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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Variable Rate Irrigation Of Maize And Soybean In West-Central Nebraska Under Full And Deficit Irrigation, J Burdette Barker, Sandeep Bhatti, Derek M. Heeren, Christopher M.U. Neale, Daran Rudnick Sep 2019

Variable Rate Irrigation Of Maize And Soybean In West-Central Nebraska Under Full And Deficit Irrigation, J Burdette Barker, Sandeep Bhatti, Derek M. Heeren, Christopher M.U. Neale, Daran Rudnick

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Variable rate irrigation (VRI) may improve center pivot irrigation management, including deficit irrigation. A remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration model was implemented with Landsat imagery to manage irrigations for a VRI equipped center pivot irrigated field located in West-Central Nebraska planted to maize in 2017 and soybean in 2018. In 2017, the study included VRI using the model, and uniform irrigation using neutron attenuation for full irrigation with no intended water stress (VRI-Full and Uniform-Full treatments, respectively). In 2018, two deficit irrigation treatments were added (VRI-Deficit and Uniform-Deficit, respectively) and the model was modified in an attempt to reduce water balance drift; model ...


Microbial Transport As Affected By Residue Cover And Manure Application Rate, Lisa M. Durso, John E. Gilley, Dave B. Marx, Chance A. Thayer, Brian L. Woodbury Jul 2019

Microbial Transport As Affected By Residue Cover And Manure Application Rate, Lisa M. Durso, John E. Gilley, Dave B. Marx, Chance A. Thayer, Brian L. Woodbury

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Manure is applied to cropland areas with varying surface cover to meet single- or multiple-year crop nutrient requirements. The objectives of this field study were to (1) examine microbial transport following land application of manure to sites with and without wheat residue, (2) compare microbial loads following land application to meet the 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8-year P-based requirements for corn, and (3) evaluate the effects of rainfall simulation run on microbial transport. Manure was added and incorporated by disking plots that were 0.75 m wide by 2.0 m long. Three 30 min simulated rainfall events, separated ...


High‑Throughput Analysis Of Leaf Physiological And Chemical Traits With Vis–Nir–Swir Spectroscopy: A Case Study With A Maize Diversity Panel, Yufeng Ge, Abbas Atefi, Huichun Zhang, Chenyong Miao, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Brandi Sigmon, Jinliang Yang, James C. Schnable Jun 2019

High‑Throughput Analysis Of Leaf Physiological And Chemical Traits With Vis–Nir–Swir Spectroscopy: A Case Study With A Maize Diversity Panel, Yufeng Ge, Abbas Atefi, Huichun Zhang, Chenyong Miao, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Brandi Sigmon, Jinliang Yang, James C. Schnable

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Hyperspectral reflectance data in the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared range (VIS–NIR– SWIR, 400–2500 nm) are commonly used to nondestructively measure plant leaf properties. We investigated the usefulness of VIS–NIR–SWIR as a high-throughput tool to measure six leaf properties of maize plants including chlorophyll content (CHL), leaf water content (LWC), specific leaf area (SLA), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). This assessment was performed using the lines of the maize diversity panel. Data were collected from plants grown in greenhouse condition, as well as in the field under two nitrogen application regimes. Leaf-level hyperspectral ...


A Spatially Enhanced Data‐Driven Multimodel To Improve Semiseasonal Groundwater Forecasts In The High Plains Aquifer, Usa, A. Amaranto, Francisco Munoz-Arriola, D. P. Solomatine, G. Corzo Jun 2019

A Spatially Enhanced Data‐Driven Multimodel To Improve Semiseasonal Groundwater Forecasts In The High Plains Aquifer, Usa, A. Amaranto, Francisco Munoz-Arriola, D. P. Solomatine, G. Corzo

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The aim of this paper is to improve semiseasonal forecast of groundwater availability in response to climate variables, surface water availability, groundwater level variations, and human water management using a two‐step data‐driven modeling approach. First, we implement an ensemble of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the 300 wells across the High Plains aquifer (USA). The modeling framework includes a method to choose the most relevant input variables and time lags; an assessment of the effect of exogenous variables on the predictive capabilities of models; and the estimation of the forecast skill based on the Nash‐Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE ...


