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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Life-Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Different Pretreatment And Product Separation Technologies For Butanol Bioprocessing From Oil Palm Frond, Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater Dec 2019

Life-Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Different Pretreatment And Product Separation Technologies For Butanol Bioprocessing From Oil Palm Frond, Nazira Mahmud, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Environmental impact assessment is a crucial aspect of biofuels production to ensure that the process generates emissions within the designated limits. In typical cellulosic biofuel production process, the pretreatment and downstream processing stages were reported to require a high amount of chemicals and energy, thus generating high emissions. Cellulosic butanol production while using low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment was expected to have a low chemical, water, and energy footprint, especially when the process was combined with more efficient downstream processing technologies. In this study, the quantification of environmental impact potentials from cellulosic butanol production plants was conducted with modeled ...


Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell Dec 2019

Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Background: Assessing the impact of the environment on plant performance requires growing plants under controlled environmental conditions. Plant phenotypes are a product of genotype × environment (G × E), and the Enviratron at Iowa State University is a facility for testing under controlled conditions the effects of the environment on plant growth and development. Crop plants (including maize) can be grown to maturity in the Enviratron, and the performance of plants under different environmental conditions can be monitored 24 h per day, 7 days per week throughout the growth cycle.

Results: The Enviratron is an array of custom-designed plant growth chambers that ...


Headland Turning Optimisation For Agricultural Vehicles And Those With Towed Implements, Xuyong Tu, Lie Tang Nov 2019

Headland Turning Optimisation For Agricultural Vehicles And Those With Towed Implements, Xuyong Tu, Lie Tang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

As an essential part of field coverage path planning process, mobile agricultural field equipment headland turning is a process that should be done in a manner that can maximise the equipment’s operational efficiency through minimising the time or travel distance during the turning. However, this headland turning trajectory optimisation task represents a challenging dynamic nonlinear optimisation problem which is difficult to solve by using traditional indirect numerical methods. In this research, we investigated the possibility of using direct numerical methods to solve such a nonlinear optimisation problem in a restricted parameter neighborhood with constraints. We developed the kinematic models ...


Pilot-Scale Assessment Of A Novel Farrowing Creep Area Supplementary Heat Source, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Laura L. Greiner Nov 2019

Pilot-Scale Assessment Of A Novel Farrowing Creep Area Supplementary Heat Source, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Laura L. Greiner

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Pre-weaning morality (PWM) is attributed to a poor creep area microclimate and causes major economic and productivity losses for the US swine industry. Piglets need supplementary heat to overcome a high surface area to body weight ratio and minimal thermoregulation. A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate a semi-enclosed heated microclimate (SEHM) as a supplementary heat source for farrowing creep areas over six farrowing cycles (from January to July 2019) in two rooms with 24 farrowing stalls in each room. Six SEHMs (each SEHM covers two stalls) were randomly distributed to each room and compared to heat lamps (HLs) for ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Global Fungal Distribution Reveals Climate-Driven Patterns, Tomáš Větrovský, Petr Kohout, Martin Kopecký, Antonin Machac, Matěj Man, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Vendula Brabcová, Jinlyung Choi, Lenka Meszárošová, Zander Rainier Human, Clémentine Lepinay, Salvador Lladó, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Tijana Martinović, Tereza Mašínová, Daniel Morais, Diana Navrátilová, Iñaki Odriozola, Martina Štursová, Karel Švec, Vojtěch Tláskal, Michaela Urbanová, Joe Wan, Lucia Žifčáková, Adina Howe, Joshua Ladau, Kabir Gabriel Peay, David Storch, Jan Wild, Petr Baldrian Nov 2019

A Meta-Analysis Of Global Fungal Distribution Reveals Climate-Driven Patterns, Tomáš Větrovský, Petr Kohout, Martin Kopecký, Antonin Machac, Matěj Man, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Vendula Brabcová, Jinlyung Choi, Lenka Meszárošová, Zander Rainier Human, Clémentine Lepinay, Salvador Lladó, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Tijana Martinović, Tereza Mašínová, Daniel Morais, Diana Navrátilová, Iñaki Odriozola, Martina Štursová, Karel Švec, Vojtěch Tláskal, Michaela Urbanová, Joe Wan, Lucia Žifčáková, Adina Howe, Joshua Ladau, Kabir Gabriel Peay, David Storch, Jan Wild, Petr Baldrian

