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2019

City University of New York (CUNY)

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Articles 1 - 30 of 57

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

The Free Education Project: Higher Education Funding, E2 Implementation, And Crowdsourcing Crypto Development, Louis Carter, John R. Ziegler, Ovidui Purice, Edward Lehner Ph.D. Dec 2019

The Free Education Project: Higher Education Funding, E2 Implementation, And Crowdsourcing Crypto Development, Louis Carter, John R. Ziegler, Ovidui Purice, Edward Lehner Ph.D.

Publications and Research

This short paper, written in three different sections, explores how a cryptocurrency’s issuance and network effects could fund higher education. Synthesizing research from the Bronx Community College Cryptocurrency Research Lab, Bernard Lietaer’s notion of creating money for the needs of society, lessons learned by Galia Benartzi and the Hearts Project, and an exploration of how communities coalesce around open-source cryptocurrency projects, the authors provide an overview of the problem of funding higher education, the ways in which money that is needed could be created, and the key components to building a highly effective developer community. These three distinct ...


Hardware Implementation Of Assistive Technology Robot, Joycephine Li Dec 2019

Hardware Implementation Of Assistive Technology Robot, Joycephine Li

Publications and Research

SuperHERO is an on-going research project in Computer Engineering Technology department which involves upgrading Heathkit Education Robot (HERO) hardware circuits and features by using modern hardware devices and sensors. The current phase of the project will focus on upgrading the motor drive system hardware as well as implementation and testing of features such as mobile robot obstacle detection and other assistive technologies to help people with disabilities. This involves the reattachment of the robot arm after repairing and updating with 3D printing and using modern hardware and software technology. We observed that the robotic arm has rotary and translation movements ...


Green Roof System Integrated Soil Methods, Jude R. Vallon, Ivan L. Guzman Dec 2019

Green Roof System Integrated Soil Methods, Jude R. Vallon, Ivan L. Guzman

Publications and Research

Large metropolitan areas like NYC are seeking to integrate sustainability into retrofitting buildings for the development of green infrastructure. Among the many environmental issues of urbanization, the UHI (urban heat island) effect and storm water runoff are of particular interest when it comes building structures. Individual buildings can contribute towards mitigating these effects with implementation of vegetative rooftops, i.e. Green Roofs. Commercial buildings are currently receiving government incentives and new constructions are required to include green roof installations. However, if existing buildings are considering the addition of a green roof on an existing roof, they have to factor in ...


Static Analysis Of Structural Members, Amani Calderon, Alexis Villalona, Farhad Alinaghizadeh Dec 2019

Static Analysis Of Structural Members, Amani Calderon, Alexis Villalona, Farhad Alinaghizadeh

Publications and Research

This research is devoted to statics analysis of structural members under mechanical loads. Static analysis of beams under uniform transverse mechanical loads is presented. The beams are supported by simply supported boundary condition at both sides. The equilibrium equation of the beams is obtained and solved using analytical method and numerical method. The numerical method employed in this work is generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The type of differential quadrature method used for numerical solution is the polynomial-based GDQ method. The differential equation is discretized into algebraic equations based on the GDQ technique. The algebraic equations are then solved to ...


Self-Driving Toy Car Using Deep Learning, Fahim Ahmed, Suleyman Turac, Mubtasem Ali Dec 2019

Self-Driving Toy Car Using Deep Learning, Fahim Ahmed, Suleyman Turac, Mubtasem Ali

Publications and Research

Our research focuses on building a student affordable platform for scale model self-driving cars. The goal of this project is to explore current developments of Open Source hardware and software to build a low-cost platform consisting of the car chassis/framework, sensors, and software for the autopilot. Our research will allow other students with low budget to enter into the world of Deep Learning, self-driving cars, and autonomous cars racing competitions.


Static Analysis Of Circular Plates Under Mechanical Loads, Harpreet Lalia Dec 2019

Static Analysis Of Circular Plates Under Mechanical Loads, Harpreet Lalia

Publications and Research

In this research statics analysis of circular plates is performed using SolidWorks.

Circular plates with different material properties, thickness to radius ratios, and boundary conditions under mechanical loads are modeled and analyzed in SolidWorks.

