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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Evaluation Of A Novel Remote Displacement Sensor Prototype Using Video And Laser-Based Technology For Civil Infrastructure Applications, Nicholas J. Brown Dec 2019

Evaluation Of A Novel Remote Displacement Sensor Prototype Using Video And Laser-Based Technology For Civil Infrastructure Applications, Nicholas J. Brown

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Deflection measurements on structures, especially with regards to long-term monitoring, continues to be a challenge with current sensor technologies. Material degradation and changes in the mechanical properties due to aging (for example, creep and shrinkage in concrete bridges) directly impact the deflections exhibited by a structure. In this article we introduce and discuss the evaluation of a novel laser and video-based displacement sensor prototype to monitor displacements and rotations in structures remotely. The sensor is both inexpensive, using off-the shelf components, but also accurate and practical for situations that do not allow the use of conventional displacement sensors, which require ...


Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire Dec 2019

Flood Dynamics In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Past, Present, And Future, Lumas Terence Helaire

Dissertations and Theses

The Portland area has an extensive flood history since it was founded in 1845. In the late 19th century, the Portland area was prone to flooding from snowmelt freshets (3-6 months duration) and brief winter rain or rain-on-snow events. Since that time the magnitude of spring freshets has been curtailed by 45% due to climate change, flow diversions, and reservoir management. Along with changes in hydrology, the bathymetry of the Lower Columbia River has been altered by the dredging of the navigation channel, diking, and land reclamation. To understand how these changes in hydrology and bathymetry have affected tidal and ...


Impact Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles On Nutrient And Contaminant Reduction In Wastewater Treatment Wetlands, Madeline J. Hubbard Dec 2019

Impact Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles On Nutrient And Contaminant Reduction In Wastewater Treatment Wetlands, Madeline J. Hubbard

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Metallic nanoparticles are found in a variety of commercial products and industrial processes, and have become more common in the last few decades. As nanoparticles are toxic to biota and have the potential to spread other types of contamination, their increased use has become a concern. Research into the transport of nanoparticles in subsurface and surface waters shows a wide range in mobility, but that they are most likely to collect in systems with low linear velocities and high organic content. As a result, wetlands are the most vulnerable to nanoparticle contamination. Wetlands receiving and treating wastewater effluent have an ...


Nineteenth-Century Tides In The Gulf Of Maine And Implications For Secular Trends, Richard D. Ray, Stefan A. Talke Oct 2019

Nineteenth-Century Tides In The Gulf Of Maine And Implications For Secular Trends, Richard D. Ray, Stefan A. Talke

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Since the early twentieth century, the amplitudes of tidal constituents in the Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy display clear secular trends that are among the largest anywhere observed for a regional body of water. The M2 amplitude at Eastport, Maine, increased at a rate of 14.1 ± 1.2 cm per century until it temporarily dropped during 1980–1990, apparently in response to changes in the wider North Atlantic. Annual tidal analyses indicate M2 reached an all‐time high amplitude last year (2018). Here we report new estimates of tides derived from nineteenth century water‐level measurements found ...


Concrete Bridge Deck Performance Data And Metrics For The State Of Oregon, Jael Wettach-Glosser Sep 2019

Concrete Bridge Deck Performance Data And Metrics For The State Of Oregon, Jael Wettach-Glosser

Dissertations and Theses

Bridge decks are a critical element of a bridge that support and distribute vehicle loads to the superstructure. Because of the requirements of this role, bridge decks are exposed to severe conditions that typically lead to structural deficiency in bridges which is both costly and disruptive. Therefore, to keep bridges and highways in good repair, developing optimal preservation decisions for concrete bridge decks is key. In order to develop effective performance monitoring and preservation schedules, the parameters affecting bridge deck deterioration need to be better understood.

With guidance from the literature and Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) personnel, two datasets ...


Hydrodynamic And Total Dissolved Solids Model Of The Tigris River Using Ce-Qual-W2, Muhanned D. Al-Murib, Scott Wells Sep 2019

Hydrodynamic And Total Dissolved Solids Model Of The Tigris River Using Ce-Qual-W2, Muhanned D. Al-Murib, Scott Wells

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The headwaters of the Tigris River basin in Iraq is controlled by Turkey due to a series of dams constructed over the last few decades. Since Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in the Tigris River within Baghdad and downstream cities can reach 1000 mg/L exceeding both drinking water and irrigation guidelines, a hydrodynamic and water quality model, CE-QUAL-W2, of the river was developed to understand how changes in flow affect TDS downstream. A model of 880 km of the Tigris River from Mosul Dam to Kut Barrage including Tharthar Lake was constructed for 2009. Model development was challenging due to ...