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The evolutionary and environmental factors that shape fungal biogeography are incompletely understood. Here, we assemble a large dataset consisting of previously generated mycobiome data linked to specific geographical locations across the world. We use this dataset to describe the distribution of fungal taxa and to look for correlations with different environmental factors such as climate, soil and vegetation variables. Our meta-study identifies climate as an important driver of different aspects of fungal biogeography, including the global distribution of common fungi as well as the composition and diversity of fungal communities. In our analysis, fungal diversity is concentrated at high latitudes ...


Use Of Neural Networks To Identify Safety Prevention Priorities In Agro-Manufacturing Operations Within Commercial Grain Elevators, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher Nov 2019

Use Of Neural Networks To Identify Safety Prevention Priorities In Agro-Manufacturing Operations Within Commercial Grain Elevators, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The grain handling industry plays a significant role in U.S. agriculture by storing, distributing, and processing a variety of agricultural commodities. Commercial grain elevators are hazardous agro-manufacturing work environments where workers are prone to severe injuries, due to the nature of the activities and workplace. Safety incidents in agro-manufacturing operations generally arise from a combination of factors, rather than a single cause, therefore, research on occupational incidents must look deeper into identifying the underlying causes, through the application of advanced analyses methods. In occupational safety, it is possible to estimate and predict probability of safety risks through developing artificial ...


The Biotic And Abiotic Carbon Monoxide Formation During Aerobic Co-Digestion Of Dairy Cattle Manure With Green Waste And Sawdust, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Grzegorz Drabczyński, Karolina Sobieraj, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Oct 2019

The Biotic And Abiotic Carbon Monoxide Formation During Aerobic Co-Digestion Of Dairy Cattle Manure With Green Waste And Sawdust, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Grzegorz Drabczyński, Karolina Sobieraj, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Carbon monoxide (CO), an air pollutant and a toxic gas to humans, can be generated during aerobic digestion of organic waste. CO is produced due to thermochemical processes, and also produced or consumed by cohorts of methanogenic, acetogenic, or sulfate-reducing bacteria. The exact mechanisms of biotic and abiotic formation of CO in aerobic digestion (particularly the effects of process temperature) are still not known. This study aimed to determine the temporal variation in CO concentrations during the aerobic digestion as a function of process temperature and activity of microorganisms. All experiments were conducted in controlled temperature reactors using homogeneous materials ...


Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Process Kinetics, Kacper Świechowski, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Oct 2019

Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Process Kinetics, Kacper Świechowski, Sylwia Stegenta-Dąbrowska, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Oxytree is a fast-growing energy crop with C4 photosynthesis. In this research, for the first time, the torrefaction kinetic parameters of pruned Oxytree biomass (Paulownia clon in Vitro 112) were determined. The influence of the Oxytree cultivation method and soil class on the kinetic parameters of the torrefaction was also investigated. Oxytree pruned biomass from a first-year plantation was subjected to torrefaction within temperature range from 200 to 300 °C and under anaerobic conditions in the laboratory-scale batch reactor. The mass loss was measured continuously during the process. The relative mass loss increased from 1.22% to 19.56% with ...


Nutrition At The Crossroads: Food At The Intersection Of Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Laetitia Palmade, Elif Kongar Oct 2019

Nutrition At The Crossroads: Food At The Intersection Of Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Laetitia Palmade, Elif Kongar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Societies around the world are at a critical juncture. As the planetary population grows, there are increasing demands for expanding available food, more nutritious and healthy foods, and contemporaneously the need for greater efficiencies and decreased impacts upon the environment.

The sustainability of food production systems is a complex issue that requires a global and multidisciplinary approach, combining not only agronomy, ecology, nutrition, epidemiology, processing, energy use, but also marketing and sociology. It is within this context that this special issue aims to illustrate, through review articles, case studies, as well as modeling and simulation studies, some means of understanding ...