The results are obtained for deflections of circular plates under uniform and point loads.

A three-dimensional (3D) model of circular plates is first created in SolidWorks. Then the material properties, mechanical loads and boundary conditions are defined for the plate.

It is found deflection of plates is depended on magnitude of mechanical loads, geometrical parameters, boundary conditions and material properties. Responses of SolidWorks for deflections of ...


Low-Cost Near Infrared Diffuse Optical Imaging System, Mohammed Z. Shakil, Chen Xu Dec 2019

Low-Cost Near Infrared Diffuse Optical Imaging System, Mohammed Z. Shakil, Chen Xu

Publications and Research

Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) and Optical Spectroscopy using near-infrared (NIR) diffused light has demonstrated great potential for the initial diagnosis of tumors and in the assessment of tumor vasculature response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The NIR technique utilizes intrinsic hemoglobin contrast, which is directly related to tumor angiogenesis development, a key process required for tumor growth and metastasis. The NIR diffuse tomography holds great promise in distinguishing early-stage invasive breast cancers from benign lesions. This technique also provides insight into tumor metabolism and tumor hypoxia, important indicators of tumor response to various forms of therapy. Currently, the high cost of the ...


Energy & Carbon Neutral Nyc, Evan Banks, Elena Zimareva, Elena Malysheva Dec 2019

Energy & Carbon Neutral Nyc, Evan Banks, Elena Zimareva, Elena Malysheva

Publications and Research

In 2016, the world's leading countries signed the Paris Agreement which focused on reducing anthropogenic climate change on the planet. On May 2019, New York State and New York City declared its own ambitious goals aimed at decarbonizing the city and restricting the state’s energy use to relying completely on renewables.

Some of these goals specifically target infrastructure in the city since estimates cite buildings as accounting for nearly 70% of New York’s energy use. The main law of New York’s Climate Policy, Local Law 97, requires all buildings over 25,000 sq ft to reduce ...


Fabrication And Imaging Characterization Of Poly (Dimethyl Siloxane)/Sic Nano-Fillers Samples As Model Biomaterials, Tetiana Soloviova, Viorica Gutu, Zoya Vinokur, Akm S. Rahman, Subhendra Sarkar Dec 2019

Fabrication And Imaging Characterization Of Poly (Dimethyl Siloxane)/Sic Nano-Fillers Samples As Model Biomaterials, Tetiana Soloviova, Viorica Gutu, Zoya Vinokur, Akm S. Rahman, Subhendra Sarkar

Publications and Research

Biopolymers are being developed with embedded nanostructures for in vivo drug delivery to treat various diseases including cancers. In the current project we developed fabrication steps to prepare two biopolymers, poly di-methoxy siloxane (PDMS) with 0-0.9 vol% of SiC nano whisker (fillers) followed by non- destructive characterization. Optical reflection microscopy (5-100X) was performed to ensure loading and distribution of increasing SiC content. Optical microscopy showed progressively higher SiC distribution as filler loading was increased from 0-0.9 vol%. X-ray imaging at low kV (kilovoltage) and low mAs (milliamperage per second) were optimized to allow distinction between filled PDMS with ...


International Space Object Orbit Tracker, Nicole Navarro Dec 2019

International Space Object Orbit Tracker, Nicole Navarro

Publications and Research

This software engineering project involves development of machine learning algorithms for embedded applications. High speed 32-bit hardware devices such as Raspberry Pi and ARM microcontrollers has become inexpensive and readily available. Machine learning algorithms for applications such as image processing and image recognition are computationally intensive. But with the availability of low cost 32-bit embedded computing devices, it is now feasible to implement then on embedded hardware. This project will explore embedded applications of machine learning algorithms by following a software engineering design and test approach.


