Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 20 of 20

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Nineteenth-Century Tides In The Gulf Of Maine And Implications For Secular Trends, Richard D. Ray, Stefan A. Talke Oct 2019

Nineteenth-Century Tides In The Gulf Of Maine And Implications For Secular Trends, Richard D. Ray, Stefan A. Talke

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Since the early twentieth century, the amplitudes of tidal constituents in the Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy display clear secular trends that are among the largest anywhere observed for a regional body of water. The M2 amplitude at Eastport, Maine, increased at a rate of 14.1 ± 1.2 cm per century until it temporarily dropped during 1980–1990, apparently in response to changes in the wider North Atlantic. Annual tidal analyses indicate M2 reached an all‐time high amplitude last year (2018). Here we report new estimates of tides derived from nineteenth century water‐level measurements found ...


Hydrodynamic And Total Dissolved Solids Model Of The Tigris River Using Ce-Qual-W2, Muhanned D. Al-Murib, Scott Wells Sep 2019

Hydrodynamic And Total Dissolved Solids Model Of The Tigris River Using Ce-Qual-W2, Muhanned D. Al-Murib, Scott Wells

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The headwaters of the Tigris River basin in Iraq is controlled by Turkey due to a series of dams constructed over the last few decades. Since Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in the Tigris River within Baghdad and downstream cities can reach 1000 mg/L exceeding both drinking water and irrigation guidelines, a hydrodynamic and water quality model, CE-QUAL-W2, of the river was developed to understand how changes in flow affect TDS downstream. A model of 880 km of the Tigris River from Mosul Dam to Kut Barrage including Tharthar Lake was constructed for 2009. Model development was challenging due to ...


Historical Changes In Lower Columbia River And Estuary Floods: A Numerical Study, Lumas Helaire, Stefan Talke, David A. Jay, Andrew Mahedy Sep 2019

Historical Changes In Lower Columbia River And Estuary Floods: A Numerical Study, Lumas Helaire, Stefan Talke, David A. Jay, Andrew Mahedy

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Over the past 150 years, the Lower Columbia River Estuary controlling depth has approximately doubled, the majority of historical wetlands and floodplain have been reclaimed, numerous infrastructure projects have altered and confined flow pathways, and significant natural and anthropogenic changes to the discharge hydrograph have occurred. To investigate the effect of these changes on tides, river slope, and flood water levels, we construct and validate numerical models that simulate flow over late nineteenth‐century and present‐day bathymetry. The models are validated using archival (1853–1877) and modern tide measurements throughout the Lower Columbia River Estuary and river stage measurements ...


Toward Realistic Nonstationarity Of Semidiurnal Baroclinic Tides In A Hydrodynamicmodel, Arin D. Nelson, Brian K. Arbic, Edward Zaron, Anna Savage, James G. Richman, Maarten C. Buijsman, Jay F. Shriver Aug 2019

Toward Realistic Nonstationarity Of Semidiurnal Baroclinic Tides In A Hydrodynamicmodel, Arin D. Nelson, Brian K. Arbic, Edward Zaron, Anna Savage, James G. Richman, Maarten C. Buijsman, Jay F. Shriver

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Semidiurnal baroclinic tide sea surface height (SSH) variance and semidiurnal nonstationary variance fraction (SNVF) are compared between a hydrodynamic model and altimetry for the low- to middle-latitude global ocean. Tidal frequencies are aliased by ∼10-day altimeter sampling, which makes it impossible to unambiguously identify nonstationary tidal signals from the observations. In order to better understand altimeter sampling artifacts, the model was analyzed using its native hourly outputs and by subsampling it in the same manner as altimeters. Different estimates of the semidiurnal nonstationary and total SSH variance are obtained with the model depending on whether they are identified in the ...


