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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Predictive Simulation Of Human Movement And Applications To Assistive Device Design And Control, Vinh Nguyen Nov 2019

Predictive Simulation Of Human Movement And Applications To Assistive Device Design And Control, Vinh Nguyen

Doctoral Dissertations

Predictive simulation based on dynamic optimization using musculoskeletal models is a powerful approach for studying biomechanics of human gait. Predictive simulation can be used for a variety of applications from designing assistive devices to testing theories of motor controls. However, one of the challenges in formulating the predictive dynamic optimization problem is that the cost function, which represents the underlying goal of the walking task (e.g., minimal energy consumption) is generally unknown and is assumed a priori. While different studies used different cost functions, the qualities of the gaits with those cost functions were often not provided. Therefore, this ...


Residual Stress Models For Large Eddy Simulation Of Stratified Turbulent Flows, Felipe Augusto Ventura De Bragança Alves Oct 2019

Residual Stress Models For Large Eddy Simulation Of Stratified Turbulent Flows, Felipe Augusto Ventura De Bragança Alves

Doctoral Dissertations

The residual stresses and scalar fluxes are required to close the momentum and scalar transport equations in simulations of turbulence that are not fully resolved in space.

In stratified turbulence, the stress and fluxes are statistically anisotropic unless the smallest resolved length scale is smaller than the Ozmidov scale and the buoyancy Reynolds number is sufficiently high for there to exist a range of scales that is statistically isotropic.

In this work, a tensorial basis set is derived analytically that potentially contains sufficient information about the anisotropic interaction between resolved and residual scales.

The residual stress tensor is evaluated by ...


Structural Control Of Offshore Wind Turbines Using Passive And Semi-Active Control, Semyung Park Oct 2019

Structural Control Of Offshore Wind Turbines Using Passive And Semi-Active Control, Semyung Park

Doctoral Dissertations

Offshore wind energy has the potential to generate substantial electricity production compared to onshore locations, due to the high-quality wind resource. Offshore wind turbines must endure severe offshore environmental conditions and be cost effective, in order to be sustainable. As a result, load mitigation becomes crucial in successfully enabling deployment of offshore wind turbines. A direct approach to reduce loads in offshore wind turbines is the application of structural control techniques. So far, the application of structural control techniques to offshore wind turbines has shown to be effective in reducing fatigue and extreme loads of turbine structures. However, the majority ...


Three Essays On Data-Driven Optimization For Scheduling In Manufacturing And Healthcare, Ekin Koker Oct 2019

Three Essays On Data-Driven Optimization For Scheduling In Manufacturing And Healthcare, Ekin Koker

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on data-driven optimization for scheduling in manufacturing and healthcare. In Chapter 1, we briefly introduce the optimization problems tackled in these essays. The first of these essays deals with machine scheduling problems. In Chapter 2, we compare the effectiveness of direct positional variables against relative positional variables computationally in a variety of machine scheduling problems and we present our results. The second essay deals with a scheduling problem in healthcare: the team primary care practice. In Chapter 3, we build upon the two-stage stochastic integer programming model introduced by Alvarez Oh (2015) to solve ...


Polymeric Impulsive Actuation Mechanisms: Development, Characterization, And Modeling, Yongjin Kim Oct 2019

Polymeric Impulsive Actuation Mechanisms: Development, Characterization, And Modeling, Yongjin Kim

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent advances in the field of biomedical and life-sciences are increasingly demanding more life-like actuation with higher degrees of freedom in motion at small scales. Many researchers have developed various solutions to satisfy these emerging requirements. In many cases, new solutions are made possible with the development of novel polymeric actuators. Advances in polymeric actuation not only addressed problems concerning low degree of freedom in motion, large system size, and bio-incompatibility associated with conventional actuators, but also led to the discovery of novel applications, which were previously unattainable with conventional engineered systems.

This dissertation focuses on developing novel actuation mechanisms ...


Cold Spray Deposition Of Polymers – Characterization And Optimization, Zahra Khalkhali Oct 2019

Cold Spray Deposition Of Polymers – Characterization And Optimization, Zahra Khalkhali

Doctoral Dissertations

Abstract

The use of a cool supersonic gas flow to accelerate solid particles to form bonding upon impact on a substrate is known as cold spray deposition. The kinetic energy of the impacting particle dissipates resulting in the thermal softening and plastic deformation of the particle which leads to a strong bonding between the particle and the surface. The cold spray process has been commercialized for some metallic materials, but further research is required to unlock the exciting potential material properties possible with polymeric particles. In this research, a laboratory-scale cold spray system with the capability of accelerating 10 – 100µm ...