Technical Report: Solving Global Problems [Composition], Lara V. Kattekola Nov 2019

Technical Report: Solving Global Problems [Composition], Lara V. Kattekola

Open Educational Resources

This assignment was developed as part of a 2018-19 Center for Teaching and Learning (CTL) -sponsored Learning Matters Global Learning Mini-grant awarded to support the ENG 259 Technical Writing course. This course is required for engineering students as the second course in their composition sequence to be taken in lieu of ENG 102. The aim of the mini-grant was to integrate LaGuardia’s Global Learning Core Competency into the ENG 259 course via the development of a high stakes global learning assignment. The assignment was developed during the Fall 2018 CTL Learning Matters Mini-Grant seminar meetings led by Drs. Karen ...


Spatio-Temporal Variability Of Drought In Pakistan Using Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, Shoaib Jamro, Ghulam Hussain Dars, Kamran Ansari, Nir Krakauer Oct 2019

Spatio-Temporal Variability Of Drought In Pakistan Using Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, Shoaib Jamro, Ghulam Hussain Dars, Kamran Ansari, Nir Krakauer

Publications and Research

Pakistan is among the top ten countries adversely affected by climate change. More specifically, there is concern that climate change may cause longer and severer spells of droughts. To quantify the change in the characteristics of droughts in Pakistan over the years, we have evaluated spatio-temporal trends of droughts in Pakistan over the period 1902–2015 using Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Additionally, the Spatial “K” luster Analysis using Tree Edge Removal (SKATER) method was employed to regionalize droughts into five contiguous zones. The run theory was then applied to each zone to identify drought events and characterize them in ...


Invertebrate Retinal Progenitors As Regenerative Models In A Microfluidic System, Caroline D. Pena, Stephanie Zhang, Robert Majeska, Tadmiri Venkatesh, Maribel Vazquez Oct 2019

Invertebrate Retinal Progenitors As Regenerative Models In A Microfluidic System, Caroline D. Pena, Stephanie Zhang, Robert Majeska, Tadmiri Venkatesh, Maribel Vazquez

Publications and Research

Regenerative retinal therapies have introduced progenitor cells to replace dysfunctional or injured neurons and regain visual function. While contemporary cell replacement therapies have delivered retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) within customized biomaterials to promote viability and enable transplantation, outcomes have been severely limited by the misdirected and/or insuffcient migration of transplanted cells. RPCs must achieve appropriate spatial and functional positioning in host retina, collectively, to restore vision, whereas movement of clustered cells differs substantially from the single cell migration studied in classical chemotaxis models. Defining how RPCs interact with each other, neighboring cell types and surrounding extracellular matrixes are critical ...


Medical Dental Device: Biogeneric Implant Prototype, Ibeth Erazo, Aneeza Hussain, Renata Budny, Gaffar Gailani Oct 2019

Medical Dental Device: Biogeneric Implant Prototype, Ibeth Erazo, Aneeza Hussain, Renata Budny, Gaffar Gailani

Publications and Research

Teeth are lost due to tooth decay, injury, disease, or other causes. Today, dental implants extend the range of care to a variety of patients undergoing necessary prosthodontic rehabilitation. If the benefits of such treatments are to be maximized, then implants must be selected on logical basis and placed within the context of the full range of treatment modalities. However, modern dental implant systems are based on multiple components often leading to micro-movements which cause stress on the bone or bacterial infections, both of which compromise the success of osseointegration and consequently jeopardize the whole implant adaptation. Thus, a new ...


Stretchable Piezoelectric Power Generators Based On Zno Thin Films On Elastic Substrates, Ioana Voiculescu, Fang Li, Glen Kowach, Nicolas Mistou, Russell Kastberg Sep 2019

Stretchable Piezoelectric Power Generators Based On Zno Thin Films On Elastic Substrates, Ioana Voiculescu, Fang Li, Glen Kowach, Nicolas Mistou, Russell Kastberg

Publications and Research

The paper describes a stretchable, microfabricated power generator that will be attached on the skin and will produce energy based on the movements of the human body. The device was fabricated on a polymeric, elastomeric, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sheet. It consists of a piezoelectric thin film of ZnO sandwiched between two stretchable gold electrodes. An innovative technique was used for the deposition of ZnO thin film on the gold electrode-coated polymeric substrate at low temperatures below 150C. This is the first attempt to use a uniform film of ZnO, for energy harvesting. The ZnO film had the thickness at the ...