Environmental And Occupational Impacts From U.S. Beef Slaughtering Are Of Same Magnitude Of Beef Foodborne Illnesses On Human Health, Shaobin Li, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Bruce Dvorak Jun 2019

Environmental And Occupational Impacts From U.S. Beef Slaughtering Are Of Same Magnitude Of Beef Foodborne Illnesses On Human Health, Shaobin Li, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Bruce Dvorak

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Foodborne pathogens and occupational hazards are two primary safety concerns for U.S. beef slaughterhouses. The anthropogenic environmental impacts due to intensive resource use and pollution also exert threats to human health. Quantifying human health impacts from various sources remain a grand sustainability challenge for U.S. beef industry. We develop a framework to systematically estimate and compare human health impacts associated with U.S. beef foodborne illnesses from major pathogens and environmental impacts and occupational hazards from U.S. beef slaughtering on a common metric, disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Foodborne illnesses and occupational hazards are estimated by synthesizing published ...


Field Evidence Of A Natural Capillary Barrier In A Gravel Alluvial Aquifer, Todd Halihan, Ronald B. Miller, David Correll, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox May 2019

Field Evidence Of A Natural Capillary Barrier In A Gravel Alluvial Aquifer, Todd Halihan, Ronald B. Miller, David Correll, Derek M. Heeren, Garey A. Fox

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Ozark streams commonly feature “composite” floodplains, in which the vadose zone consists of silt or silt loam soils (?1 m thick) overlying gravel subsoil. Previous work has shown that preferential flow paths can exist within the gravel subsoil, which can conduct water and P at rates exceeding the sorption capacity of the gravel. At a site on Barren Fork Creek, a 1- by 1-m infiltration plot was constructed and an infiltration experiment was performed using sequentially introduced solutes including P (the constituent of regulatory interest), Rhodamine-WT (Rh-WT, a visual tracer), and Cl− (an electrical tracer). The solute transport was measured ...


Wheat Strip Effects On Microbial Transport Following Variable Applications Of Beef Cattle Manure, Lisa M. Durso, John E. Gilley, David B. Marx, Chance A. Thayer, Bryan L. Woodbury Apr 2019

Wheat Strip Effects On Microbial Transport Following Variable Applications Of Beef Cattle Manure, Lisa M. Durso, John E. Gilley, David B. Marx, Chance A. Thayer, Bryan L. Woodbury

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Vegetative filter strips (VFS) consisting of perennial vegetation have been successfully used to reduce the transport of contaminants in runoff from land application areas. The effectiveness of a winter wheat strip, which may be more acceptable to producers, in reducing microbial transport was examined in this study. A 1.4 m wheat strip was used to allow direct comparison with experimental results obtained in previous studies. Beef cattle manure was applied to 0.75 m wide by 4.0 m long plots established on an Aksarben silty clay loam located in southeast Nebraska. Manure was added at rates required to ...


Deficit Irrigation Management Of Maize In The High Plains Aquifer Region: A Review, Daran Rudnick, Sibel Irmak, C. West, J.L. Chavez, I. Kisekka, T.H. Marek, J.P. Schneekloth, D. Mitchell Mccallister, V. Sharma, K. Djaman, J. Aguilar, M.E. Schipanski, D.H. Rogers, A. Schlegel Feb 2019

Deficit Irrigation Management Of Maize In The High Plains Aquifer Region: A Review, Daran Rudnick, Sibel Irmak, C. West, J.L. Chavez, I. Kisekka, T.H. Marek, J.P. Schneekloth, D. Mitchell Mccallister, V. Sharma, K. Djaman, J. Aguilar, M.E. Schipanski, D.H. Rogers, A. Schlegel

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Irrigated agriculture is a major economic contributor of the High Plains Region and it primarily relies on the High Plains Aquifer as a source of water. Over time, areas of the High Plains Aquifer have experienced drawdowns limiting its ability to supply sufficient water to sustain fully irrigated crop production. This among other reasons, including variable climatic factors and differences in state water policy, has resulted in some areas adopting and practicing deficit irrigation management. Considerable research has been conducted across the High Plains Aquifer region to identify locally appropriate deficit irrigation strategies. This review summarizes and discusses research conducted ...