Calculation Of Scalar Isosurface Area And Applications, Kedar Prashant Shete Oct 2019

Calculation Of Scalar Isosurface Area And Applications, Kedar Prashant Shete

Masters Theses

The problem of calculating iso-surface statistics in turbulent flows is interesting for a number of reasons, some of them being combustion modeling, entrainment through turbulent/non-turbulent interfaces, calculating mass flux through iso-scalar surfaces and mapping of scalar fields. A fundamental effect of fuid turbulence is to wrinkle scalar iso-surfaces. A review of the literature shows that iso-surface calculations have primarily been done with geometric methods, which have challenges when used to calculate surfaces that have high complexity, such as in turbulent flows. In this thesis, we propose an alternative integral method and test it against analytical solutions. We present a ...


The Promise Of Vr Headsets: Validation Of A Virtual Reality Headset-Based Driving Simulator For Measuring Drivers’ Hazard Anticipation Performance, Ganesh Pai Mangalore Oct 2019

The Promise Of Vr Headsets: Validation Of A Virtual Reality Headset-Based Driving Simulator For Measuring Drivers’ Hazard Anticipation Performance, Ganesh Pai Mangalore

Masters Theses

The objective of the current study is to evaluate the use of virtual reality (VR) headsets to measure driving performance. This is desirable because they are several orders of magnitude less expensive and, if validated, could greatly extend the powers of simulation. Out of several possible measures of performance that could be considered for evaluating VR headsets, the current study specifically examines drivers’ latent hazard anticipation behavior both because it has been linked to crashes and because it has been shown to be significantly poorer in young drivers compared to their experienced counterparts in traditional driving simulators and in open ...


Topology Network Optimization Of Facility Planning And Design Problems, Ravi Ratan Raj Monga Oct 2019

Topology Network Optimization Of Facility Planning And Design Problems, Ravi Ratan Raj Monga

Masters Theses

The research attempts to provide a graphical theory-based approach to solve the facility layout problem. Which has generally been approached using Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) in the past, an algebraic method. It is a very complex problem and is part of the NP-Hard optimization class, because of the nonlinear quadratic objective function and (0,1) binary variables. The research is divided into three phases which together provide an optimal facility layout, block plan solution consisting of MHS (material handling solution) projected onto the block plan. In phase one, we solve for the position of departments in a facility based on ...


On The Fuel Spray Applications Of Multi-Phase Eulerian Cfd Techniques, Gabriel Lev Jacobsohn Oct 2019

On The Fuel Spray Applications Of Multi-Phase Eulerian Cfd Techniques, Gabriel Lev Jacobsohn

Masters Theses

Eulerian-Eulerian Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques continue to show promise for characterizing the internal flow and near-field spray for various fuel injection systems. These regions are difficult to observe experimentally, and simulations of such regions are limited by computational expense or reliance on empiricism using other methods. The physics governing spray atomization are first introduced. Impinging jet sprays and Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) are selected as applications, and modern computational/experimental approaches to their study are reviewed. Two in-house CFD solvers are described and subsequently applied in several case studies. Accurate prediction of the liquid distribution in a like-doublet impinging ...


Optical-Fiber-Based Laser-Induced Cavitation For Dynamic Mechanical Characterization Of Soft Materials, Qian Feng Oct 2019

Optical-Fiber-Based Laser-Induced Cavitation For Dynamic Mechanical Characterization Of Soft Materials, Qian Feng

Masters Theses

In the laser-induced cavitation (LIC) technique, a vapor-gas cavity is generated in water, or a soft material by focusing an intense laser pulse into the sample. The high-strain-rate mechanical properties of these samples can be investigated through a real-time size measurement of the expanding cavity bubble. Although this LIC technique has been applied to multiple research fields such as mechanical, biological and medical areas. It is possible to simplify and improve this LIC method by introducing optical-fibers. In this approach, we propose to employ an optical-fiber to deliver the intense laser pulse to an arbitrary position of an optical opaque ...


Computational Fluid Dynamics Models Of Electromagnetic Levitation Experiments In Reduced Gravity, Gwendolyn Bracker Oct 2019

Computational Fluid Dynamics Models Of Electromagnetic Levitation Experiments In Reduced Gravity, Gwendolyn Bracker

Masters Theses

Electromagnetic levitation experiments provide a powerful tool that allows for the study of nucleation, solidification and growth in a containerless processing environment. Containerless processing allows for the study of reactive melts at elevated temperatures without chemical interactions or contamination from a container. Further, by removing the interface between the liquid and its container, this processing technique allows for greater access to the undercooled region for solidification studies. However, in these experiments it is important to understand the magnetohydrodynamic flow within the sample and the effects that this fluid flow has on the experiment.