Design And Validation Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Laboratory For Animal Agricultural Applications, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, John P. Stinn Oct 2019

Design And Validation Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Laboratory For Animal Agricultural Applications, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon, John P. Stinn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The US swine industry is shifting towards filtered fresh-air ventilation systems that use pleated filters to improve breeding herd health and reduce airborne disease outbreak frequency. Loaded filters reduce airflow causing a poor environment and elevated energy use. Typical axial fans cannot efficiently maintain the rated differential pressure (DP; 100 Pa) for pleated filters; hence, a lower design filter DP (37 Pa) is used and consequently, more filters are required to achieve design maximum ventilation. Large, common filter banks for multiple staged fans presents significant challenges in using continuous DP measurement to assess filter life, making it impossible to separate ...


Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe Sep 2019

Investigating The Dispersal Of Antibiotic Resistance Associated Genes From Manure Application To Soil And Drainage Waters In Simulated Agricultural Farmland Systems, Schuyler D. Smith, Phillip Colgan, Fan Yang, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Heather K. Allen, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Manure from animals that have been treated with antibiotics is often used to fertilize agricultural soils and its application has previously been shown to enrich for genes associated with antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To investigate the magnitude of this effect, we designed a column experiment simulating manure-treated agricultural soil that utilizes artificial subsurface drainage to determine the duration and extent which this type of manure fertilization impacts the set of genes associated with antibiotic resistance in drainage water. We classified ARGs in manure-treated drainage effluent water by its source of origin. Overall, we found that 61% and 7% of the ...


Segmentation Of Severe Occupational Incidents In Agribusiness Industries Using Latent Class Clustering, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher Sep 2019

Segmentation Of Severe Occupational Incidents In Agribusiness Industries Using Latent Class Clustering, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

One of the principle objectives in occupational safety analysis is to identify the key factors that affect the severity of an incident. To identify risk groups of occupational incidents and the factors associated with them, statistical analysis of workers’ compensation claims data is performed using latent class clustering, for the segmentation of 1031 severe occupational incidents in agribusiness industries in the Midwest region of the United States between 2008–2016. In this study, severe incidents are those with workers’ compensation costs equal to or greater than $100,000 (USD). Based on the latent class clustering results, three risk groups are ...


Global Validation Of Columnar Water Vapor Derived From Eos Modis-Maiac Algorithm Against The Ground-Based Aeronet Observations, Vitor S. Martins, Alexei Lyapustin, Yujie Wang, David M. Giles, Alexander Smirnov, Ilya Slutsker, Sergey Korkin Sep 2019

Global Validation Of Columnar Water Vapor Derived From Eos Modis-Maiac Algorithm Against The Ground-Based Aeronet Observations, Vitor S. Martins, Alexei Lyapustin, Yujie Wang, David M. Giles, Alexander Smirnov, Ilya Slutsker, Sergey Korkin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The water vapor is a relevant greenhouse gas in the Earth's climate system, and satellite products become one of the most effective way to characterize and monitor the columnar water vapor (CWV) content at global scale. Recently, a new product (MCD19) was released as part of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 6 (C6). This operational product from Multi-Angle Implementation for Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm includes a high 1 km resolution CWV retrievals. This study presents the first global validation of MAIAC C6 CWV obtained from MODIS MCD19A2 product. This evaluation was performed using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations ...


The Proof-Of-Concept Of Biochar Floating Cover Influence On Water Ph, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Chumki Banik, Robert C. Brown Aug 2019

The Proof-Of-Concept Of Biochar Floating Cover Influence On Water Ph, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Chumki Banik, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Studies have shown that biochar has the potential to remove organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater. pH is known to have a crucial role in the transformation of pollutants. In this research, we explore the feasibility of using biochars properties to control the pH near the water–air interface, so the gaseous emissions from water (or wastewater) could be mitigated. This study aimed to test the effects of a thin layer biochar addition on the spatial and temporal variation of water pH. Two types of biochar and water were tested. Highly alkaline porous (HAP; pH 9.2) biochars made of ...


Estimating Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Red-Wine-Making Processes In The Usa, Congmu Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater Aug 2019

Estimating Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Red-Wine-Making Processes In The Usa, Congmu Zhang, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The goal of this study was to examine cost impacts using techno-economic analysis (TEA) and environmental impacts using life-cycle assessment (LCA) for the production of red wine. Three production scales, denoted as “small” (5000 gal per year), “medium” (50,000 gal per year), and “large” (500,000 gal per year) were chosen for analysis. For example, the consumption of water, energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and solid waste generation were considered in order to estimate environmental impacts. A spreadsheet-based economic model was also developed. The results of the LCA and TEA were compared amongst all production scales. The results of the ...