Historical Changes In Lower Columbia River And Estuary Floods: A Numerical Study, Lumas Helaire, Stefan Talke, David A. Jay, Andrew Mahedy Sep 2019

Historical Changes In Lower Columbia River And Estuary Floods: A Numerical Study, Lumas Helaire, Stefan Talke, David A. Jay, Andrew Mahedy

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Over the past 150 years, the Lower Columbia River Estuary controlling depth has approximately doubled, the majority of historical wetlands and floodplain have been reclaimed, numerous infrastructure projects have altered and confined flow pathways, and significant natural and anthropogenic changes to the discharge hydrograph have occurred. To investigate the effect of these changes on tides, river slope, and flood water levels, we construct and validate numerical models that simulate flow over late nineteenth‐century and present‐day bathymetry. The models are validated using archival (1853–1877) and modern tide measurements throughout the Lower Columbia River Estuary and river stage measurements ...


Toward Realistic Nonstationarity Of Semidiurnal Baroclinic Tides In A Hydrodynamicmodel, Arin D. Nelson, Brian K. Arbic, Edward Zaron, Anna Savage, James G. Richman, Maarten C. Buijsman, Jay F. Shriver Aug 2019

Toward Realistic Nonstationarity Of Semidiurnal Baroclinic Tides In A Hydrodynamicmodel, Arin D. Nelson, Brian K. Arbic, Edward Zaron, Anna Savage, James G. Richman, Maarten C. Buijsman, Jay F. Shriver

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Semidiurnal baroclinic tide sea surface height (SSH) variance and semidiurnal nonstationary variance fraction (SNVF) are compared between a hydrodynamic model and altimetry for the low- to middle-latitude global ocean. Tidal frequencies are aliased by ∼10-day altimeter sampling, which makes it impossible to unambiguously identify nonstationary tidal signals from the observations. In order to better understand altimeter sampling artifacts, the model was analyzed using its native hourly outputs and by subsampling it in the same manner as altimeters. Different estimates of the semidiurnal nonstationary and total SSH variance are obtained with the model depending on whether they are identified in the ...


Water Quality Analysis Of Ecoroof Runoff In Portland, Pranoti P. Deshmukh Aug 2019

Water Quality Analysis Of Ecoroof Runoff In Portland, Pranoti P. Deshmukh

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Portland, Oregon is internationally recognized for its implementation of sustainable stormwater management technologies. Ecoroof is one of the sustainable solutions to reduce stormwater runoff which also provides multiple environmental benefits. However, very little is known about the impact of ecoroofs on water quality of roof runoff. Stormwater runoff carries a significant amount of pollutants, which, if it directly enters a stream or river, degrades water quality and severely harms aquatic life.

This study evaluates the trends in the long-term water quality data from ecoroofs and conventional roofs in the Portland area. Mann Kendall trend test was used to detect the ...


Modeling Vertical Migration Of Cyanobacteria And Zooplankton, Corina Christina Mae Overman Aug 2019

Modeling Vertical Migration Of Cyanobacteria And Zooplankton, Corina Christina Mae Overman

Dissertations and Theses

Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, often cause harmful algal blooms and release toxic substances that can harm humans and other animals. Accurately modeling these phytoplankton is a step towards predicting, preventing, and controlling such blooms. Cyanobacteria and zooplankton species are known to migrate vertically in the water column on a daily cycle. Capturing this behavior is one aspect of correctly modeling their dynamics. Here, several models of cyanobacteria vertical movement were tested in proof-of-concept models before being applied to data from field studies. These models included both continuum and particle-tracking frameworks. Four continuum-framework models of cyanobacteria vertical migration were ...


Evaluation Of Low And High Frequency Dynamic Response For Condition Assessment Of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Ali Hafiz Aug 2019

Evaluation Of Low And High Frequency Dynamic Response For Condition Assessment Of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Ali Hafiz

Dissertations and Theses

Concrete is widely used for civil infrastructure structures and they experience deterioration and degradation due to aging, increases in the traffic loads, harsher environmental conditions, use of deicing chemicals, etc. Therefore, evaluating the integrity of reinforced concrete structures has become of increasing interest for infrastructure owners and managers. A number of non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) methods have been developed in recent decades to aid in evaluating structures and provide input for asset management. One family of these methods uses the dynamic response of a structural member: stress waves (high frequency) and structural vibrations (low frequency). Both ...


