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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Strategies For Neural Control Of Prosthetic Limbs: From Electrode Interfacing To 3d Printing, Catherine G.Y. Ngan, Robert M. I Kapsa, Peter Choong Jan 2019

Strategies For Neural Control Of Prosthetic Limbs: From Electrode Interfacing To 3d Printing, Catherine G.Y. Ngan, Robert M. I Kapsa, Peter Choong

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Limb amputation is a major cause of disability in our community, for which motorised prosthetic devices offer a return to function and independence. With the commercialisation and increasing availability of advanced motorised prosthetic technologies, there is a consumer need and clinical drive for intuitive user control. In this context, rapid additive fabrication/prototyping capacities and biofabrication protocols embrace a highly-personalised medicine doctrine that marries specific patient biology and anatomy to high-end prosthetic design, manufacture and functionality. Commercially-available prosthetic models utilise surface electrodes that are limited by their disconnect between mind and device. As such, alternative strategies of mind-prosthetic interfacing have ...


Suppressing Manganese Dissolution Via Exposing Stable {111} Facets For High-Performance Lithium-Ion Oxide Cathode, Yao Xiao, Xu-Dong Zhang, Yanfang Zhu, Peng-Fei Wang, Ya-Xia Yin, Xinan Yang, Ji-Lei Shi, Jian Liu, Hongliang Li, Xiaodong Guo, Ben-He Zhong, Yu-Guo Guo Jan 2019

Suppressing Manganese Dissolution Via Exposing Stable {111} Facets For High-Performance Lithium-Ion Oxide Cathode, Yao Xiao, Xu-Dong Zhang, Yanfang Zhu, Peng-Fei Wang, Ya-Xia Yin, Xinan Yang, Ji-Lei Shi, Jian Liu, Hongliang Li, Xiaodong Guo, Ben-He Zhong, Yu-Guo Guo

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Spinel-type LiMn 2 O 4 cathode materials commonly suffer from manganese dissolution due to the severe interfacial side reactions especially at elevated temperature. Here, a 3D hollow fusiform LiMn 2 O 4 cathode material is reported with preferentially exposed stable {111} facets and seamless outer structure, which is clearly confirmed by microfocused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as well as scanning transmission electron microscopy with atomic resolution. Owing to the optimal geometrical structure design and the preferentially exposed stable {111} facets, the electrode delivers excellent rate capability (107.6 mAh g −1 at 10 C), remarkable ...


Time-Resolved Imaging Of Magnetoelastic Waves By The Cotton-Mouton Effect, Tomosato Hioki, Yusuke Hashimoto, Tom H. Johansen, Eiji Saitoh Jan 2019

Time-Resolved Imaging Of Magnetoelastic Waves By The Cotton-Mouton Effect, Tomosato Hioki, Yusuke Hashimoto, Tom H. Johansen, Eiji Saitoh

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

We investigate the propagation dynamics of magneto-elastic waves in an out-of-plane (OP) magnetized film using time-resolved magneto-optical (TRMO) microscopy based on the Cotton-Mouton effect. In OP magnetized films, spin precession induces a temporal change in the in-plane component of magnetization (m), which can be measured through birefringence induced by m, or the Cotton-Mouton effect (CME). Here we develop an imaging method based on CME, realizing the observation of stress-driven magneto-elastic waves in an OP magnetized film. This result expands the focus of TRMO microscopy, allowing investigation of magneto-elastic waves in OP magnetized films.


Bio‑Derived Hierarchical Multicore-Shell Fe2n‑Nanoparticle‑Impregnated N‑Doped Carbon Nanofiber Bundles: A Host Material For Lithium‑/Potassium‑Ion Storage, Hongjun Jiang, Ling Huang, Yunhong Wei, Boya Wang, Hao Wu, Yun Zhang, Hua-Kun Liu, Shi Xue Dou Jan 2019

Bio‑Derived Hierarchical Multicore-Shell Fe2n‑Nanoparticle‑Impregnated N‑Doped Carbon Nanofiber Bundles: A Host Material For Lithium‑/Potassium‑Ion Storage, Hongjun Jiang, Ling Huang, Yunhong Wei, Boya Wang, Hao Wu, Yun Zhang, Hua-Kun Liu, Shi Xue Dou

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Despite the significant progress in the fabrication of advanced electrode materials, complex control strategies and tedious processing are often involved for most targeted materials to tailor their compositions, morphologies, and chemistries. Inspired by the unique geometric structures of natural biomacromolecules together with their high affinities for metal species, we propose the use of skin collagen fibers for the template crafting of a novel multicore-shell Fe2N-carbon framework anode configuration, composed of hierarchical N-doped carbon nanofiber bundles firmly embedded with Fe2N nanoparticles (Fe2N@N-CFBs). In the resultant heterostructure, the Fe2N nanoparticles firmly confined inside the carbon shells are spatially isolated but electronically ...