Surface Kinetic Energy Distributions In The Global Oceans From A High-Resolution Numerical Model And Surface Drifter Observations, Xiaolong Yu, Aurelien Ponte, Shane Elipot, Dimitris Menemenlis, Edward Zaron, Ryan Abernathey Aug 2019

Surface Kinetic Energy Distributions In The Global Oceans From A High-Resolution Numerical Model And Surface Drifter Observations, Xiaolong Yu, Aurelien Ponte, Shane Elipot, Dimitris Menemenlis, Edward Zaron, Ryan Abernathey

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The surface kinetic energy of a 1/48◦ global ocean simulation and its distribution as a function of frequency and location are compared with the one estimated from 15,329 globally distributed surface drifter observations at hourly resolution. These distributions follow similar patterns with a dominant low-frequency component and well-defined tidal and near-inertial peaks globally. Quantitative differences are identified with deficits of low-frequency energy near the equator (factor 2) and at near-inertial frequencies (factor 3) and an excess of energy at semidiurnal frequencies (factor 4) for the model. Owing to its hourly resolution and its near-global spatial coverage, the array ...


Global Observations Of Fine-Scale Ocean Surface Topography With The Surface Water And Ocean Topography (Swot) Mission, Rosemary Morrow, Lee-Lueng Fu, Fabrice Ardhuin, Mounir Benkiran, Bertrand Chapron, Emmanuel Cosme, Francesco D’Ovidio, J. Thomas Farrar, Sarah T. Gille, Guillaume Lapeyre, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Ananda Pascual, Aurélien Ponte, Bo Qiu, Nicolas Rascle, Clement Ubelmann, Jinbo Wang, Edward Zaron May 2019

Global Observations Of Fine-Scale Ocean Surface Topography With The Surface Water And Ocean Topography (Swot) Mission, Rosemary Morrow, Lee-Lueng Fu, Fabrice Ardhuin, Mounir Benkiran, Bertrand Chapron, Emmanuel Cosme, Francesco D’Ovidio, J. Thomas Farrar, Sarah T. Gille, Guillaume Lapeyre, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Ananda Pascual, Aurélien Ponte, Bo Qiu, Nicolas Rascle, Clement Ubelmann, Jinbo Wang, Edward Zaron

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The future international Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission, planned for launch in 2021, will make high-resolution 2D observations of sea-surface height using SAR radar interferometric techniques. SWOT will map the global and coastal oceans up to 77.6 latitude every 21 days over a swath of 120 km (20 km nadir gap). Today’s 2D mapped altimeter data can resolve ocean scales of 150 km wavelength whereas the SWOT measurement will extend our 2D observations down to 15–30 km, depending on sea state. SWOT will offer new opportunities to observe the oceanic dynamic processes at scales that ...


Simultaneous Estimation Of Ocean Tides And Underwater Topography In The Weddell Sea, Edward D. Zaron May 2019

Simultaneous Estimation Of Ocean Tides And Underwater Topography In The Weddell Sea, Edward D. Zaron

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

A new model for theM2, S2, K1, and O1 tides in the Weddell Sea is developed by assimilating CryoSat-2 data into a barotropic tide model. A variational approach is used, which explicitly allows for errors in the water depth, that is, the bottom topography in open water and the water column thickness under floating ice shelves, so that an optimized estimate of the topography is obtained together with the tidal fields. In preparation for assimilation, the sensitivity of the tidal elevation to the interfacial drag at the sea floor and the ice-water interface (under the floating ice shelves) is investigated ...


Analysis And Application Of Log-Linear And Quantile Regression Models To Predict Bus Dwell Times, Travis B. Glick, Miguel Figliozzi Apr 2019

Analysis And Application Of Log-Linear And Quantile Regression Models To Predict Bus Dwell Times, Travis B. Glick, Miguel Figliozzi

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Understanding the key factors that contribute to transit travel times and travel time variability is an essential part of transit planning and research. Delay that occurs when buses service bus stops, dwell time, is one of the main sources of travel time variability and has therefore been the subject of ongoing research to identify and quantify its determinants. Previous research has focused on testing new variables using linear regressions that may be added to models to improve predictions. An important assumption of linear regression models used in past research efforts is homoscedasticity or the equal distribution of the residuals across ...