A Review Of Biochar Properties And Their Utilization In Crop Agriculture And Livestock Production, Kajetan Kalus, Jacek A. Koziel, Sebastian Opalinski Aug 2019

A Review Of Biochar Properties And Their Utilization In Crop Agriculture And Livestock Production, Kajetan Kalus, Jacek A. Koziel, Sebastian Opalinski

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

When it comes to the use of biochar in agriculture, the majority of research conducted in the last decade has focused on its application as a soil amendment and for soil remediation. This treatment improves soil quality, increases crops yields, and sequestrates atmospheric carbon to the soil. Another widely studied aspect connecting biochar with agriculture is the composting processes of various agricultural waste with the addition of biochar. Obtaining the material via the pyrolysis of agricultural waste, including animal manure, has also been investigated. However, given the remarkable properties of biochar, its application potential could be utilized in other areas ...


Valorization Of Sewage Sludge Via Gasification And Transportation Of Compressed Syngas, Marek Mysior, Maciej Tomaszewski, Paweł Stepien, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Aug 2019

Valorization Of Sewage Sludge Via Gasification And Transportation Of Compressed Syngas, Marek Mysior, Maciej Tomaszewski, Paweł Stepien, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A significant challenge in the utilization of alternative gaseous fuels is to use their energy potential at the desired location, considering economic feasibility and sustainability. A potential solution is a compression, transportation in pressure tanks, and generation of electricity and heat directly at the recipient. In this research, the potential for generating syngas from abundant waste substrates was analyzed. The sewage sludge (SS) was used as an example of a bulky and abundant resource that could be valorized via gasification, compression, and transport to end-users in containers. A model was developed, and theoretical analyses were completed to examine the influence ...


Use Of Logistic Regression To Identify Factors Influencing The Post-Incident State Of Occupational Injuries In Agribusiness Operations, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher Aug 2019

Use Of Logistic Regression To Identify Factors Influencing The Post-Incident State Of Occupational Injuries In Agribusiness Operations, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Agribusiness industries are among the most hazardous workplaces for non-fatal occupational injuries. The term “post-incident state” is used to describe the health status of an injured person when a non-fatal occupational injury has occurred, in the post-incident period when the worker returns to work, either immediately with zero days away from work (medical state) or after a disability period (disability state). An analysis of nearly 14,000 occupational incidents in agribusiness operations allowed for the classification of the post-incident state as medical or disability (77% and 23% of the cases, respectively). Due to substantial impacts of occupational incidents on labor-market ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren Aug 2019

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Characterizing The Soil Microbiome And Quantifying Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dynamics In Agricultural Soil Following Swine Cafo Manure Application, Edward Lopatto, Jinlyung Choi, Alfredo Colina, Lanying Ma, Adina Howe, Shannon Hinsa-Leasure Aug 2019

Characterizing The Soil Microbiome And Quantifying Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dynamics In Agricultural Soil Following Swine Cafo Manure Application, Edward Lopatto, Jinlyung Choi, Alfredo Colina, Lanying Ma, Adina Howe, Shannon Hinsa-Leasure

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

As agriculture industrializes, concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are becoming more common. Feces from CAFOs is often used as fertilizer on fields. However, little is known about the effects manure has on the soil microbiome, which is an important aspect of soil health and fertility. In addition, due to the subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics necessary to keep the animals healthy, CAFO manure has elevated levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Using 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing and qPCR, this study sought to determine the impact of swine CAFO manure application on both the soil microbiome and abundance of select antibiotic resistance genes ...