Biomaterial Substrate Modifications That Influence Cell-Material Interactions To Prime Cellular Responses To Nonviral Gene Delivery, Amy Mantz, Angela K. Pannier Feb 2019

Biomaterial Substrate Modifications That Influence Cell-Material Interactions To Prime Cellular Responses To Nonviral Gene Delivery, Amy Mantz, Angela K. Pannier

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Gene delivery is the transfer of exogenous genetic material into somatic cells to modify their gene expression, with applications including tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, sensors and diagnostics, and gene therapy. Viral vectors are considered the most effective system to deliver nucleic acids, yet safety concerns and many other disadvantages have resulted in investigations into an alternative option, i.e. nonviral gene delivery. Chemical nonviral gene delivery is typically accomplished by electrostatically complexing cationic lipids or polymers with negatively charged nucleic acids. Unfortunately, nonviral gene delivery suffers from low efficiency due to barriers that impede transfection success, including intracellular processes such ...


Narrow Grass Hedge Effects On Microbial Transport Following Variable Applications Of Beef Cattle Manure, Lisa M. Durso, John E. Gilley, Dave B. Marx, Brian L. Woodbury Jan 2019

Narrow Grass Hedge Effects On Microbial Transport Following Variable Applications Of Beef Cattle Manure, Lisa M. Durso, John E. Gilley, Dave B. Marx, Brian L. Woodbury

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The effectiveness of a 1.4 m wide grass hedge in reducing microbial transport following manure application was examined in this study. Beef cattle manure was applied to 0.75 m wide by 4.0 m long plots established on an Aksarben silty clay loam located in southeast Nebraska. Manure was added at rates required to meet none or the 1-, 2-, or 4-year nitrogen requirements for corn. The transport of phages, total coliforms, E. coli, and enterococci was measured for three 30 min simulated rainfall events, which were separated by approximately 24 h intervals. The narrow grass hedge reduced ...


Actual Evapotranspiration And Crop Coefficients Of Irrigated Lowland Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Under Semiarid Climate, Koffi Djaman, Daran R. Rudnick, Yonnelle D. Moukoumbi, Abdoulaye Sow, Suat Irmak Jan 2019

Actual Evapotranspiration And Crop Coefficients Of Irrigated Lowland Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Under Semiarid Climate, Koffi Djaman, Daran R. Rudnick, Yonnelle D. Moukoumbi, Abdoulaye Sow, Suat Irmak

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Lowland irrigated rice is the predominant crop produced in the Senegal River Valley characterized by very low annual rainfall, high temperatures, and low relative humidity. The Senegal River is shared by Senegal, Mali, Mauritania, and Guinea, and serves as the main source of irrigation water for the adopted double rice cropping system. Developing appropriate resource management strategies might be the key factor for the sustainability of rice production in the region. This study aims to estimate rice seasonal evapotranspiration (ETa), irrigation water requirement, and to develop rice growth stage specific crop coefficients (Kc) to improve rice water productivity. Field experiments ...


Nucleic Acid Delivery To Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Review Of Nonviral Methods And Applications, Andrew Hamann, Albert Nguyen, Angela K. Pannier Jan 2019

Nucleic Acid Delivery To Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Review Of Nonviral Methods And Applications, Andrew Hamann, Albert Nguyen, Angela K. Pannier

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can be isolated and expanded from many tissues, and are being investigated for use in cell therapies. Though MSC therapies have demonstrated some success, none have been FDA approved for clinical use. MSCs lose stemness ex vivo, decreasing therapeutic potential, and face additional barriers in vivo, decreasing therapeutic efficacy. Culture optimization and genetic modification of MSCs can overcome these barriers. Viral transduction is efficient, but limited by safety concerns related to mutagenicity of integrating viral vectors and potential immunogenicity of viral antigens. Nonviral delivery methods are safer, though limited by ...