Precipitation Trends Over The Indus Basin, Nir Krakauer, Tarendra Lakhankar, Ghulam Hussain Dars Sep 2019

Precipitation Trends Over The Indus Basin, Nir Krakauer, Tarendra Lakhankar, Ghulam Hussain Dars

Publications and Research

A large population relies on water input to the Indus basin, yet basinwide precipitation amounts and trends are not well quantified. Gridded precipitation data sets covering different time periods and based on either station observations, satellite remote sensing, or reanalysis were compared with available station observations and analyzed for basinwide precipitation trends. Compared to observations, some data sets tended to greatly underestimate precipitation, while others overestimate it. Additionally, the discrepancies between data set and station precipitation showed significant time trends in many cases, suggesting that the precipitation trends of those data sets were not consistent with station data. Among the ...


Analog Communication Lab, Yi Sun Sep 2019

Analog Communication Lab, Yi Sun

Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.


A Review Of Protocols For Fiducial Reference Measurements Of Water-Leaving Radiance For Validation Of Satellite Remote-Sensing Data Over Water, Kevin G. Ruddick, Kenneth Voss, Emmanuel Boss, Alexandre Castagna, Robert Frouin, Alex Gilerson, Martin Hieronymi, B. Carol Johnson, Joel Kuusk, Zhongping Lee, Michael Ondrusek, Viktor Vabson, Riho Vendt Sep 2019

A Review Of Protocols For Fiducial Reference Measurements Of Water-Leaving Radiance For Validation Of Satellite Remote-Sensing Data Over Water, Kevin G. Ruddick, Kenneth Voss, Emmanuel Boss, Alexandre Castagna, Robert Frouin, Alex Gilerson, Martin Hieronymi, B. Carol Johnson, Joel Kuusk, Zhongping Lee, Michael Ondrusek, Viktor Vabson, Riho Vendt

Publications and Research

This paper reviews the state of the art of protocols for measurement of water-leaving radiance in the context of fiducial reference measurements (FRM) of water reflectance for satellite validation. Measurement of water reflectance requires the measurement of water-leaving radiance and downwelling irradiance just above water. For the former there are four generic families of method, based on: (1) underwater radiometry at fixed depths; or (2) underwater radiometry with vertical profiling; or (3) above-water radiometry with skyglint correction; or (4) on-water radiometry with skylight blocked. Each method is described generically in the FRM context with reference to the measurement equation, documented ...


Quantification Of Heat Flows Through Building Entrance Doors On A Winter Day, Daeho Kang Sep 2019

Quantification Of Heat Flows Through Building Entrance Doors On A Winter Day, Daeho Kang

Publications and Research

The current methods for the prediction of the heat flow through building entrance doors have been used for years while involved with a certain degree of uncertainty. This paper describes an experimental method that accurately quantified such heat flow. The experiment monitored local environmental parameters in a college building on a cold winter day. The results of the experiment demonstrated that the experimental method is viable to accurately estimate the heat flow throughout the entrance doors and the presence of a vestibule moderated heat losses from the conditioned area. The results will be used for validating the existing methods.


Competence Of A Spray Passive Down-Draft Evaporative Cooling (Pdec) System For Space Cooling, Daeho Kang, Richard K. Strand Sep 2019

Competence Of A Spray Passive Down-Draft Evaporative Cooling (Pdec) System For Space Cooling, Daeho Kang, Richard K. Strand

Publications and Research

A spray PDEC system has been relatively less considered than other passive cooling strategies as one of the viable low-energy solutions in the cooling of buildings while having a great potential in energy savings. This study is intended to evaluate the capability of a spray PDEC system for space cooling. It comprises four simulation scenarios to see the system response and influence of indoor thermal environment when a spray PDEC system is adopted as a primary cooling system in two different climates. The simulation results show that a spray PDEC system causes a substantial variation in the indoor thermal environment ...


