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2019

Portland State University

Civil and Environmental Engineering

Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Water Quality Analysis Of Ecoroof Runoff In Portland, Pranoti P. Deshmukh Aug 2019

Water Quality Analysis Of Ecoroof Runoff In Portland, Pranoti P. Deshmukh

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Portland, Oregon is internationally recognized for its implementation of sustainable stormwater management technologies. Ecoroof is one of the sustainable solutions to reduce stormwater runoff which also provides multiple environmental benefits. However, very little is known about the impact of ecoroofs on water quality of roof runoff. Stormwater runoff carries a significant amount of pollutants, which, if it directly enters a stream or river, degrades water quality and severely harms aquatic life.

This study evaluates the trends in the long-term water quality data from ecoroofs and conventional roofs in the Portland area. Mann Kendall trend test was used to detect the ...


Modeling Vertical Migration Of Cyanobacteria And Zooplankton, Corina Christina Mae Overman Aug 2019

Modeling Vertical Migration Of Cyanobacteria And Zooplankton, Corina Christina Mae Overman

Dissertations and Theses

Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, often cause harmful algal blooms and release toxic substances that can harm humans and other animals. Accurately modeling these phytoplankton is a step towards predicting, preventing, and controlling such blooms. Cyanobacteria and zooplankton species are known to migrate vertically in the water column on a daily cycle. Capturing this behavior is one aspect of correctly modeling their dynamics. Here, several models of cyanobacteria vertical movement were tested in proof-of-concept models before being applied to data from field studies. These models included both continuum and particle-tracking frameworks. Four continuum-framework models of cyanobacteria vertical migration were ...


The Gouda, The Bad, And The Ugly: Prioritizing Intersections For Pedestrian Safety In Tillamook, Or With Different Risk Estimation Methods, Kelly M. White Jun 2019

The Gouda, The Bad, And The Ugly: Prioritizing Intersections For Pedestrian Safety In Tillamook, Or With Different Risk Estimation Methods, Kelly M. White

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

The following report explores five different pedestrian risk estimation methods at urban intersections. Six study intersections in Tillamook, Oregon were chosen as a case study to analyze each risk estimation method and apply the values to a project prioritization process. Ultimately, risk factors of both exposure and infrastructure contribute to the highest amount of risk for pedestrians. The Oregon Department of Transportation’s State Planning and Research Report 779 was identified as the most comprehensive risk estimation method.


Travel Behaviors Of Persons With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Joseph C. Totten Jun 2019

Travel Behaviors Of Persons With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Joseph C. Totten

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

People with intellectual and developmental disabilities live different lives than the general population. Often prohibited from driving, persons with intellectual disabilities cite transportation as top concern, limiting their independence and freedom to live, work or recreate where and when they choose. Improving services for persons with developmental disabilities requires that engineers and planners understand how persons with intellectual disabilities travel, and what types of transportation are available to them. This report hopes to identify the availability of transportation options to persons with developmental disabilities such that planners, engineers and advocates can determine how altering the transportation system might affect persons ...


Test Setup Design And Cyclic Evaluation Of Rocking Clt Wall And Floor Restoring Force Lateral System, Aaron Davis Smith Jun 2019

Test Setup Design And Cyclic Evaluation Of Rocking Clt Wall And Floor Restoring Force Lateral System, Aaron Davis Smith

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

The introduction of the demand for mass timber buildings in areas with seismic hazards has called for new lateral systems. Lateral systems in mass timber building typically utilize a rocking shear wall with post-tensioned rods to provide system re-centering. These post-tensioned rods add axial load to the shear wall and potentially endure long term creep affects. Mass Timber buildings consist of cross laminated (clt) shear walls and floor slabs along with glulam beams. The flexural capacity of the CLT floor slabs along with dead load can provide an alternative source for the restoring force. This project developed a test setup ...


Analytical And Numerical Modeling Of Long Term Changes To Tides, Storm Surge, And Total Water Level Due To Bathymetric Changes And Surge Characteristics, Ramin Familkhalili Jun 2019

Analytical And Numerical Modeling Of Long Term Changes To Tides, Storm Surge, And Total Water Level Due To Bathymetric Changes And Surge Characteristics, Ramin Familkhalili

Dissertations and Theses

Natural and local anthropogenic changes in estuaries (e.g., sea-level rise, navigation channel construction and loss of wetlands) interact with each other and produce non-linear effects. There is also a growing recognition that tides in estuaries are not stationary. These factors together are changing the estuarine water level regime, however the implications for extreme water levels remain largely unknown. Changes over the past century in many estuaries, such as channel deepening and streamlining for navigation have significantly altered the hydrodynamics of long waves, often resulting in amplified tides (a ~85% increase in Wilmington, NC since 1900) and storm surge in ...