Fuzzy Control System For Variable Rate Irrigation Using Remote Sensing, Willians Ribeiro Mendes, Fábio Meneghetti U. Araújo, Ritaban Dutta, Derek M. Heeren Jan 2019

Fuzzy Control System For Variable Rate Irrigation Using Remote Sensing, Willians Ribeiro Mendes, Fábio Meneghetti U. Araújo, Ritaban Dutta, Derek M. Heeren

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Variable rate irrigation (VRI) is the capacity to spatially vary the depth of water application in a field to handle different types of soils, crops, and other conditions. Precise management zones must be developed to efficiently apply variable rate technologies. However, there is no universal method to determine management zones. Using speed control maps for the central pivot is one option. Thus, this study aims to develop an intelligent fuzzy inference system based on precision irrigation knowledge, i.e., a system that can create prescriptive maps to control the rotation speed of the central pivot. Satellite images are used in ...


Design Of Plant Protection Uav Variable Spray System Based On Neural Networks, Sheng Wen, Quanyong Zhang, Xuanchun Yin, Yubin Lan, Jiantao Zhang, Yufeng Ge Jan 2019

Design Of Plant Protection Uav Variable Spray System Based On Neural Networks, Sheng Wen, Quanyong Zhang, Xuanchun Yin, Yubin Lan, Jiantao Zhang, Yufeng Ge

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have rapidly emerged as a new technology in the fields of plant protection and pest control in China. Based on existing variable spray research, a plant protection UAV variable spray system integrating neural network based decision making is designed. Using the existing data on plant protection UAV operations, combined with artificial neural network (ANN) technology, an error back propagation (BP) neural network model between the factors affecting droplet deposition is trained. The factors affecting droplet deposition include ambient temperature, ambient humidity, wind speed, flight speed, flight altitude, propeller pitch, nozzles pitch and prescription value. Subsequently ...


Free Polyethylenimine Enhances Substrate-Mediated Gene Delivery On Titanium Substrates Modified With Rgd-Functionalized Poly(Acrylic Acid) Brushes, Amy Mantz, Alice Rosenthal, Eric Farris, Tyler Kozisek, Eva Bittrich, Saghar Nazari, Eva Schubert, Mathias Schubert, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann, Angela K. Pannier Jan 2019

Free Polyethylenimine Enhances Substrate-Mediated Gene Delivery On Titanium Substrates Modified With Rgd-Functionalized Poly(Acrylic Acid) Brushes, Amy Mantz, Alice Rosenthal, Eric Farris, Tyler Kozisek, Eva Bittrich, Saghar Nazari, Eva Schubert, Mathias Schubert, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann, Angela K. Pannier

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Substrate mediated gene delivery (SMD) is a method of immobilizing DNA complexes to a substrate via covalent attachment or nonspecific adsorption, which allows for increased transgene expression with less DNA compared to traditional bolus delivery. It may also increase cells receptivity to transfection via cell-material interactions. Substrate modifications with poly(acrylic) acid (PAA) brushes may improve SMD by enhancing substrate interactions with DNA complexes via tailored surface chemistry and increasing cellular adhesion via moieties covalently bound to the brushes. Previously, we described a simple method to graft PAA brushes to Ti and further demonstrated conjugation of cell adhesion peptides (i ...


Water Effects On Optical Canopy Sensing For Late-Season Site-Specific Nitrogen Management Of Maize, Tsz Him Lo, Daran Rudnick, Brian Krienke, D. M. Heeren, Yufeng Ge, Tim M. Shaver Jan 2019

Water Effects On Optical Canopy Sensing For Late-Season Site-Specific Nitrogen Management Of Maize, Tsz Him Lo, Daran Rudnick, Brian Krienke, D. M. Heeren, Yufeng Ge, Tim M. Shaver

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The interpretation of optical canopy sensor readings for determining optimal rates of late-season site-specific nitrogen application to corn (Zea mays L.) can be complicated by spatially variable water sufficiency, which can also affect canopy size and/or pigmentation. In 2017 and 2018, corn following corn and corn following soybeans were subjected to irrigation×nitrogen fertilizer treatments in west central Nebraska, USA, to induce variable water sufficiency and variable nitrogen sufficiency. The vegetation index-sensor combinations investigated were the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized difference red edge index (NDRE), and the reflectance ratio of near infrared minus red edge over ...