Integrating Landsat Tm/Etm+ And Numerical Modeling To Estimatewater Temperature In The Tigris River Under Future Climate And Management Scenarios, Muhanned Al-Murib, Scott Wells, Stefan Talke Apr 2019

Integrating Landsat Tm/Etm+ And Numerical Modeling To Estimatewater Temperature In The Tigris River Under Future Climate And Management Scenarios, Muhanned Al-Murib, Scott Wells, Stefan Talke

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Modeling the water quality of rivers and assessing the effects of changing conditions is often hindered by a lack of in situ measurements for calibration. Here, we use a combination of satellite measurements, statistical models, and numerical modeling with CE-QUAL-W2 to overcome in situ data limitations and evaluate the effect of changing hydrologic and climate conditions on water temperature (Tw) in the Tigris River, one of the largest rivers in the Middle East. Because few in situ estimates of Tw were available, remotely-sensed estimates of Tw were obtained from Landsat satellite images at roughly 2 week intervals for the ...


Production Of Secondary Organic Aerosol During Aging Of Biomass Burning Smoke From Fresh Fuels And Its Relationship To Voc Precursors, A. T. Ahern, E. S. Robinson, D. S. Tkacik, L. E. Hatch, Kelley Barsanti, C. E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, Multiple Additional Authors Mar 2019

Production Of Secondary Organic Aerosol During Aging Of Biomass Burning Smoke From Fresh Fuels And Its Relationship To Voc Precursors, A. T. Ahern, E. S. Robinson, D. S. Tkacik, L. E. Hatch, Kelley Barsanti, C. E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, Multiple Additional Authors

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

After smoke from burning biomass is emitted into the atmosphere, chemical and physical processes change the composition and amount of organic aerosol present in the aged, diluted plume. During the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment, we performed smog‐chamber experiments to investigate formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and multiphase oxidation of primary organic aerosol (POA). We simulated atmospheric aging of diluted smoke from a variety of biomass fuels while measuring particle composition using high‐resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. We quantified SOA formation using a tracer ion for low‐volatility POA as a reference standard (akin to a naturally ...


The Quest For Model Uncertainty Quantification: A Hybrid Ensemble And Variational Data Assimilation Framework, Peyman Abbaszadeh, Hamid Moradkhani, Dacian Daescu Mar 2019

The Quest For Model Uncertainty Quantification: A Hybrid Ensemble And Variational Data Assimilation Framework, Peyman Abbaszadeh, Hamid Moradkhani, Dacian Daescu

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This article presents a novel approach to couple a deterministic four‐dimensional variational (4DVAR) assimilation method with the particle filter (PF) ensemble data assimilation system, to produce a robust approach for dual‐state‐parameter estimation. In our proposed method, the Hybrid Ensemble and Variational Data Assimilation framework for Environmental systems (HEAVEN), we characterize the model structural uncertainty in addition to model parameter and input uncertainties. The sequential PF is formulated within the 4DVAR system to design a computationally efficient feedback mechanism throughout the assimilation period. In this framework, the 4DVAR optimization produces the maximum a posteriori estimate of state variables ...


Remote Sensing Of Water Use Efficiency And Terrestrial Drought Recovery Across The Contiguous United States, Behzad Ahmadi, Ali Ahmadalipour, Glenn Tootle Mar 2019

Remote Sensing Of Water Use Efficiency And Terrestrial Drought Recovery Across The Contiguous United States, Behzad Ahmadi, Ali Ahmadalipour, Glenn Tootle

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUE) is defined as the ratio of carbon gain (i.e., gross primary productivity; GPP) to water consumption (i.e., evapotranspiration; ET). WUE is markedly influential on carbon and water cycles, both of which are fundamental for ecosystem state, climate and the environment. Drought can affect WUE, subsequently disturbing the composition and functionality of terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, the impacts of drought on WUE and its components (i.e., GPP and ET) are assessed across the Contiguous US (CONUS) at fine spatial and temporal resolutions. Soil moisture simulations from land surface modeling are utilized to detect ...