Seismic Performance Of Substandard Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns Under Subduction-Zone Ground Motions, Alvaro Francisco Lopez Ibaceta Jun 2019

Seismic Performance Of Substandard Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns Under Subduction-Zone Ground Motions, Alvaro Francisco Lopez Ibaceta

Dissertations and Theses

A large magnitude, long duration subduction earthquake is impending in the Pacific Northwest, which lies near the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ). Great subduction zone earthquakes are the largest earthquakes in the world and are the sole source zones that can produce earthquakes greater than M8.5. Additionally, the increased duration of a CSZ earthquake may result in more structural damage than expected. Given such seismic hazard, the assessment of reinforced concrete substructures has become crucial in order to prioritize the bridges that may need to be retrofitted and to maintain the highway network operable after a major seismic event. Recent ...


Global Observations Of Fine-Scale Ocean Surface Topography With The Surface Water And Ocean Topography (Swot) Mission, Rosemary Morrow, Lee-Lueng Fu, Fabrice Ardhuin, Mounir Benkiran, Bertrand Chapron, Emmanuel Cosme, Francesco D’Ovidio, J. Thomas Farrar, Sarah T. Gille, Guillaume Lapeyre, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Ananda Pascual, Aurélien Ponte, Bo Qiu, Nicolas Rascle, Clement Ubelmann, Jinbo Wang, Edward Zaron May 2019

Global Observations Of Fine-Scale Ocean Surface Topography With The Surface Water And Ocean Topography (Swot) Mission, Rosemary Morrow, Lee-Lueng Fu, Fabrice Ardhuin, Mounir Benkiran, Bertrand Chapron, Emmanuel Cosme, Francesco D’Ovidio, J. Thomas Farrar, Sarah T. Gille, Guillaume Lapeyre, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Ananda Pascual, Aurélien Ponte, Bo Qiu, Nicolas Rascle, Clement Ubelmann, Jinbo Wang, Edward Zaron

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

The future international Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission, planned for launch in 2021, will make high-resolution 2D observations of sea-surface height using SAR radar interferometric techniques. SWOT will map the global and coastal oceans up to 77.6 latitude every 21 days over a swath of 120 km (20 km nadir gap). Today’s 2D mapped altimeter data can resolve ocean scales of 150 km wavelength whereas the SWOT measurement will extend our 2D observations down to 15–30 km, depending on sea state. SWOT will offer new opportunities to observe the oceanic dynamic processes at scales that ...


How Av Could Shape Our Cities - Research From The Netherlands, Gonçalo H. A. Correia May 2019

How Av Could Shape Our Cities - Research From The Netherlands, Gonçalo H. A. Correia

TREC Friday Seminar Series

Automated driving has become a hot topic of research in different fields of science. Despite the great advancements in the vehicle technology itself, researchers are now concerned in figuring out what will be the impacts of these vehicles in life as we know it. These impacts can be rather broad from traffic safety to the economy. In this lecture, Goncalo will focus on the research that is being done at TU Delft, a leading university in automated vehicles’ (AVs) impacts research, focusing on urban areas and how mobility, and even the city itself, can change with fully-automated vehicles. Goncalo Correia ...


Diagnostic Imaging Of Structural Concrete Using Ground Penetrating Radar And Ultrasonic Array, Sina Mehdinia, Thomas Schumacher, Eric Wan, Xubo Song May 2019

Diagnostic Imaging Of Structural Concrete Using Ground Penetrating Radar And Ultrasonic Array, Sina Mehdinia, Thomas Schumacher, Eric Wan, Xubo Song

Student Research Symposium

Structural concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Many structures critical to a society such as bridges, hospitals, and airports are built with concrete. While this material is well understood from a mechanical design point of view, still no accurate quantitative tools exist to assess it for damage and deterioration. This is of particular concern for an urban area like Portland with a mega-thrust earthquake waiting to occur. Non-destructive evaluation tools that can quickly and accurately give a full picture of the integrity of structural concrete elements will be key to help plan effective and safe ...


That Bike Is Too Heavy: Merging Bicycling Physics, Human Physiology And Travel Behavior, Alexander Y. Bigazzi May 2019

That Bike Is Too Heavy: Merging Bicycling Physics, Human Physiology And Travel Behavior, Alexander Y. Bigazzi

TREC Friday Seminar Series

Are the Biketown bikes too heavy? Does better gear motivate people to cycle more? How much faster will someone go on an e-bike?