Surface Kinetic Energy Distributions In The Global Oceans From A High-Resolution Numerical Model And Surface Drifter Observations, Xiaolong Yu, Aurelien Ponte, Shane Elipot, Dimitris Menemenlis, Edward Zaron, Ryan Abernathey Aug 2019

Surface Kinetic Energy Distributions In The Global Oceans From A High-Resolution Numerical Model And Surface Drifter Observations, Xiaolong Yu, Aurelien Ponte, Shane Elipot, Dimitris Menemenlis, Edward Zaron, Ryan Abernathey

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The surface kinetic energy of a 1/48◦ global ocean simulation and its distribution as a function of frequency and location are compared with the one estimated from 15,329 globally distributed surface drifter observations at hourly resolution. These distributions follow similar patterns with a dominant low-frequency component and well-defined tidal and near-inertial peaks globally. Quantitative differences are identified with deficits of low-frequency energy near the equator (factor 2) and at near-inertial frequencies (factor 3) and an excess of energy at semidiurnal frequencies (factor 4) for the model. Owing to its hourly resolution and its near-global spatial coverage, the array ...


The Gouda, The Bad, And The Ugly: Prioritizing Intersections For Pedestrian Safety In Tillamook, Or With Different Risk Estimation Methods, Kelly M. White Jun 2019

The Gouda, The Bad, And The Ugly: Prioritizing Intersections For Pedestrian Safety In Tillamook, Or With Different Risk Estimation Methods, Kelly M. White

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

The following report explores five different pedestrian risk estimation methods at urban intersections. Six study intersections in Tillamook, Oregon were chosen as a case study to analyze each risk estimation method and apply the values to a project prioritization process. Ultimately, risk factors of both exposure and infrastructure contribute to the highest amount of risk for pedestrians. The Oregon Department of Transportation’s State Planning and Research Report 779 was identified as the most comprehensive risk estimation method.


Test Setup Design And Cyclic Evaluation Of Rocking Clt Wall And Floor Restoring Force Lateral System, Aaron Davis Smith Jun 2019

Test Setup Design And Cyclic Evaluation Of Rocking Clt Wall And Floor Restoring Force Lateral System, Aaron Davis Smith

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

The introduction of the demand for mass timber buildings in areas with seismic hazards has called for new lateral systems. Lateral systems in mass timber building typically utilize a rocking shear wall with post-tensioned rods to provide system re-centering. These post-tensioned rods add axial load to the shear wall and potentially endure long term creep affects. Mass Timber buildings consist of cross laminated (clt) shear walls and floor slabs along with glulam beams. The flexural capacity of the CLT floor slabs along with dead load can provide an alternative source for the restoring force. This project developed a test setup ...


Travel Behaviors Of Persons With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Joseph C. Totten Jun 2019

Travel Behaviors Of Persons With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Joseph C. Totten

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

People with intellectual and developmental disabilities live different lives than the general population. Often prohibited from driving, persons with intellectual disabilities cite transportation as top concern, limiting their independence and freedom to live, work or recreate where and when they choose. Improving services for persons with developmental disabilities requires that engineers and planners understand how persons with intellectual disabilities travel, and what types of transportation are available to them. This report hopes to identify the availability of transportation options to persons with developmental disabilities such that planners, engineers and advocates can determine how altering the transportation system might affect persons ...


Analytical And Numerical Modeling Of Long Term Changes To Tides, Storm Surge, And Total Water Level Due To Bathymetric Changes And Surge Characteristics, Ramin Familkhalili Jun 2019

Analytical And Numerical Modeling Of Long Term Changes To Tides, Storm Surge, And Total Water Level Due To Bathymetric Changes And Surge Characteristics, Ramin Familkhalili

Dissertations and Theses

Natural and local anthropogenic changes in estuaries (e.g., sea-level rise, navigation channel construction and loss of wetlands) interact with each other and produce non-linear effects. There is also a growing recognition that tides in estuaries are not stationary. These factors together are changing the estuarine water level regime, however the implications for extreme water levels remain largely unknown. Changes over the past century in many estuaries, such as channel deepening and streamlining for navigation have significantly altered the hydrodynamics of long waves, often resulting in amplified tides (a ~85% increase in Wilmington, NC since 1900) and storm surge in ...