New Insights Into The Relationship Between Draw Solution Chemistry And Trace Organic Rejection By Forward Osmosis, Lei Zheng, William E. Price, James A. Mcdonald, Stuart J. Khan, Takahiro Fujioka, Long D. Nghiem Jan 2019

New Insights Into The Relationship Between Draw Solution Chemistry And Trace Organic Rejection By Forward Osmosis, Lei Zheng, William E. Price, James A. Mcdonald, Stuart J. Khan, Takahiro Fujioka, Long D. Nghiem

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

This study elucidates the impact of draw solution chemistry (in terms of pH and draw solute species) and membrane fouling on water flux and the rejection of trace organic contaminants by forward osmosis. The results show that draw solution chemistry could induce a notable impact on both water flux and TrOCs rejection. In addition, the impact was further influenced by membrane fouling. The reverse flux of proton (or hydroxyl) could alter the feed solution pH, which governed the separation of ionisable TrOCs. In addition, charged compounds generally exhibited higher rejections than neutral ones by the clean membrane. Electrostatic interaction, rather ...


Morphology Tuning Of Inorganic Nanomaterials Grown By Precipitation Through Control Of Electrolytic Dissociation And Supersaturation, Weihong Lai, Yunxiao Wang, Yong Wang, Minghong Wu, Jiazhao Wang, Hua-Kun Liu, Shulei Chou, Jun Chen, Shi Xue Dou Jan 2019

Morphology Tuning Of Inorganic Nanomaterials Grown By Precipitation Through Control Of Electrolytic Dissociation And Supersaturation, Weihong Lai, Yunxiao Wang, Yong Wang, Minghong Wu, Jiazhao Wang, Hua-Kun Liu, Shulei Chou, Jun Chen, Shi Xue Dou

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

The precise control of the morphology of inorganic materials during their synthesis is important yet challenging. Here we report that the morphology of a wide range of inorganic materials, grown by rapid precipitation from a metal cation solution, can be tuned during their crystallization from one- to three-dimensional (1D to 3D) structures without the need for capping agents or templates. This control is achieved by adjusting the balance between the electrolytic dissociation (α) of the reactants and the supersaturation (S) of the solutions. Low-α, weak electrolytes promoted the growth of anisotropic (1D and 2D) samples, with 1D materials favoured in ...


Sheath-Run Artificial Muscles, Jiuke Mu, Monica Jung De Andrade, Shaoli Fang, Xuemin Wang, Enlai Gao, Na Li, Shi Hyeong Kim, Hongzhi Wang, Chengyi Hou, Qinghong Zhang, Meifang Zhu, Dong Qian, Hongbing Lu, Dharshika Kongahage, Sepehr Talebian, Javad Foroughi, Geoffrey M. Spinks, Hyun Kim, Taylor H. Ware, Hyeon Jun Sim, Dong Yeop Lee, Yongwoo Jang, Seon Jeong Kim, Ray H. Baughman Jan 2019

Sheath-Run Artificial Muscles, Jiuke Mu, Monica Jung De Andrade, Shaoli Fang, Xuemin Wang, Enlai Gao, Na Li, Shi Hyeong Kim, Hongzhi Wang, Chengyi Hou, Qinghong Zhang, Meifang Zhu, Dong Qian, Hongbing Lu, Dharshika Kongahage, Sepehr Talebian, Javad Foroughi, Geoffrey M. Spinks, Hyun Kim, Taylor H. Ware, Hyeon Jun Sim, Dong Yeop Lee, Yongwoo Jang, Seon Jeong Kim, Ray H. Baughman

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Although guest-filled carbon nanotube yarns provide record performance as torsional and tensile artificialmuscles, they are expensive, and only part of themuscle effectively contributes to actuation.We describe a muscle type that provides higher performance, in which the guest that drives actuation is a sheath on a twisted or coiled core that can be an inexpensive yarn. This change from guest-filled to sheath-run artificial muscles increases the maximum work capacity by factors of 1.70 to 2.15 for tensile muscles driven electrothermally or by vapor absorption. A sheath-run electrochemical muscle generates 1.98 watts per gram of average contractile power-40 ...


Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Peroxide Production Over Tio2 Passivated By Sno2, Guifu Zuo, Bingdong Li, Zhaoliang Guo, Liang Wang, Fan Yang, Weishu Hou, Songtao Zhang, Peixiao Zong, Shanshan Liu, Xianguang Meng, Yi Du, Tao Wang, Vellaisamy A. L Roy Jan 2019

Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Peroxide Production Over Tio2 Passivated By Sno2, Guifu Zuo, Bingdong Li, Zhaoliang Guo, Liang Wang, Fan Yang, Weishu Hou, Songtao Zhang, Peixiao Zong, Shanshan Liu, Xianguang Meng, Yi Du, Tao Wang, Vellaisamy A. L Roy

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Photocatalysis provides an attractive strategy for synthesizing H2O2 at ambient condition. However, the photocatalytic synthesis of H2O2 is still limited due to the inefficiency of photocatalysts and decomposition of H2O2 during formation. Here, we report SnO2-TiO2 heterojunction photocatalysts for synthesizing H2O2 directly in aqueous solution. The SnO2 passivation suppresses the complexation and decomposition of H2O2 on TiO2. In addition, loading of Au cocatalyst on SnO2-TiO2 heterojunction further improves the production of H2O2. The in situ electron spin resonance study revealed that the formation of H2O2 is a stepwise single electron oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for Au and SnO2 modified TiO2 ...


Using Chronopotentiometry To Better Characterize The Charge Injection Mechanisms Of Platinum Electrodes Used In Bionic Devices, Alexander R. Harris, Carrie Newbold, Paul Carter, Robert Cowan, Gordon G. Wallace Jan 2019

Using Chronopotentiometry To Better Characterize The Charge Injection Mechanisms Of Platinum Electrodes Used In Bionic Devices, Alexander R. Harris, Carrie Newbold, Paul Carter, Robert Cowan, Gordon G. Wallace

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

The safe charge injection capacity and charge density of neural stimulating electrodes is based on empirical evidence obtained from stimulating feline cortices. Stimulation induced tissue damage may be caused by electrochemical or biological mechanisms. Separating these mechanisms requires greater understanding of charge transfer at the electrode-tissue interface. Clinical devices typically use a biphasic waveform with controlled current. Therefore, the charge injection mechanism and charge injection capacity of platinum was assessed on a commercial potentiostat by chronopotentiometry (controlled current stimulation). Platinum is a non-ideal electrode, charge injection by chronopotentiometry can be passed via capacitive and Faradaic mechanisms. Electrodes were tested under ...


Simultaneous Tuning Of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy And Spin Reorientation Transition Via Cu Substitution In Mn-Ni-Ga Magnets For Nanoscale Biskyrmion Formation, Guizhou Xu, Yurong You, Jiaxuan Tang, Hongguo Zhang, Hang Li, Xuefei Miao, Yuanyuan Gong, Zhipeng Hou, Zhenxiang Cheng, Jian Li Wang, Andrew J. Studer, Feng Xu, Wenhong Wang Jan 2019

Simultaneous Tuning Of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy And Spin Reorientation Transition Via Cu Substitution In Mn-Ni-Ga Magnets For Nanoscale Biskyrmion Formation, Guizhou Xu, Yurong You, Jiaxuan Tang, Hongguo Zhang, Hang Li, Xuefei Miao, Yuanyuan Gong, Zhipeng Hou, Zhenxiang Cheng, Jian Li Wang, Andrew J. Studer, Feng Xu, Wenhong Wang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Skyrmions with multiple helicity or topology in centrosymmetric crystals are intriguing magnetic-domain objects due to their diverse dynamics under external stimuli. Here we illustrate how the two key gradients of magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) and spin reorientation transition (SRT) affect the skyrmion formation and topology by Cu substitution in the biskyrmion-host MnNiGa alloy. The MCA and SRT are simultaneously tuned in a large scope, while the original high Curie temperature (TC) is retained. Detailed neutron-scattering studies revealed the construction of a noncollinear canted magnetic structure below the SRT temperature (TSR), which effectively correlates the SRT with the evolution of the MCA ...