A recent solidification study found that aluminum-nickel ...


Advanced Virtual Reality Headset Based Training To Improve Young Drivers’ Latent Hazard Anticipation Ability, Ravi Agrawal Oct 2019

Advanced Virtual Reality Headset Based Training To Improve Young Drivers’ Latent Hazard Anticipation Ability, Ravi Agrawal

Masters Theses

Driving safety among young novice driver is one of the largest concern in the transportation domain. Many Paper-based or PC- based training program have been developed over the years to train the young novice driver to improve their driving skills (Hazard Anticipation). This training programs does help young novice driver to improve their situational awareness and so the hazard anticipation skills. But, there is one common problem with most of the currently available training programs. They are not very immersive, because such training program mostly provide plain view of the training scenario’s along with some description about the scenario ...


Flow-Induced Oscillations In Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Daniel Carlson Jul 2019

Flow-Induced Oscillations In Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Daniel Carlson

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this thesis is to experimentally study the structural dynamics, wake interaction, and fluid forces on the multiple-degree of freedom systems typical of floating wind turbines. Vortex--surface alignment about flexibly-mounted prisms is studied to investigate the response of barges and semi-submersible hulls, and new results pertaining to the galloping response kink for a prism with dual inline--crossflow resonance is presented. Flow--induced oscillations of a spar model free to rotate in 3D space is replicated and observed as 2D figure--eight orbits about the center of the spar. Methods to suppress the flow from exciting the spar are proposed. The ...


Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panagiotis Pantidis Jul 2019

Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panagiotis Pantidis

Doctoral Dissertations

Structural systems are potentially subjected to damage initiating scenarios throughout the course of their service time. Depending on the nature and extent of the damaging event, they may experience significant reduction or even complete loss of their mechanical performance. This dissertation delves into the mechanics of structural systems under the notion of missing members from their domain, investigating types of structural systems: a) multi-story steel framed buildings, and b) materials with a truss-lattice microstructure.

Part I of the dissertation investigates the performance of multi-story steel framed buildings under a column removal scenario, developing an analytical framework for their quasi-static robustness ...


Forecasting The Cost Of Electricity Generated By Offshore Wind Turbines, Timothy Costa Jul 2019

Forecasting The Cost Of Electricity Generated By Offshore Wind Turbines, Timothy Costa

Masters Theses

To impede the progress of climate change, many policy makers are considering avenues to decarbonize electricity production. In addition to decarbonization, policy makers must consider how the cost of electricity will impact various stakeholders, balancing cost and social benefits. Offshore wind farms have the potential to produce affordable, carbon-free electricity, but they are a relatively new technology. The relative juvenescence of offshore wind lends itself to an uncertain future, regarding production costs. In this thesis, we seek to understand cost drivers behind offshore wind electricity by analyzing historic trends in offshore wind levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) through learning curves ...


A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana Mar 2019

A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana

Doctoral Dissertations

Floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) hold great potential for the renewable energy industry, but capital costs remain high. In efforts to increase FOWT substructure efficiency and reduce costs, this thesis investigates a novel multiline anchor concept in which FOWTs share anchors instead of being moored separately. The goal of this thesis is to evaluate the force dynamics, design, and potential cost reduction of the system. Anchor forces are simulated using the NREL 5 MW reference turbine and OC4-DeepCwind semisubmersible platform, and multiline anchor force is computed as the vector sum of the contributing mooring line tensions.

The use of a ...


Ammonia Production From A Non-Grid Connected Floating Offshore Wind-Farm: A System-Level Techno-Economic Review, Vismay V. Parmar Mar 2019

Ammonia Production From A Non-Grid Connected Floating Offshore Wind-Farm: A System-Level Techno-Economic Review, Vismay V. Parmar

Masters Theses

According to U.S. Department of Energy, offshore wind energy has the potential to generate 7,200 TWh of energy annually, which is nearly twice the current annual energy consumption in the United States. With technical advances in the offshore wind industry, particularly in the floating platforms, windfarms are pushing further into the ocean. This creates new engineering challenges for transmission of energy from offshore site to onshore. One possible solution is to convert the energy produced into chemical energy of ammonia, which was investigated by Dr. Eric Morgan. In his doctoral dissertation, he assessed the technical requirements and economics ...