Strength Tuned Steel Eccentric Braced Frames, Hosam Abdullah Al-Azzawi Jun 2019

Strength Tuned Steel Eccentric Braced Frames, Hosam Abdullah Al-Azzawi

Dissertations and Theses

The primary component in eccentrically braced frames (EBF) is the link as its plastic strength controls the design of the frame as well as the entire building within which it is installed. EBFs are the first part of building design and every other component is sized based on the forces developed in the link. Oversized link elements lead to the use of unnecessary materials and can increase construction costs. Additionally, the advantages of using a continuous member of the same depth for both the link and the controller beam (in terms of the cost and the time) motivates researchers to ...


Seismic Performance Of Substandard Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns Under Subduction-Zone Ground Motions, Alvaro Francisco Lopez Ibaceta Jun 2019

Seismic Performance Of Substandard Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns Under Subduction-Zone Ground Motions, Alvaro Francisco Lopez Ibaceta

Dissertations and Theses

A large magnitude, long duration subduction earthquake is impending in the Pacific Northwest, which lies near the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ). Great subduction zone earthquakes are the largest earthquakes in the world and are the sole source zones that can produce earthquakes greater than M8.5. Additionally, the increased duration of a CSZ earthquake may result in more structural damage than expected. Given such seismic hazard, the assessment of reinforced concrete substructures has become crucial in order to prioritize the bridges that may need to be retrofitted and to maintain the highway network operable after a major seismic event. Recent ...


Global Observations Of Fine-Scale Ocean Surface Topography With The Surface Water And Ocean Topography (Swot) Mission, Rosemary Morrow, Lee-Lueng Fu, Fabrice Ardhuin, Mounir Benkiran, Bertrand Chapron, Emmanuel Cosme, Francesco D’Ovidio, J. Thomas Farrar, Sarah T. Gille, Guillaume Lapeyre, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Ananda Pascual, Aurélien Ponte, Bo Qiu, Nicolas Rascle, Clement Ubelmann, Jinbo Wang, Edward Zaron May 2019

Global Observations Of Fine-Scale Ocean Surface Topography With The Surface Water And Ocean Topography (Swot) Mission, Rosemary Morrow, Lee-Lueng Fu, Fabrice Ardhuin, Mounir Benkiran, Bertrand Chapron, Emmanuel Cosme, Francesco D’Ovidio, J. Thomas Farrar, Sarah T. Gille, Guillaume Lapeyre, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Ananda Pascual, Aurélien Ponte, Bo Qiu, Nicolas Rascle, Clement Ubelmann, Jinbo Wang, Edward Zaron

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The future international Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission, planned for launch in 2021, will make high-resolution 2D observations of sea-surface height using SAR radar interferometric techniques. SWOT will map the global and coastal oceans up to 77.6 latitude every 21 days over a swath of 120 km (20 km nadir gap). Today’s 2D mapped altimeter data can resolve ocean scales of 150 km wavelength whereas the SWOT measurement will extend our 2D observations down to 15–30 km, depending on sea state. SWOT will offer new opportunities to observe the oceanic dynamic processes at scales that ...


How Av Could Shape Our Cities - Research From The Netherlands, Gonçalo H. A. Correia May 2019

How Av Could Shape Our Cities - Research From The Netherlands, Gonçalo H. A. Correia

TREC Friday Seminar Series

Automated driving has become a hot topic of research in different fields of science. Despite the great advancements in the vehicle technology itself, researchers are now concerned in figuring out what will be the impacts of these vehicles in life as we know it. These impacts can be rather broad from traffic safety to the economy. In this lecture, Goncalo will focus on the research that is being done at TU Delft, a leading university in automated vehicles’ (AVs) impacts research, focusing on urban areas and how mobility, and even the city itself, can change with fully-automated vehicles. Goncalo Correia ...


