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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Engineering Nanomaterials For Imaging And Therapy Of Bacteria And Biofilm-Associated Infections, Akash Gupta Oct 2019

Engineering Nanomaterials For Imaging And Therapy Of Bacteria And Biofilm-Associated Infections, Akash Gupta

Doctoral Dissertations

Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria pose a serious global burden of mortality, causing thousands of deaths each year. The “superbug” risk is further exacerbated by chronic infections generated from antibiotic-resistant biofilms that are highly resistant to available treatments. Synthetic macromolecules such as polymers and nanoparticles have emerged as promising antimicrobials. Moreover, ability to modulate nanomaterial interaction with bacterial cellular systems plays a pivotal role in improving the efficacy of the strategy.

In the initial studies on engineering nanoparticle surface chemistry, I investigated the role played by surface ligands in determining the antimicrobial activity of the nanoparticles. In further study ...


Three Essays On Data-Driven Optimization For Scheduling In Manufacturing And Healthcare, Ekin Koker Oct 2019

Three Essays On Data-Driven Optimization For Scheduling In Manufacturing And Healthcare, Ekin Koker

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on data-driven optimization for scheduling in manufacturing and healthcare. In Chapter 1, we briefly introduce the optimization problems tackled in these essays. The first of these essays deals with machine scheduling problems. In Chapter 2, we compare the effectiveness of direct positional variables against relative positional variables computationally in a variety of machine scheduling problems and we present our results. The second essay deals with a scheduling problem in healthcare: the team primary care practice. In Chapter 3, we build upon the two-stage stochastic integer programming model introduced by Alvarez Oh (2015) to solve ...


Combining Human Factors And Data Science Methods To Evaluate The Use Of Free Text Communication Orders In Electronic Health Records, Swaminathan Kandaswamy Oct 2019

Combining Human Factors And Data Science Methods To Evaluate The Use Of Free Text Communication Orders In Electronic Health Records, Swaminathan Kandaswamy

Doctoral Dissertations

Medication errors are a leading cause of death in the United States. Electronic Health Records (EHR) along with Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) are considered promising ways to reduce these errors. However, EHR systems have not eliminated medication errors. Moreover, in some cases they have facilitated errors due to issues such as poor usability and negative effects on clinical workflows. The use of unexpected free text within a CPOE system can serve as a marker that the system does not adequately support clinical workflow. Prior studies have looked at the use of free text within medication orders, but the inclusion ...


Markov Decision Process Approach To Strategize National Breast Cancer Screening Policy In Data-Limited Settings, Vijeta Deshpande Oct 2019

Markov Decision Process Approach To Strategize National Breast Cancer Screening Policy In Data-Limited Settings, Vijeta Deshpande

Masters Theses

Early diagnosis is a promising strategy to reduce premature mortalities and for optimal use of resources. But the absence of mathematical models specific to the data settings in LMIC’s impedes the construction of economic analysis necessary for decision-makers in the development of cancer control programs. This thesis presents a new methodology for parameterizing the natural history model of breast cancer based on data availabilities in low and middle income countries, and formulation of a control optimization problem to find the optimal screening schedule for mammography screening, solved using dynamic programming. As harms and benefits are known to increase with ...


A Computational Simulation Model For Predicting Infectious Disease Spread Using The Evolving Contact Network Algorithm, Buyannemekh Munkhbat Jul 2019

A Computational Simulation Model For Predicting Infectious Disease Spread Using The Evolving Contact Network Algorithm, Buyannemekh Munkhbat

Masters Theses

Commonly used simulation models for predicting outbreaks of re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) take an individual-level or a population-level approach to modeling contact dynamics. These approaches are a trade-off between the ability to incorporate individual-level dynamics and computational efficiency. Agent-based network models (ABNM) use an individual-level approach by simulating the entire population and its contact structure, which increases the ability of adding detailed individual-level characteristics. However, as this method is computationally expensive, ABNMs use scaled-down versions of the full population, which are unsuitable for low prevalence diseases as the number of infected cases would become negligible during scaling-down. Compartmental models use ...


The Core Of Social Network Modeling: Industrial Engineering., Shannon C. Roberts, Chaitra Gopalappa, Nazanin Nazanin Jan 2019

The Core Of Social Network Modeling: Industrial Engineering., Shannon C. Roberts, Chaitra Gopalappa, Nazanin Nazanin

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

Networks are abound in our everyday lives, from disaster response networks to cellular networks to social networks. In this workshop, we will introduce the different types of networks and how Industrial Engineering is used to model these networks. Next, we will describe current social network modeling research done at UMass. Finally, we will delve into hands-on activities that include social network analysis, such as the clustering of people into groups, and modeling of the spread of ideas in a social network, such as how tweets spread on Twitter.