Proof-Of-Concept Of Spent Mushrooms Compost Torrefaction—Studying The Process Kinetics And The Influence Of Temperature And Duration On The Calorific Value Of The Produced Biocoal, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Aug 2019

Proof-Of-Concept Of Spent Mushrooms Compost Torrefaction—Studying The Process Kinetics And The Influence Of Temperature And Duration On The Calorific Value Of The Produced Biocoal, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Poland, being the 3rd largest and growing producer of mushrooms in the world, generates almost 25% of the total European production. The generation rate of waste mushroom spent compost (MSC) amounts to 5 kg per 1 kg of mushrooms produced. We proposed the MSC treatment via torrefaction for the production of solid fuel—biocoal. In this research, we examined the MSC torrefaction kinetics using thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and we tested the influence of torrefaction temperature within the range from 200 to 300 °C and treatment time lasting from 20 to 60 min on the resulting biocoal’s (fuel) properties. The ...


Evaluating Machine Learning Performance In Predicting Injury Severity In Agribusiness Industries, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher Aug 2019

Evaluating Machine Learning Performance In Predicting Injury Severity In Agribusiness Industries, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Although machine learning methods have been used as an outcome prediction tool in many fields, their utilization in predicting incident outcome in occupational safety is relatively new. This study tests the performance of machine learning techniques in modeling and predicting occupational incidents severity with respect to accessible information of injured workers in agribusiness industries using workers’ compensation claims. More than 33,000 incidents within agribusiness industries in the Midwest of the United States for 2008–2016 were analyzed. The total cost of incidents was extracted and classified from workers’ compensation claims. Supervised machine learning algorithms for classification (support vector machines ...


Characterization Of An Air-To-Air Heat Exchanger For Manure Belt Drying Ventilation In An Aviary Laying Hen House, Y. S. M. Goselink, Brett C. Ramirez Jul 2019

Characterization Of An Air-To-Air Heat Exchanger For Manure Belt Drying Ventilation In An Aviary Laying Hen House, Y. S. M. Goselink, Brett C. Ramirez

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The environment inside laying hen houses has an important effect on hen productivity, health, and well-being. Heat exchangers (HEs) can recover waste heat in ventilation exhaust to reduce supplemental heating needs while maintaining a greater fresh air exchange rate. For laying hen houses, there is limited information on the effect of heat recovery ventilation (HRV). Thus, the objective was to evaluate an air-to-air HE for manure belt drying ventilation in aviary laying hen housing. Temperature (T), relative humidity, ammonia, and manure dry matter (DM) content were characterized during a 4-wk period in October 2018. In weeks 2 and 4, the ...


Zinc-Chelating Mechanism Of Sea Cucumber (Stichopus Japonicus)-Derived Synthetic Peptides, Xiaoyang Liu, Zixu Wang, Fawen Yin, Yuxin Liu, Ningbo Qin, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Fereidoon Shahidi, Chenxu Yu, Dayong Zhou, Beiwei Zhu Jul 2019

Zinc-Chelating Mechanism Of Sea Cucumber (Stichopus Japonicus)-Derived Synthetic Peptides, Xiaoyang Liu, Zixu Wang, Fawen Yin, Yuxin Liu, Ningbo Qin, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Fereidoon Shahidi, Chenxu Yu, Dayong Zhou, Beiwei Zhu

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this study, three synthetic zinc-chelating peptides (ZCPs) derived from sea cucumber hydrolysates with limited or none of the common metal-chelating amino-acid residues were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, zeta-potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The amount of zinc bound to the ZCPs reached maximum values with ZCP:zinc at 1:1, and it was not further increased by additional zinc presence. The secondary structures of ZCPs were slightly altered, whereas no formation of multimers was observed. Furthermore, zinc increased the zeta-potential value by neutralizing the negatively ...


Phlorotannins From Undaria Pinnatifida Sporophyll: Extraction, Antioxidant, And Anti-Inflammatory Activities, Xiufang Dong, Ying Bai, Zhe Xu, Yixin Shi, Yihan Sun, Srinivas Janaswamy, Chenxu Yu, Hang Qi Jul 2019

Phlorotannins From Undaria Pinnatifida Sporophyll: Extraction, Antioxidant, And Anti-Inflammatory Activities, Xiufang Dong, Ying Bai, Zhe Xu, Yixin Shi, Yihan Sun, Srinivas Janaswamy, Chenxu Yu, Hang Qi

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll (U. pinnatifida) is a major byproduct of U. pinnatifida (a brown algae) processing. Its phenolic constituents, phlorotannins, are of special interest due to their intrinsic ability to precipitate proteins. Herein, a high-temperature extraction procedure was used to isolate these biologically active compounds. The heating temperature, heating time, and extraction solvent (ethanol) concentration were examined with response surface analysis to determine the optimal conditions to achieve the maximum extraction rate. The analysis revealed the optimal conditions to be: 170 °C of heating temperature, 5.2 h of heating time, and 52% ethanol concentration for a yield of 10 ...