Computer-Aided Manufacturing And Focused Ion Beam Technology Enable Machining Of Complex Micro- And Nano-Structures, Frank Niessen, Mitchell John Bromley Nancarrow Jan 2019

Computer-Aided Manufacturing And Focused Ion Beam Technology Enable Machining Of Complex Micro- And Nano-Structures, Frank Niessen, Mitchell John Bromley Nancarrow

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

We present a novel framework for the fabrication of geometrically complex structures at the micro- and nano-scale which relies on the synergy of integrated computer-aided design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM) and focused ion beam (FIB) technology in a scanning electron microscope. Here we utilise industry standard G-code syntax, for the first time, to FIB machining by designing geometries with CAD, defining machining strategies and exporting G-codes with CAM and generating a coordinate list-based beam path by using a custom-built interpreter program. This allows the fabrication of complex structures from CAD models using syntax which is readily understood in the ...


Phase Evolution In Calcium Molybdate Nanoparticles As A Function Of Synthesis Temperature And Its Electrochemical Effect On Energy Storage, Manickam Minakshi, David R. G Mitchell, Christian Baur, Johann Chable, Anders Barlow, Maximilian Fichtner, Amitava Banerjee, Sudip Chakraborty, Rajeev Ahuja Jan 2019

Phase Evolution In Calcium Molybdate Nanoparticles As A Function Of Synthesis Temperature And Its Electrochemical Effect On Energy Storage, Manickam Minakshi, David R. G Mitchell, Christian Baur, Johann Chable, Anders Barlow, Maximilian Fichtner, Amitava Banerjee, Sudip Chakraborty, Rajeev Ahuja

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

The design of a suitable electrode is an essential and fundamental research challenge in the field of electrochemical energy storage because the electronic structures and morphologies determine the surface redox reactions. Calcium molybdate (CaMoO4) was synthesized by a combustion route at 300 C and 500 C. We describe new findings on the behaviour of CaMoO4 and evaluate the influence of crystallinity on energy storage performance. A wide range of characterization techniques was used to obtain detailed information about the physical and morphological characteristics of CaMoO4. The characterization results enable the phase evolution as a function of the electrode synthesis temperature ...


(Bi0.51 Na0.47)Tio3 Based Lead Free Ceramics With High Energy Density And Efficiency, Yu Huang, Fei Li, Hua Hao, Fangquan Xia, Hanxing Liu, Shujun Zhang Jan 2019

(Bi0.51 Na0.47)Tio3 Based Lead Free Ceramics With High Energy Density And Efficiency, Yu Huang, Fei Li, Hua Hao, Fangquan Xia, Hanxing Liu, Shujun Zhang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Dielectric ceramics with high energy storage density and energy efficiency play an important role in high power energy storage applications. In this work, lead free relaxor ferroelectric ceramics in (1-x)Bi 0.51 Na 0.47 TiO 3 - xBa(Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 )O 3 (BNT-BZT100x: x = 0.20, 0.30, 0.40 and 0.50) system are fabricated by conventional solid-state sintering method. The BNT-BZT100x ceramics are sintered dense with minimal pores, exhibiting pseudocubic symmetry and strong relaxor characteristic. A high energy storage density of 3.1 J/cm 3 and high energy efficiency of 91% are ...


Electrical Properties Of Yttrium Calcium Oxyborate Crystal Annealed At High Temperature And Low Oxygen Partial Pressure, Shiwei Tian, Lili Li, Feifei Chen, Chao Jiang, Fapeng Yu, Yanlu Li, Xiulan Duan, Zhengping Wang, Shujun Zhang, Xian Zhao Jan 2019

Electrical Properties Of Yttrium Calcium Oxyborate Crystal Annealed At High Temperature And Low Oxygen Partial Pressure, Shiwei Tian, Lili Li, Feifei Chen, Chao Jiang, Fapeng Yu, Yanlu Li, Xiulan Duan, Zhengping Wang, Shujun Zhang, Xian Zhao

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

The yttrium calcium oxyborate crystal (YCa 4 O(BO 3 ) 3 , YCOB) has been actively studied for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing applications. In this work, the stability of electric properties of YCOB crystal annealed in critical conditions (high-temperatures of 900-1100 °C with a low oxygen partial pressure of 4 x 10 −6 atm for 24 h) was investigated and the recovery mechanism for the electrical resisitivity, dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were studied, taking advantage of the X-ray photoelectron spectra and the first principle calculations. The electrical resistivity of the annealed YCOB crystal was slightly decreased when compared to the pristine ...