solar Thermochemical Reactor For Syngas Production Via Computational Fluid Dynamics, Han Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Solar thermochemical processes are attractive since they have the advantages of storing solar energy as chemical fuels. In this dissertation, a partition-cavity solar thermochemical reactor was developed, and the heat and mass transfer of the solar thermochemical processes were numerically analyzed in this directly-irradiated reactor.

The reduction reaction of two-step CeO2/CeO2-δ solar redox process was investigated using the coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM). The reduction rate was studied based on the catalyst textual properties and the reaction condition. The results revealed that the increase of catalyst specific surface area and the ...


Building Shared Knowledge For Eor Technologies: Screening Guideline Constructions, Dashboards, And Advanced Data Analysis, Na Zhang Jan 2019

Building Shared Knowledge For Eor Technologies: Screening Guideline Constructions, Dashboards, And Advanced Data Analysis, Na Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Successful implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology requires comprehensive knowledge and experiences based on existing EOR projects. EOR screening guidelines and EOR reservoir analog are served as such knowledge which are considered as the first step for a reservoir engineer to determine the next step techniques to improve the ultimate oil recovery from their assets. The objective of this research work is to provide better assistance for EOR selection by using fundamental statistics methods and machine learning techniques.

In this dissertation, a total of 977 worldwide EOR projects with the most uniformed, high-quality, and comprehensive information were collected from ...