Although urban cycling is widely known as physically active transportation, the actual physics of cycling have been given little attention in transportation engineering and planning. In contrast, the field of sports science has developed detailed data and models of road bicycle performance, but only for sport and racing cyclists.

What can we learn about utilitarian cycling by integrating knowledge of the physical attributes of bicycles and cyclists?

This seminar examines the ways in which bicycle physics, and ...


An Agent-Based Evacuation Model To Improve Safety In The Cascadia Subduction Zone, Haizhong Wang Apr 2019

An Agent-Based Evacuation Model To Improve Safety In The Cascadia Subduction Zone, Haizhong Wang

TREC Friday Seminar Series

This seminar will present ongoing research into how integrated social, natural, and engineered systems can improve life safety under threat of multi-hazards. The targeted scenario is a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami from the Cascadia Subduction Zone, threatening communities along 1,000 miles of the US Pacific Northwest coastline.

Since the mid-1980’s scientific evidence has underscored the possibility of such an extreme event, and it has taken at least another decade or more before public attitudes and policy have begun to adapt to this new hazard. Life safety is a pressing issue for the near-field CSZ tsunami hazard ...


Integrating Landsat Tm/Etm+ And Numerical Modeling To Estimatewater Temperature In The Tigris River Under Future Climate And Management Scenarios, Muhanned Al-Murib, Scott Wells, Stefan Talke Apr 2019

Integrating Landsat Tm/Etm+ And Numerical Modeling To Estimatewater Temperature In The Tigris River Under Future Climate And Management Scenarios, Muhanned Al-Murib, Scott Wells, Stefan Talke

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Modeling the water quality of rivers and assessing the effects of changing conditions is often hindered by a lack of in situ measurements for calibration. Here, we use a combination of satellite measurements, statistical models, and numerical modeling with CE-QUAL-W2 to overcome in situ data limitations and evaluate the effect of changing hydrologic and climate conditions on water temperature (Tw) in the Tigris River, one of the largest rivers in the Middle East. Because few in situ estimates of Tw were available, remotely-sensed estimates of Tw were obtained from Landsat satellite images at roughly 2 week intervals for the ...


Analysis And Application Of Log-Linear And Quantile Regression Models To Predict Bus Dwell Times, Travis B. Glick, Miguel Figliozzi Apr 2019

Analysis And Application Of Log-Linear And Quantile Regression Models To Predict Bus Dwell Times, Travis B. Glick, Miguel Figliozzi

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Understanding the key factors that contribute to transit travel times and travel time variability is an essential part of transit planning and research. Delay that occurs when buses service bus stops, dwell time, is one of the main sources of travel time variability and has therefore been the subject of ongoing research to identify and quantify its determinants. Previous research has focused on testing new variables using linear regressions that may be added to models to improve predictions. An important assumption of linear regression models used in past research efforts is homoscedasticity or the equal distribution of the residuals across ...


The Quest For Model Uncertainty Quantification: A Hybrid Ensemble And Variational Data Assimilation Framework, Peyman Abbaszadeh, Hamid Moradkhani, Dacian Daescu Mar 2019

The Quest For Model Uncertainty Quantification: A Hybrid Ensemble And Variational Data Assimilation Framework, Peyman Abbaszadeh, Hamid Moradkhani, Dacian Daescu

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This article presents a novel approach to couple a deterministic four‐dimensional variational (4DVAR) assimilation method with the particle filter (PF) ensemble data assimilation system, to produce a robust approach for dual‐state‐parameter estimation. In our proposed method, the Hybrid Ensemble and Variational Data Assimilation framework for Environmental systems (HEAVEN), we characterize the model structural uncertainty in addition to model parameter and input uncertainties. The sequential PF is formulated within the 4DVAR system to design a computationally efficient feedback mechanism throughout the assimilation period. In this framework, the 4DVAR optimization produces the maximum a posteriori estimate of state variables ...


On The Drought Recovery And Resiliency: How Terrestrial And Riverine Ecosystems Recover From Agricultural And Hydrological Droughts, Behzad Ahmadi Mar 2019

On The Drought Recovery And Resiliency: How Terrestrial And Riverine Ecosystems Recover From Agricultural And Hydrological Droughts, Behzad Ahmadi

Dissertations and Theses

Climate extremes, in particular droughts are significant driving forces towards riverine and terrestrial ecosystems disturbance. Drought impacts on stream ecosystems include losses that can either be direct (e.g. destruction of habitat for aquatic species) or indirect (e.g. deterioration of water quality, soil quality, and increased chance of wildfires). This study investigates hydrological and agricultural droughts and their recovery durations. For the riverine ecosystems, this study combines hydrologic drought and water quality changes during droughts and represents a multi-stage framework to detect and characterize hydrological droughts, while considering water quality parameters. Hydrological droughts are categorized into three stages of ...