Diagnostic Imaging Of Structural Concrete Using Ground Penetrating Radar And Ultrasonic Array, Sina Mehdinia, Thomas Schumacher, Eric Wan, Xubo Song May 2019

Diagnostic Imaging Of Structural Concrete Using Ground Penetrating Radar And Ultrasonic Array, Sina Mehdinia, Thomas Schumacher, Eric Wan, Xubo Song

Student Research Symposium

Structural concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Many structures critical to a society such as bridges, hospitals, and airports are built with concrete. While this material is well understood from a mechanical design point of view, still no accurate quantitative tools exist to assess it for damage and deterioration. This is of particular concern for an urban area like Portland with a mega-thrust earthquake waiting to occur. Non-destructive evaluation tools that can quickly and accurately give a full picture of the integrity of structural concrete elements will be key to help plan effective and safe ...


That Bike Is Too Heavy: Merging Bicycling Physics, Human Physiology And Travel Behavior, Alexander Y. Bigazzi May 2019

That Bike Is Too Heavy: Merging Bicycling Physics, Human Physiology And Travel Behavior, Alexander Y. Bigazzi

TREC Friday Seminar Series

Are the Biketown bikes too heavy? Does better gear motivate people to cycle more? How much faster will someone go on an e-bike?

Although urban cycling is widely known as physically active transportation, the actual physics of cycling have been given little attention in transportation engineering and planning. In contrast, the field of sports science has developed detailed data and models of road bicycle performance, but only for sport and racing cyclists.

What can we learn about utilitarian cycling by integrating knowledge of the physical attributes of bicycles and cyclists?

This seminar examines the ways in which bicycle physics, and ...


An Agent-Based Evacuation Model To Improve Safety In The Cascadia Subduction Zone, Haizhong Wang Apr 2019

An Agent-Based Evacuation Model To Improve Safety In The Cascadia Subduction Zone, Haizhong Wang

TREC Friday Seminar Series

This seminar will present ongoing research into how integrated social, natural, and engineered systems can improve life safety under threat of multi-hazards. The targeted scenario is a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami from the Cascadia Subduction Zone, threatening communities along 1,000 miles of the US Pacific Northwest coastline.

Since the mid-1980’s scientific evidence has underscored the possibility of such an extreme event, and it has taken at least another decade or more before public attitudes and policy have begun to adapt to this new hazard. Life safety is a pressing issue for the near-field CSZ tsunami hazard ...


Integrating Landsat Tm/Etm+ And Numerical Modeling To Estimatewater Temperature In The Tigris River Under Future Climate And Management Scenarios, Muhanned Al-Murib, Scott Wells, Stefan Talke Apr 2019

Integrating Landsat Tm/Etm+ And Numerical Modeling To Estimatewater Temperature In The Tigris River Under Future Climate And Management Scenarios, Muhanned Al-Murib, Scott Wells, Stefan Talke

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Modeling the water quality of rivers and assessing the effects of changing conditions is often hindered by a lack of in situ measurements for calibration. Here, we use a combination of satellite measurements, statistical models, and numerical modeling with CE-QUAL-W2 to overcome in situ data limitations and evaluate the effect of changing hydrologic and climate conditions on water temperature (Tw) in the Tigris River, one of the largest rivers in the Middle East. Because few in situ estimates of Tw were available, remotely-sensed estimates of Tw were obtained from Landsat satellite images at roughly 2 week intervals for the ...


Analysis And Application Of Log-Linear And Quantile Regression Models To Predict Bus Dwell Times, Travis B. Glick, Miguel Figliozzi Apr 2019

Analysis And Application Of Log-Linear And Quantile Regression Models To Predict Bus Dwell Times, Travis B. Glick, Miguel Figliozzi

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Understanding the key factors that contribute to transit travel times and travel time variability is an essential part of transit planning and research. Delay that occurs when buses service bus stops, dwell time, is one of the main sources of travel time variability and has therefore been the subject of ongoing research to identify and quantify its determinants. Previous research has focused on testing new variables using linear regressions that may be added to models to improve predictions. An important assumption of linear regression models used in past research efforts is homoscedasticity or the equal distribution of the residuals across ...