Modeling Changes In Public Transit And Private-For-Hire Usage When Implementing A Spatial Tax, Ty Lazarchik Jan 2019

Modeling Changes In Public Transit And Private-For-Hire Usage When Implementing A Spatial Tax, Ty Lazarchik

REU Final Reports

Private-for-Hire (PfH) transportation options, such as Uber, Lyft, and taxicabs, are consistently growing in popularity. With this expanded utilization, cities are struggling to maintain usage of their public transit systems. While PfH transportation has been heavily researched, there is a need to further study how its effects on transit usage may be minimized. In this paper, previous work in traffic modeling and analysis of transit and PfH differences are expanded to develop an agent-based decision model in order to simulate and analyze the effectiveness of implementing a location-based tax in and around the city center of Portland, Oregon. The results ...


The Tides They Are A-Changin’: A Comprehensive Review Of Past And Future Nonastronomical Changes In Tides, Their Driving Mechanisms And Future Implications, Ivan D. Haigh, Mark D. Pickering, J.A. Mattias Green, Brian K. Arbic, Arne Arns, Soenke Dangendorf, David Hill, David A. Jay, Multiple Additional Authors Jan 2019

The Tides They Are A-Changin’: A Comprehensive Review Of Past And Future Nonastronomical Changes In Tides, Their Driving Mechanisms And Future Implications, Ivan D. Haigh, Mark D. Pickering, J.A. Mattias Green, Brian K. Arbic, Arne Arns, Soenke Dangendorf, David Hill, David A. Jay, Multiple Additional Authors

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Scientists and engineers have observed for some time that tidal amplitudes at many locations are shifting considerably due to non-astronomical factors. Here we review comprehensively these important changes in tidal properties, many of which remain poorly understood. Over long geological time-scales, tectonic processes drive variations in basin size, depth, and shape, and hence the resonant properties of ocean basins. On shorter geological time-scales, changes in oceanic tidal properties are dominated by variations in water depth. A growing number of studies have identified widespread, sometimes regionally-coherent, positive and negative trends in tidal constituents and levels during the 19th, 20th and early ...


A Bayesian Nonparametric Multiple Testing Procedure For Comparing Several Treatments Against A Control, Luis Gutiérrez, Andrés Barrientos, Jorge González, Daniel Taylor-Rodríguez Jan 2019

A Bayesian Nonparametric Multiple Testing Procedure For Comparing Several Treatments Against A Control, Luis Gutiérrez, Andrés Barrientos, Jorge González, Daniel Taylor-Rodríguez

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We propose a Bayesian nonparametric strategy to test for differences between a control group and several treatment regimes. Most of the existing tests for this type of comparison are based on the differences between location parameters. In contrast, our approach identifies differences across the entire distribution, avoids strong modeling assumptions over the distributions for each treatment, and accounts for multiple testing through the prior distribution on the space of hypotheses. The proposal is compared to other commonly used hypothesis testing procedures under simulated scenarios. Two real applications are also analyzed with the proposed methodology.


Bigger Tides, Less Flooding: Effects Of Dredging On Barotropic Dynamics In A Highly Modified Estuary, David K. Ralston, Stefan Talke, W. Rockwell Geyer, Hussein A. M. Al-Zubaidi, Christopher K. Sommerfield Jan 2019

Bigger Tides, Less Flooding: Effects Of Dredging On Barotropic Dynamics In A Highly Modified Estuary, David K. Ralston, Stefan Talke, W. Rockwell Geyer, Hussein A. M. Al-Zubaidi, Christopher K. Sommerfield

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Since the late nineteenth century, channel depths have more than doubled in parts of New York Harbor and the tidal Hudson River, wetlands have been reclaimed and navigational channels widened, and river flow has been regulated. To quantify the effects of these modifications, observations and numerical simulations using historical and modern bathymetry are used to analyze changes in the barotropic dynamics. Model results and water level records for Albany (1868 to present) and New York Harbor (1844 to present) recovered from archives show that the tidal amplitude has more than doubled near the head of tides, whereas increases in the ...