Genetic Diversity And Population Structure Of A Camelina Sativa Spring Panel, Zinan Luo, Jordan Brock, John M. Dyer, Toni Kutchan, Daniel P. Schachtman, Megan Augustin, Yufeng Ge, Noah Fahlgren, Hussein Abdel-Haleem Jan 2019

Genetic Diversity And Population Structure Of A Camelina Sativa Spring Panel, Zinan Luo, Jordan Brock, John M. Dyer, Toni Kutchan, Daniel P. Schachtman, Megan Augustin, Yufeng Ge, Noah Fahlgren, Hussein Abdel-Haleem

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

There is a need to explore renewable alternatives (e.g., biofuels) that can produce energy sources to help reduce the reliance on fossil oils. In addition, the consumption of fossil oils adversely affects the environment and human health via the generation of waste water, greenhouse gases, and waste solids. Camelina sativa, originated from southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, is being re-embraced as an industrial oilseed crop due to its high seed oil content (36–47%) and high unsaturated fatty acid composition (>90%), which are suitable for jet fuel, biodiesel, high-value lubricants and animal feed. C. sativa’s agronomic advantages include ...


Economic Analysis Of Deficit Irrigation In Sugarcane Farming: Nchalo Estate, Chikwawa District, Malawi, Mavuto M. Banda, Derek M. Heeren, Derrel Martin, Francisco Munoz-Arriola, László G. Hayde Jan 2019

Economic Analysis Of Deficit Irrigation In Sugarcane Farming: Nchalo Estate, Chikwawa District, Malawi, Mavuto M. Banda, Derek M. Heeren, Derrel Martin, Francisco Munoz-Arriola, László G. Hayde

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Sustenance of the growing world population calls for increased agricultural production. However, this will have to be done while forecasts of water withdrawals on a global scale predict sharp increases in future demand to meet human needs. The inadequacy of irrigation water supplies has led to the need to consider deficit irrigation (DI) as a water saving strategy. DI is a deliberate under-application of water to growing crops.

In this study we carried out an economic analysis of DI in sugarcane farming with an aim of developing an understanding of the economic impact of various irrigation water management strategies. The ...


The Development Of The Infews-Er: A Virtual Resource Center For Transdisciplinary Graduate Student Training At The Nexus Of Food, Energy, And Water, Luis F. Rodriguez, Anna-Maria Marshall, Dan Cotton, Richard K. Koelsch, Jacek Koziel, Deanne Meyer, Dan Steward, Jill Heemstra, Anand Padmanabahn, John Classen, Nathan J. Meyer, Benjamin L. Ruddell, Sean M. Ryan, Ximing Cai, Emad Habib, Peter D. Saundry Jan 2019

The Development Of The Infews-Er: A Virtual Resource Center For Transdisciplinary Graduate Student Training At The Nexus Of Food, Energy, And Water, Luis F. Rodriguez, Anna-Maria Marshall, Dan Cotton, Richard K. Koelsch, Jacek Koziel, Deanne Meyer, Dan Steward, Jill Heemstra, Anand Padmanabahn, John Classen, Nathan J. Meyer, Benjamin L. Ruddell, Sean M. Ryan, Ximing Cai, Emad Habib, Peter D. Saundry

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Problems at the nexus of Food, Energy and Water Systems (FEWS) are among the most complex challenges we face. Spanning simple to complex temporal, geographic, social, and political framings, the questions raised at this nexus require multidisciplinary if not transdisciplinary approaches. Answers to these questions must draw from engineering, the physical and biological sciences, and the social sciences. Practical solutions depend upon a wide community of stakeholders, including industry, policymakers, and the general public. Yet there are many obstacles to working in a transdisciplinary environment: unfamiliar concepts, specialized terminology, and countless “blind” spots. Graduate education occurs in disciplinary ‘silos’, often ...