Behavior Of Non-Ductile Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns Retrofit By Cfrp Under Cyclic Loading, Wisam Amer Aules Mar 2019

Behavior Of Non-Ductile Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns Retrofit By Cfrp Under Cyclic Loading, Wisam Amer Aules

Dissertations and Theses

In the Middle East region and many countries in the world, older reinforced concrete (RC) columns are deemed to be weak in seismic resistance because of their low amount of reinforcement, low grades of concrete, and large spacing between the transverse reinforcement. The capacity of older RC columns that are also slender is further reduced due to the secondary moments. Appropriate retrofit techniques can improve the capacity and behavior of concrete members. In this study, externally bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) retrofit technique was implemented to improve the behavior of RC columns tested under constant axial load and cyclic ...


Remote Sensing Of Water Use Efficiency And Terrestrial Drought Recovery Across The Contiguous United States, Behzad Ahmadi, Ali Ahmadalipour, Glenn Tootle Mar 2019

Remote Sensing Of Water Use Efficiency And Terrestrial Drought Recovery Across The Contiguous United States, Behzad Ahmadi, Ali Ahmadalipour, Glenn Tootle

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUE) is defined as the ratio of carbon gain (i.e., gross primary productivity; GPP) to water consumption (i.e., evapotranspiration; ET). WUE is markedly influential on carbon and water cycles, both of which are fundamental for ecosystem state, climate and the environment. Drought can affect WUE, subsequently disturbing the composition and functionality of terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, the impacts of drought on WUE and its components (i.e., GPP and ET) are assessed across the Contiguous US (CONUS) at fine spatial and temporal resolutions. Soil moisture simulations from land surface modeling are utilized to detect ...


Webinar: Rethinking Streets For Bikes: An Evidence Based Guide Of Bike-Friendly Street Retrofits, Marc Schlossberg, Roger Lindgren Feb 2019

Webinar: Rethinking Streets For Bikes: An Evidence Based Guide Of Bike-Friendly Street Retrofits, Marc Schlossberg, Roger Lindgren

TREC Webinar Series

There is a growing demand for better infrastructure and fewer barriers to biking and other forms of space-efficient micromobility. Tackling daily trips by bike is easier on the environment, healthier for users and non-users alike, uses precious urbanized public and private land more efficiently, costs taxpayers less to build and maintain infrastructure, and when routes are safe and comfortable, moving by bike is also fun! Complete Streets policies are being adopted across the country, and there is an active conversation around the safety imperative of a Complete Streets approach. Yet, local officials often need both design guidance and the confidence ...


Webinar: Modeling Freeway Traffic In A Mixed Environment: Connected And Human-Driven Vehicles, Xianfeng Terry Yang Jan 2019

Webinar: Modeling Freeway Traffic In A Mixed Environment: Connected And Human-Driven Vehicles, Xianfeng Terry Yang

TREC Webinar Series

Although connected vehicles (CVs) will soon go beyond testbeds, CVs and human-driven vehicles (HVs) will co-exist over a long period. Hence, it is critical to consider the interactions between these two types of vehicles in traffic flow modeling. In this study, we aim to develop a macroscopic model to understand how CVs would impact HVs in the traffic stream. Grounded on the second-order traffic flow model, we study the relationships among flow, density, and speed by two sets of formulations for the groups of CVs and HVs, respectively. A set of friction factors, which indicate CVs' impact to HVs, are ...


From Drought To Food-Energy-Water-Security Nexus: An Assessment Of Food Insecurity In The Middle East, Maysoun Ayad Hameed Jan 2019

From Drought To Food-Energy-Water-Security Nexus: An Assessment Of Food Insecurity In The Middle East, Maysoun Ayad Hameed

Dissertations and Theses

Drought is an extreme climate phenomenon that happens slowly and periodically threatens the environmental and socio-economic sectors. Developing countries have experienced crucial conditions in meeting the needs for food, energy, and water security. Natural disasters contribute as risky sources of food insecurity and vulnerability in the Middle East. This dissertation presents a country-level review and quantitative assessment of the current issues associated with the Food-Energy-Water-Security (FEWS) Nexus in the Middle East. In this study, sixteen countries in the Middle East are chosen, namely, Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, and Turkey. The most recent datasets are used to ...


