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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Parallel Direct Method For Finite Element Electromagnetic Computations Based On Domain Decomposition, Javad Moshfegh Nov 2019

A Parallel Direct Method For Finite Element Electromagnetic Computations Based On Domain Decomposition, Javad Moshfegh

Doctoral Dissertations

High performance parallel computing and direct (factorization-based) solution methods have been the two main trends in electromagnetic computations in recent years. When time-harmonic (frequency-domain) Maxwell's equation are directly discretized with the Finite Element Method (FEM) or other Partial Differential Equation (PDE) methods, the resulting linear system of equations is sparse and indefinite, thus harder to efficiently factorize serially or in parallel than alternative methods e.g. integral equation solutions, that result in dense linear systems. State-of-the-art sparse matrix direct solvers such as MUMPS and PARDISO don't scale favorably, have low parallel efficiency and high memory footprint. This work ...


Extreme Dynamics Of Nanomaterials Under High-Rate Mechanical Stimuli, Wanting Xie Oct 2019

Extreme Dynamics Of Nanomaterials Under High-Rate Mechanical Stimuli, Wanting Xie

Doctoral Dissertations

Nanomaterials demonstrate novel mechanical properties attributed to the extremely large interfacial area. At quasi-static rates, the interfacial interactions are crucial in mechanical behaviors, however, materials under extreme mechanical stimuli are rarely studied at nanoscale. With an advanced laser-induced projectile impact test, we perform supersonic impact of micro-projectiles on polymer films, multilayer graphene, carbon- based nanocomposites membranes as well as individual micro-fibers, to study the interface interactions in the high-rate regime, and develop a simplified model to characterize the ballistic performance of materials.


Residual Stress Models For Large Eddy Simulation Of Stratified Turbulent Flows, Felipe Augusto Ventura De Bragança Alves Oct 2019

Residual Stress Models For Large Eddy Simulation Of Stratified Turbulent Flows, Felipe Augusto Ventura De Bragança Alves

Doctoral Dissertations

The residual stresses and scalar fluxes are required to close the momentum and scalar transport equations in simulations of turbulence that are not fully resolved in space.

In stratified turbulence, the stress and fluxes are statistically anisotropic unless the smallest resolved length scale is smaller than the Ozmidov scale and the buoyancy Reynolds number is sufficiently high for there to exist a range of scales that is statistically isotropic.

In this work, a tensorial basis set is derived analytically that potentially contains sufficient information about the anisotropic interaction between resolved and residual scales.

The residual stress tensor is evaluated by ...


Top-Down And Bottom-Up Fabrication Of Key Components In Miniature Energy Storage Devices, Wenhao Li Oct 2019

Top-Down And Bottom-Up Fabrication Of Key Components In Miniature Energy Storage Devices, Wenhao Li

Doctoral Dissertations

The advent of miniature electronic devices demands power sources of commensurate form factors. This spurs the research of micro energy storage devices, e.g., 3D microbatteries. A 3D microbattery contains nonplanar microelectrodes with high aspect ratio and high surface area, separated by a nanoscale electrolyte. The device takes up a total volume as small as 10 mm3, allowing it to serve on a chip and to provide power in-situ. The marriage of nanotechnology and electrochemical energy storage makes microbattery research a fascinating field with both scientific excitement and application prospect. However, successful fabrication of well-functioned key components and the ...


Software-Defined Infrastructure For Iot-Based Energy Systems, Stephen Lee Oct 2019

Software-Defined Infrastructure For Iot-Based Energy Systems, Stephen Lee

Doctoral Dissertations

Internet of Things (IoT) devices are becoming an essential part of our everyday lives. These physical devices are connected to the internet and can measure or control the environment around us. Further, IoT devices are increasingly being used to monitor buildings, farms, health, and transportation. As these connected devices become more pervasive, these devices will generate vast amounts of data that can be used to gain insights and build intelligence into the system. At the same time, large-scale deployment of these devices will raise new challenges in efficiently managing and controlling them.

In this thesis, I argue that the IoT ...


Modeling And Simulation Of Driven Nanopatterning Of Bulk-Material And Thin-Film Surfaces, Ashish Kumar Oct 2019

Modeling And Simulation Of Driven Nanopatterning Of Bulk-Material And Thin-Film Surfaces, Ashish Kumar

Doctoral Dissertations

Material nanostructures such as nanowires, quantum dots, and nanorings have a wide variety of applications in electronic and photonic devices among numerous others. Assembling uniformly arranged and consistently sized nanostructure patterns on solid material surfaces is a major challenge for nanotechnology. This dissertation focuses on developing predictive models capable of simulation and analysis of such nanopattern formation on bulk material and strained thin film surfaces.