Trends In Drought Over The Northeast United States, Nir Y. Krakauer, Tarendra Lakhankar, Damien Hudson Sep 2019

Trends In Drought Over The Northeast United States, Nir Y. Krakauer, Tarendra Lakhankar, Damien Hudson

Publications and Research

The Northeast United States is a generally wet region that has had substantial increases in mean precipitation over the past decades, but also experiences damaging droughts. We evaluated drought frequency, intensity, and duration trends in the region over the period 1901–2015. We used a dataset of Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), a measure of water balance based on meteorology that is computed at multiple timescales. It was found that the frequency of droughts decreased over this period, but their average intensity and duration did not show consistent changes. There was an increase in mean SPEI, indicating mostly wetter conditions ...


Communication Theory, Yi Sun Sep 2019

Communication Theory, Yi Sun

Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of The Uncertainty In Satellite-Based Crop State Variable Retrievals Due To Site And Growth Stage Specific Factors And Their Potential In Coupling With Crop Growth Models, Nathaniel Levitan, Yanghui Kang, Mutlu Özdogan, Vincenzo Magliulo, Paulo Castillo, Fred Moshary, Barry Gross Aug 2019

Evaluation Of The Uncertainty In Satellite-Based Crop State Variable Retrievals Due To Site And Growth Stage Specific Factors And Their Potential In Coupling With Crop Growth Models, Nathaniel Levitan, Yanghui Kang, Mutlu Özdogan, Vincenzo Magliulo, Paulo Castillo, Fred Moshary, Barry Gross

Publications and Research

Coupling crop growth models and remote sensing provides the potential to improve our understanding of the genotype x environment x management (G X E X M) variability of crop growth on a global scale. Unfortunately, the uncertainty in the relationship between the satellite measurements and the crop state variables across different sites and growth stages makes it diffcult to perform the coupling. In this study, we evaluate the effects of this uncertainty with MODIS data at the Mead, Nebraska Ameriflux sites (US-Ne1, US-Ne2, and US-Ne3) and accurate, collocated Hybrid-Maize (HM) simulations of leaf area index (LAI) and canopy light use ...


An Optimized Encoding Algorithm For Systematic Polar Codes, Xiumin Wang, Zhihong Zhang, Jun Li, Yu Wang, Haiyan Cao, Zhengquan Li, Liang Shan Aug 2019

An Optimized Encoding Algorithm For Systematic Polar Codes, Xiumin Wang, Zhihong Zhang, Jun Li, Yu Wang, Haiyan Cao, Zhengquan Li, Liang Shan

Publications and Research

Many different encoding algorithms for systematic polar codes (SPC) have been introduced since SPC was proposed in 2011. However, the number of the computing units of exclusive OR (XOR) has not been optimized yet. According to an iterative property of the generator matrix and particular lower triangular structure of the matrix, we propose an optimized encoding algorithm (OEA) of SPC that can reduce the number of XOR computing units compared with existing non-recursive algorithms. We also prove that this property of the generator matrix could extend to different code lengths and rates of the polar codes. Through the matrix segmentation ...


An Urban Flash Flood Alert Tool For Megacities—Application For Manhattan, New York City, Usa, Rafea Hashim Al-Suhili, Cheila Cullen, Reza Khanbilvardi Jun 2019

An Urban Flash Flood Alert Tool For Megacities—Application For Manhattan, New York City, Usa, Rafea Hashim Al-Suhili, Cheila Cullen, Reza Khanbilvardi

Publications and Research

Urban flooding is a frequent problem affecting cities all over the world. The problem is more significant now that the climate is changing and urbanization trends are increasing. Various, physical hydrological models such as the Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM), MIKE URBAN-II and others, have been developed to simulate flooding events in cities. However, they require high accuracy mapping and a simulation of the underground storm drainage system. Sadly, this capability is usually not available for older or larger so-called megacities. Other hydrological model types are classified in the semi-physical category, like Cellular Automata (CA), require ...


Emt 1130 - Electromechanical Manufacturing Lab, Farjana Ferdousy May 2019

Emt 1130 - Electromechanical Manufacturing Lab, Farjana Ferdousy

Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.