A Bayesian Nonparametric Multiple Testing Procedure For Comparing Several Treatments Against A Control, Luis Gutiérrez, Andrés Barrientos, Jorge González, Daniel Taylor-Rodríguez Jan 2019

A Bayesian Nonparametric Multiple Testing Procedure For Comparing Several Treatments Against A Control, Luis Gutiérrez, Andrés Barrientos, Jorge González, Daniel Taylor-Rodríguez

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We propose a Bayesian nonparametric strategy to test for differences between a control group and several treatment regimes. Most of the existing tests for this type of comparison are based on the differences between location parameters. In contrast, our approach identifies differences across the entire distribution, avoids strong modeling assumptions over the distributions for each treatment, and accounts for multiple testing through the prior distribution on the space of hypotheses. The proposal is compared to other commonly used hypothesis testing procedures under simulated scenarios. Two real applications are also analyzed with the proposed methodology.


Modeling Changes In Public Transit And Private-For-Hire Usage When Implementing A Spatial Tax, Ty Lazarchik Jan 2019

Modeling Changes In Public Transit And Private-For-Hire Usage When Implementing A Spatial Tax, Ty Lazarchik

REU Final Reports

Private-for-Hire (PfH) transportation options, such as Uber, Lyft, and taxicabs, are consistently growing in popularity. With this expanded utilization, cities are struggling to maintain usage of their public transit systems. While PfH transportation has been heavily researched, there is a need to further study how its effects on transit usage may be minimized. In this paper, previous work in traffic modeling and analysis of transit and PfH differences are expanded to develop an agent-based decision model in order to simulate and analyze the effectiveness of implementing a location-based tax in and around the city center of Portland, Oregon. The results ...


Mechanics And Historical Evolution Of Sea Level Blowouts In New York Harbor, Praneeth Gurumurthy, Philip Orton, Stefan A. Talke, Nickitas Georgas, James F. Booth Jan 2019

Mechanics And Historical Evolution Of Sea Level Blowouts In New York Harbor, Praneeth Gurumurthy, Philip Orton, Stefan A. Talke, Nickitas Georgas, James F. Booth

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Wind-induced sea level blowouts, measured as negative storm surge or extreme low water (ELW), produce public safety hazards and impose economic costs (e.g., to shipping). In this paper, we use a regional hydrodynamic numerical model to test the effect of historical environmental change and the time scale, direction, and magnitude of wind forcing on negative and positive surge events in the New York Harbor (NYH). Environmental sensitivity experiments show that dredging of shipping channels is an important factor affecting blowouts while changing ice cover and removal of other roughness elements are unimportant in NYH. Continuously measured water level records ...


Bigger Tides, Less Flooding: Effects Of Dredging On Barotropic Dynamics In A Highly Modified Estuary, David K. Ralston, Stefan Talke, W. Rockwell Geyer, Hussein A. M. Al-Zubaidi, Christopher K. Sommerfield Jan 2019

Bigger Tides, Less Flooding: Effects Of Dredging On Barotropic Dynamics In A Highly Modified Estuary, David K. Ralston, Stefan Talke, W. Rockwell Geyer, Hussein A. M. Al-Zubaidi, Christopher K. Sommerfield

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Since the late nineteenth century, channel depths have more than doubled in parts of New York Harbor and the tidal Hudson River, wetlands have been reclaimed and navigational channels widened, and river flow has been regulated. To quantify the effects of these modifications, observations and numerical simulations using historical and modern bathymetry are used to analyze changes in the barotropic dynamics. Model results and water level records for Albany (1868 to present) and New York Harbor (1844 to present) recovered from archives show that the tidal amplitude has more than doubled near the head of tides, whereas increases in the ...


Evaluation Of Shared Space To Reduce Traffic Congestion, Kimley Frosch, David Martinelli, Avinash Unnikrishnan Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Shared Space To Reduce Traffic Congestion, Kimley Frosch, David Martinelli, Avinash Unnikrishnan

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Pedestrian and vehicle interactions often lead to conflicts that bring about safety, traffic congestion, and priority or right of way issues. Common methods used in the past to combat said issues have largely relied on the principle of separating the motions of pedestrians and vehicles by means of bridges, tunnels, signals, and access restrictions. A different approach known as shared space aims to solve the same problems with a less structured and defined environment which instead places more reliance on human interaction and perception. Although it has been used in multiple scenarios across Europe with success, instances of shared spaces ...