Single-layer atomic clusters (islands) of sizes larger than a critical size on crystalline conducting substrates undergo morphological instabilities when driven by an externally applied electric field or thermal gradient. We have conducted a systematic and ...


Amorphous-Crystalline Brush Block Copolymers: Phase Behavior, Rheology And Composite Design, Gayathri Kopanati Oct 2019

Amorphous-Crystalline Brush Block Copolymers: Phase Behavior, Rheology And Composite Design, Gayathri Kopanati

Doctoral Dissertations

Bottlebrush block copolymers are polymers with chemically distinct polymer side chains grafted onto a common backbone. The unique architecture induced properties make these materials attractive for applications such as photonic materials, stimuli responsive actuators and drug delivery vehicles to name a few. This dissertation primarily investigates the phase transitions and rheological behavior of amorphous-crystalline bottlebrush brush block copolymers and their composites. The temperature induced phase behavior is investigated using time resolved synchrotron X-ray source. Irrespective of volume fraction and backbone length, the samples display strong segregation even at high temperatures (200 °C) and there is no accessible order-disorder transition in ...


Function And Dissipation In Finite State Automata - From Computing To Intelligence And Back, Natesh Ganesh Oct 2019

Function And Dissipation In Finite State Automata - From Computing To Intelligence And Back, Natesh Ganesh

Doctoral Dissertations

Society has benefited from the technological revolution and the tremendous growth in computing powered by Moore's law. However, we are fast approaching the ultimate physical limits in terms of both device sizes and the associated energy dissipation. It is important to characterize these limits in a physically grounded and implementation-agnostic manner, in order to capture the fundamental energy dissipation costs associated with performing computing operations with classical information in nano-scale quantum systems. It is also necessary to identify and understand the effect of quantum in-distinguishability, noise, and device variability on these dissipation limits. Identifying these parameters is crucial to ...


Polymeric Impulsive Actuation Mechanisms: Development, Characterization, And Modeling, Yongjin Kim Oct 2019

Polymeric Impulsive Actuation Mechanisms: Development, Characterization, And Modeling, Yongjin Kim

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent advances in the field of biomedical and life-sciences are increasingly demanding more life-like actuation with higher degrees of freedom in motion at small scales. Many researchers have developed various solutions to satisfy these emerging requirements. In many cases, new solutions are made possible with the development of novel polymeric actuators. Advances in polymeric actuation not only addressed problems concerning low degree of freedom in motion, large system size, and bio-incompatibility associated with conventional actuators, but also led to the discovery of novel applications, which were previously unattainable with conventional engineered systems.

This dissertation focuses on developing novel actuation mechanisms ...


Designing Ion-Containing Polymers With Controlled Structure And Dynamics, Joshua Enokida Oct 2019

Designing Ion-Containing Polymers With Controlled Structure And Dynamics, Joshua Enokida

Doctoral Dissertations

Ion-containing polymers are a unique class of materials for which strong electrostatic interactions dictate physical properties. By altering molecular parameters, such as the backbone chemical structure, the ion content, and the ion-pair identity, the structure and dynamics of these polymers can be altered. Further investigation of the molecular parameters that govern their structure-property relationships is critical for the future development of these polymeric materials. Particularly, the incorporation of ammonium-based counterions into these polymers offers a facile method to tune their electrostatic interactions and hydrophobicity. Applying this concept, a bulky dimethyloctylammonium (DMOA) counterion was used to modify the organic solubility of ...


Double-Network Materials Via Frontal Polymerization & Supercritical Co2 Processing, Matthew Joseph Lampe Jul 2019

Double-Network Materials Via Frontal Polymerization & Supercritical Co2 Processing, Matthew Joseph Lampe

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation presents work focused on producing materials in non-equilibrium states by taking advantage of novel processing techniques. First, epoxy-based resins which can undergo radically promoted, cationic, thermal, frontal polymerization are investigated for their potential use as adhesives. These resins are found to be capable of sustaining propagating polymerization fronts between several different substrate materials, resulting in high levels of adhesion in some cases. In addition, a similar frontal resin was developed that can undergo sequential gelation and frontal polymerization. The gels are formed by radically crosslinking acrylate monomers within the epoxy resin. These gels can then be manipulated, and ...


Flow-Induced Oscillations In Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Daniel Carlson Jul 2019

Flow-Induced Oscillations In Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Daniel Carlson

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this thesis is to experimentally study the structural dynamics, wake interaction, and fluid forces on the multiple-degree of freedom systems typical of floating wind turbines. Vortex--surface alignment about flexibly-mounted prisms is studied to investigate the response of barges and semi-submersible hulls, and new results pertaining to the galloping response kink for a prism with dual inline--crossflow resonance is presented. Flow--induced oscillations of a spar model free to rotate in 3D space is replicated and observed as 2D figure--eight orbits about the center of the spar. Methods to suppress the flow from exciting the spar are proposed. The ...


Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli Jul 2019

Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli

Doctoral Dissertations

Known in the building industry throughout the world, Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a massive timber building material with outstanding structural, fire, and seismic properties. CLT is a cost-competitive, sustainable construction material is a good candidate as a substitute material for concrete, masonry, and steel, in mid-rise and high-rise buildings. CLT is perpendicular layers of dimensional lumbers usually laminated together and forming a massive structural panel. This dissertation explores the viability of utilizing Massachusetts grown Eastern Hemlock and Eastern White Pine in CLT panels as pure or in conjunction with other high-value wood products. 59% of Massachusetts’ lands are covered ...


Quantitative Probing Of Vacancies And Ions Dynamics In Electroactive Oxide Materials, Jiaxin Zhu Mar 2019

Quantitative Probing Of Vacancies And Ions Dynamics In Electroactive Oxide Materials, Jiaxin Zhu

Doctoral Dissertations

Oxygen vacancy and ion dynamics in functional oxides are critical factors influencing electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity of oxides assemblies. The recent advancements in deposition and fabrication of oxide heterostructured films with atomic-level precision has led to discovery of intriguing physical properties and new artificial materials. While still under debate, researchers most often attribute these observed behaviors to unique oxygen vacancy distributions in the substrate near heterointerfaces. In electroactive oxides devices such as solid oxide cells (SOCs), oxygen vacancy and ion transport at the triple-phase boundary determines the performance of the device. This complex process motivates numerous remaining questions regarding ...


Probing Quantized Excitations And Many-Body Correlations In Transition Metal Dichalcogenides With Optical Spectroscopy, Shao-Yu Chen Mar 2019

Probing Quantized Excitations And Many-Body Correlations In Transition Metal Dichalcogenides With Optical Spectroscopy, Shao-Yu Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted great interests in recent years due to their physical properties manifested in different polytypes: Hexagonal(H)-TMDC,which is semiconducting, exhibits strong Coulomb interaction and intriguing valleytronic properties; distorted octahedral(T’)-TMDC,which is semi-metallic, is predicted to exhibit rich nontrivial topological physics. In this dissertation,we employ the polarization-resolved micron-Raman/PL spectroscopy to investigate the optical properties of the atomic layer of several polytypes of TMDC.

In the first part for polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy, we study the lattice vibration of both H and T’-TMDC, providing a thorough understanding of the polymorphism ...


Synthesis And Molecular Transport Studies In Zeolites And Nanoporous Membranes, Vivek Vattipalli Mar 2019

Synthesis And Molecular Transport Studies In Zeolites And Nanoporous Membranes, Vivek Vattipalli

Doctoral Dissertations

The advent of nanoporous materials such as zeolites and nanoporous membranes has provided cost-effective solutions to some of the most pressing problems of the 20th century such as the conversion of crude oil into fuels and valuable chemicals. Hierarchical zeolites and mesoporous inorganic membranes are showing great promise in addressing new problems such as the conversion of biomass into value-added chemicals and development of energy-efficient separation processes. The synthesis and fundamental aspects of molecular transport in these new materials with hierarchical porosities need to be better understood in order to rationally develop them for these desired applications.

Pore narrowing ...


Insar Simulations For Swot And Dual Frequency Processing For Topographic Measurements, Gerard Masalias Huguet Mar 2019

Insar Simulations For Swot And Dual Frequency Processing For Topographic Measurements, Gerard Masalias Huguet

Masters Theses

In Earth remote sensing precise characterization of the backscatter coefficient is important to extract valuable information about the observed target. A system that eliminates platform motion during near-nadir airborne observations is presented in this thesis, showing an improvement on the accuracy of measurements for a Ka- band scatterometer previously developed at Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL). These very same results are used to simulate the reflectivity of such targets as seen from a spaceborne radar and estimate height errors based on mission-specific geometry. Finally, data collected from a dual-frequency airborne interferometer com- prised by the Ka-band system and an S-band ...


Source Data For "Tuning Charge Transport Dynamics Via Clustering Of Doping In Organic Semiconductor Thin Films", Connor J. Boyle, Meenakshi Upadhyaya, Dhandapani Venkataraman, Zlatan Aksamija, Michael Lu-Díaz Jan 2019

Source Data For "Tuning Charge Transport Dynamics Via Clustering Of Doping In Organic Semiconductor Thin Films", Connor J. Boyle, Meenakshi Upadhyaya, Dhandapani Venkataraman, Zlatan Aksamija, Michael Lu-Díaz

Data and Datasets

No abstract provided.