Automated Crop Plant Detection Based On The Fusion Of Color And Depth Images For Robotic Weed Control, Jingyao Gai, Lie Tang, Brian L. Steward Jul 2019

Automated Crop Plant Detection Based On The Fusion Of Color And Depth Images For Robotic Weed Control, Jingyao Gai, Lie Tang, Brian L. Steward

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Robotic weeding enables weed control near or within crop rows automatically, precisely and effectively. A computer‐vision system was developed for detecting crop plants at different growth stages for robotic weed control. Fusion of color images and depth images was investigated as a means of enhancing the detection accuracy of crop plants under conditions of high weed population. In‐field images of broccoli and lettuce were acquired 3–27 days after transplanting with a Kinect v2 sensor. The image processing pipeline included data preprocessing, vegetation pixel segmentation, plant extraction, feature extraction, feature‐based localization refinement, and crop plant classification. For ...


Proof-Of-The-Concept Of Spent Mushrooms Compost Torrefaction - Preliminary Studies Of Process Kinetics And The Influence Of Temperature And Duration On Calorific Value Of The Biochar, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Jul 2019

Proof-Of-The-Concept Of Spent Mushrooms Compost Torrefaction - Preliminary Studies Of Process Kinetics And The Influence Of Temperature And Duration On Calorific Value Of The Biochar, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Poland is the 3rd producer of mushrooms in the world. Mushroom production in Poland accounts for nearly 25% of the total production in the EU, and it is still growing. One type of waste generated during mushroom production is mushroom spent compost (MSC), with a 5:1 (MSC: mushrooms) production rate. We investigated valorizing the MSC to produce fuel via torrefaction (‘roasting’, a.k.a. low-temperature pyrolysis). Specifically, we developed models for the MSC torrefaction kinetics using thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and the effects of torrefaction temperature (200~300 °C) and process duration time (20~60 min) on the resulting biochar ...


Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Mathematical Models Of The Influence Of Temperature And Residence Time On Fuel Properties Improvement, Kacper Świechowski, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Jul 2019

Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Mathematical Models Of The Influence Of Temperature And Residence Time On Fuel Properties Improvement, Kacper Świechowski, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Biowaste generated in the process of Oxytree cultivation and logging represents a potential source of energy. Torrefaction (a.k.a. low-temperature pyrolysis) is one of the methods proposed for the valorization of woody biomass. Still, energy is required for the torrefaction process during which the raw biomass becomes torrefied biomass with fuel properties similar to those of lignite coal. In this work, models describing the influence of torrefaction temperature and residence time on the resulting fuel properties (mass and energy yields, energy densification ratio, organic matter and ash content, combustible parts, lower and higher heating values, CHONS content, H:C ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Maize Storage For Small And Middle Sized Farmers, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2019

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Maize Storage For Small And Middle Sized Farmers, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Maize is the most widely cultivated cereal crop worldwide, currently ranked the third most important crop globally after wheat and rice. It is a key staple food in many developing countries. However, maize is produced on a seasonal basis, usually harvest once per year. To maintain a constant supply throughout the year, maize should be properly stored. But this may entail high cost and high-energy consumption, which can contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, three storage capacities (25,000 bu, 250,000 bu and 2,500,000 bu) of maize were evaluated for economic analysis and ...


Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Jun 2019

Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Mushroom production in Poland is an important and dynamically developing element of diverse agriculture. Mushroom spent compost (MSC) is major waste generated during production, i.e., MSC: mushrooms is ~5:1. To date, the main use of MSC is soil application as organic fertilizer. To date, several methods of MSC treatment have been researched and developed including production of compost, bioethanol, biogas, enzyme lactase, xylo-saccharides, and hydrogen. Torrefaction may be considered a novel approach for biomass valorization. Thus, we are pioneering the potential use of MSC valorization via torrefaction. We explored valorizing the waste biomass of MSC via thermal treatment ...