Production Of Secondary Organic Aerosol During Aging Of Biomass Burning Smoke From Fresh Fuels And Its Relationship To Voc Precursors, A. T. Ahern, E. S. Robinson, D. S. Tkacik, L. E. Hatch, Kelley Barsanti, C. E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, Multiple Additional Authors Mar 2019

Production Of Secondary Organic Aerosol During Aging Of Biomass Burning Smoke From Fresh Fuels And Its Relationship To Voc Precursors, A. T. Ahern, E. S. Robinson, D. S. Tkacik, L. E. Hatch, Kelley Barsanti, C. E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, Multiple Additional Authors

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

After smoke from burning biomass is emitted into the atmosphere, chemical and physical processes change the composition and amount of organic aerosol present in the aged, diluted plume. During the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment, we performed smog‐chamber experiments to investigate formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and multiphase oxidation of primary organic aerosol (POA). We simulated atmospheric aging of diluted smoke from a variety of biomass fuels while measuring particle composition using high‐resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. We quantified SOA formation using a tracer ion for low‐volatility POA as a reference standard (akin to a naturally ...


The Quest For Model Uncertainty Quantification: A Hybrid Ensemble And Variational Data Assimilation Framework, Peyman Abbaszadeh, Hamid Moradkhani, Dacian Daescu Mar 2019

The Quest For Model Uncertainty Quantification: A Hybrid Ensemble And Variational Data Assimilation Framework, Peyman Abbaszadeh, Hamid Moradkhani, Dacian Daescu

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This article presents a novel approach to couple a deterministic four‐dimensional variational (4DVAR) assimilation method with the particle filter (PF) ensemble data assimilation system, to produce a robust approach for dual‐state‐parameter estimation. In our proposed method, the Hybrid Ensemble and Variational Data Assimilation framework for Environmental systems (HEAVEN), we characterize the model structural uncertainty in addition to model parameter and input uncertainties. The sequential PF is formulated within the 4DVAR system to design a computationally efficient feedback mechanism throughout the assimilation period. In this framework, the 4DVAR optimization produces the maximum a posteriori estimate of state variables ...


On The Drought Recovery And Resiliency: How Terrestrial And Riverine Ecosystems Recover From Agricultural And Hydrological Droughts, Behzad Ahmadi Mar 2019

On The Drought Recovery And Resiliency: How Terrestrial And Riverine Ecosystems Recover From Agricultural And Hydrological Droughts, Behzad Ahmadi

Dissertations and Theses

Climate extremes, in particular droughts are significant driving forces towards riverine and terrestrial ecosystems disturbance. Drought impacts on stream ecosystems include losses that can either be direct (e.g. destruction of habitat for aquatic species) or indirect (e.g. deterioration of water quality, soil quality, and increased chance of wildfires). This study investigates hydrological and agricultural droughts and their recovery durations. For the riverine ecosystems, this study combines hydrologic drought and water quality changes during droughts and represents a multi-stage framework to detect and characterize hydrological droughts, while considering water quality parameters. Hydrological droughts are categorized into three stages of ...


Behavior Of Non-Ductile Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns Retrofit By Cfrp Under Cyclic Loading, Wisam Amer Aules Mar 2019

Behavior Of Non-Ductile Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns Retrofit By Cfrp Under Cyclic Loading, Wisam Amer Aules

Dissertations and Theses

In the Middle East region and many countries in the world, older reinforced concrete (RC) columns are deemed to be weak in seismic resistance because of their low amount of reinforcement, low grades of concrete, and large spacing between the transverse reinforcement. The capacity of older RC columns that are also slender is further reduced due to the secondary moments. Appropriate retrofit techniques can improve the capacity and behavior of concrete members. In this study, externally bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) retrofit technique was implemented to improve the behavior of RC columns tested under constant axial load and cyclic ...


Remote Sensing Of Water Use Efficiency And Terrestrial Drought Recovery Across The Contiguous United States, Behzad Ahmadi, Ali Ahmadalipour, Glenn Tootle Mar 2019

Remote Sensing Of Water Use Efficiency And Terrestrial Drought Recovery Across The Contiguous United States, Behzad Ahmadi, Ali Ahmadalipour, Glenn Tootle

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUE) is defined as the ratio of carbon gain (i.e., gross primary productivity; GPP) to water consumption (i.e., evapotranspiration; ET). WUE is markedly influential on carbon and water cycles, both of which are fundamental for ecosystem state, climate and the environment. Drought can affect WUE, subsequently disturbing the composition and functionality of terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, the impacts of drought on WUE and its components (i.e., GPP and ET) are assessed across the Contiguous US (CONUS) at fine spatial and temporal resolutions. Soil moisture simulations from land surface modeling are utilized to detect ...