Investigate An Appropriate Spatial Resolution For Large-Scaled Pedestrian Travel Demand Model, Qin Zhang, Kelly Clifton, Rolf Moeckel Jan 2019

Investigate An Appropriate Spatial Resolution For Large-Scaled Pedestrian Travel Demand Model, Qin Zhang, Kelly Clifton, Rolf Moeckel

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

An appropriate spatial resolution plays a significant role in any travel demand models. It directly impacts the level of detail of model input data, outcomes, and sensitivities (Castiglione et al., 2014; Moeckel and Donnelly, 2015). Compared to motorized or bicycle travel, pedestrian trips occur over a shorter travel distance and they are sensitive to environmental conditions at a much finer grain. Thus, it is important for models to set an appropriate spatial resolution to capture variations in walking conditions, leading to better representation of pedestrian demand over space (Gehrke and Clifton, 2014).


Observational Method And Coding Framework For Analyzing The Functionality Of Unprotected Bicycle Lanes, Cat Silva, Kelly Clifton, Rolf Moeckel Jan 2019

Observational Method And Coding Framework For Analyzing The Functionality Of Unprotected Bicycle Lanes, Cat Silva, Kelly Clifton, Rolf Moeckel

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This research evaluates how well unprotected bicycle lanes function as dedicated travel lanes for bicyclists. Two types of bicycle lanes are included in this study, including on-street bicycle lanes demarcated with painted lines on the vehicular roadway and bicycle lanes at-grade with, and immediately adjacent to, the pedestrian sidewalk. Specifically, the research is focused on how people behave and interact on street segments with these facilities in place. To assess how, and how well, these types of bicycle lanes function for the bicyclists using them, an observational method is deployed to record, document, and analyze people’s behavior and interactions ...


Mechanics And Historical Evolution Of Sea Level Blowouts In New York Harbor, Praneeth Gurumurthy, Philip Orton, Stefan A. Talke, Nickitas Georgas, James F. Booth Jan 2019

Mechanics And Historical Evolution Of Sea Level Blowouts In New York Harbor, Praneeth Gurumurthy, Philip Orton, Stefan A. Talke, Nickitas Georgas, James F. Booth

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Wind-induced sea level blowouts, measured as negative storm surge or extreme low water (ELW), produce public safety hazards and impose economic costs (e.g., to shipping). In this paper, we use a regional hydrodynamic numerical model to test the effect of historical environmental change and the time scale, direction, and magnitude of wind forcing on negative and positive surge events in the New York Harbor (NYH). Environmental sensitivity experiments show that dredging of shipping channels is an important factor affecting blowouts while changing ice cover and removal of other roughness elements are unimportant in NYH. Continuously measured water level records ...


Evaluation Of Shared Space To Reduce Traffic Congestion, Kimley Frosch, David Martinelli, Avinash Unnikrishnan Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Shared Space To Reduce Traffic Congestion, Kimley Frosch, David Martinelli, Avinash Unnikrishnan

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Pedestrian and vehicle interactions often lead to conflicts that bring about safety, traffic congestion, and priority or right of way issues. Common methods used in the past to combat said issues have largely relied on the principle of separating the motions of pedestrians and vehicles by means of bridges, tunnels, signals, and access restrictions. A different approach known as shared space aims to solve the same problems with a less structured and defined environment which instead places more reliance on human interaction and perception. Although it has been used in multiple scenarios across Europe with success, instances of shared spaces ...