Composite Biomaterial Repair Strategy To Restore Biomechanical Function And Reduce Herniation Risk In An Ex Vivo Large Animal Model Of Intervertebral Disc Herniation With Varying Injury Severity, Warren W. Hom, Melanie Tschopp, Huizi A. Lin, Philip Nasser, Damien M. Laudier, Andrew C. Hecht, Steven B. Nicoll, James C. Iatridis May 2019

Composite Biomaterial Repair Strategy To Restore Biomechanical Function And Reduce Herniation Risk In An Ex Vivo Large Animal Model Of Intervertebral Disc Herniation With Varying Injury Severity, Warren W. Hom, Melanie Tschopp, Huizi A. Lin, Philip Nasser, Damien M. Laudier, Andrew C. Hecht, Steven B. Nicoll, James C. Iatridis

Publications and Research

Back pain commonly arises from intervertebral disc (IVD) damage including annulus fibrosus (AF) defects and nucleus pulposus (NP) loss. Poor IVD healing motivates developing tissue engineering repair strategies. This study evaluated a composite injectable IVD biomaterial repair strategy using carboxymethylcellulose-methylcellulose (CMC-MC) and genipincrosslinked fibrin (FibGen) that mimic NP and AF properties, respectively. Bovine ex vivo caudal IVDs were evaluated in cyclic compression-tension, torsion, and compression-to-failure tests to determine IVD biomechanical properties, height loss, and herniation risk following experimentally-induced severe herniation injury and discectomy (4 mm biopsy defect with 20% NP removed). FibGen with and without CMC-MC had failure strength similar ...


Mapping In The Humanities: Gis Lessons For Poets, Historians, And Scientists, Emily W. Fairey May 2019

Mapping In The Humanities: Gis Lessons For Poets, Historians, And Scientists, Emily W. Fairey

Open Educational Resources

User-friendly Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is the common thread of this collection of presentations, and activities with full lesson plans. The first section of the site contains an overview of cartography, the art of creating maps, and then looks at historical mapping platforms like Hypercities and Donald Rumsey Historical Mapping Project. In the next section Google Earth Desktop Pro is introduced, with lessons and activities on the basics of GE such as pins, paths, and kml files, as well as a more complex activity on "georeferencing" an historic map over Google Earth imagery. The final section deals with ARCGIS Online ...


The Effect Of Heterobifunctional Crosslinkers On Hema Hydrogel Modulus And Toughness, Elizabeth M. Boazak, Vaughn K. Greene Jr., Debra T. Auguste May 2019

The Effect Of Heterobifunctional Crosslinkers On Hema Hydrogel Modulus And Toughness, Elizabeth M. Boazak, Vaughn K. Greene Jr., Debra T. Auguste

Publications and Research

The use of hydrogels in load bearing applications is often limited by insufficient toughness. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based hydrogels are appealing for translational work, as they are affordable and the use of HEMA is FDA approved. Furthermore, HEMA is photopolymerizable, providing spatiotemporal control over mechanical properties. We evaluated the ability of vinyl methacrylate (VM), allyl methacrylate (AM), and 3-(Acryloyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (AHPM) to tune hydrogel toughness and Young’s modulus. The crosslinkers were selected due to their heterobifunctionality (vinyl and methacrylate) and similar size and structure to EGDMA, which was shown previously to increase toughness as compared to longer ...


Development Of Digital Bathymetry Maps For Lakes Azuei And Enriquillo Using Sonar And Remote Sensing Techniques, Michael Piasecki, Mahrokh Moknatian, Fred Moshary, Jorge Gonzalez May 2019

Development Of Digital Bathymetry Maps For Lakes Azuei And Enriquillo Using Sonar And Remote Sensing Techniques, Michael Piasecki, Mahrokh Moknatian, Fred Moshary, Jorge Gonzalez

Publications and Research

This article presents an improved algorithm for optimization and development of a digital bathymetric model (DBM) for Lake Azuei (LA) (Haiti) and Lake Enriquillo (LE) (Dominican Republic) using the ANUDEM method. Both sonar data and contour lines of the lakes’ layout extracted using Landsat imagery were compiled for bathymetry development. We show that the performance of the ANUDEM method was strongly dependent on the density and irregularity of the spatial distribution of the data. Changing the resolution of the output grids and deriving auxiliary topographically corrected contours improved the ANUDEM performance and minimized the systematic errors of the method. Statistical ...