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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Language As A Factor In Aviation Accidents And Serious Incidents: A Handbook For Accident Investigators, Elizabeth Mathews, Anthony T. Brickhouse, Joan Carson Ph.D., Enrique "Rick" Valdes Sep 2019

Language As A Factor In Aviation Accidents And Serious Incidents: A Handbook For Accident Investigators, Elizabeth Mathews, Anthony T. Brickhouse, Joan Carson Ph.D., Enrique "Rick" Valdes

Handbooks

In an increasingly multicultural and multilingual aviation industry, it is important that accident investigators understand the complex role of language in maintaining safe operations. This Handbook supports investigators to systematically identify and consider possible language factors in aviation accidents and serious incidents.


Advanced Photogrammetric Modeling Of Dranoc Kullas Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems, George Gebert, Liam Griffin, Justin Lawlor, Lauren Davis, Kylee Vander Velde, Sami Ali Jul 2019

Advanced Photogrammetric Modeling Of Dranoc Kullas Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems, George Gebert, Liam Griffin, Justin Lawlor, Lauren Davis, Kylee Vander Velde, Sami Ali

Student Works

Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), also known as drones, offer new capabilities for cultural heritage preservation activities. Student researchers from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University have applied photogrammetric techniques based upon sUAS captured imagery to assist with historical site documentation and cultural heritage preservation in the Republic of Kosovo. Imagery from three locations -- Isniq, Dranoc and Junik -- highlight this work. Student researchers created georectified orthomosaics and 3D virtual objects. At each of these three locations the object of interest was a type of building known as a kulla. These kullas are fortified homes built for protecting large families and are unique to ...


Aviation Weather Products In General Aviation : Interpretability And Usability Research Trends, Jacqueline Mcsorley, Jayde King, Beth Blickensderfer Jul 2019

Aviation Weather Products In General Aviation : Interpretability And Usability Research Trends, Jacqueline Mcsorley, Jayde King, Beth Blickensderfer

General Aviation Weather Display Interpretation

  • Introduction
  • Current Study
  • Trends
  • Summary
  • Conclusion


English Language Proficiency And Aviation Safety, Robert Fowler Jr. Jul 2019

English Language Proficiency And Aviation Safety, Robert Fowler Jr.

Student Works

The goal of this research study is to determine if aviation incidents and accidents due to deficiencies in English language proficiency have increased in the last 10 years based on data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). In addition, this study will determine whether deficiencies in English language proficiency have a significant impact on aviation safety. There are currently 184,636 student pilots according to the Federal Aviation Administration Airmen Certification System. Included in this number are 11,776 student pilots with a foreign address (Federal Aviation Administration [FAA], 2019). Findings presented at ...


Forensic Analysis Of Spy Applications In Android Devices, Shinelle Hutchinson, Umit Karabiyik May 2019

Forensic Analysis Of Spy Applications In Android Devices, Shinelle Hutchinson, Umit Karabiyik

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Smartphones with Google's Android operating system are becoming more and more popular each year, and with this increased user base, comes increased opportunities to collect more of these users' private data. There have been several instances of malware being made available via the Google Play Store, which is one of the predominant means for users to download applications. One effective way of collecting users' private data is by using Android Spyware. In this paper, we conduct a forensic analysis of a malicious Android spyware application and present our findings. We also highlight what information the application accesses and what ...


Exploring Perceived Usability And Interpretability Of Aviation Weather Products Among Ga Pilots, Jackie Mcsorley, Jayde King, Beth Blickensderfer May 2019

Exploring Perceived Usability And Interpretability Of Aviation Weather Products Among Ga Pilots, Jackie Mcsorley, Jayde King, Beth Blickensderfer

General Aviation Weather Display Interpretation

  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Current Investigations


High Consequence Safety Research And Policy: The Us Airline Application, Calissa Spooner, Tori Kobayashi, Brent D. Bowen Apr 2019

High Consequence Safety Research And Policy: The Us Airline Application, Calissa Spooner, Tori Kobayashi, Brent D. Bowen

Student Works

The implementation of safety programs in Flight Operations has been successful since the Federal Aviation Administration formally introduced Safety Management Systems (SMS) procedures in 2000. The addition of safety programs like SMS into aviation organizations has been confirmed to improve safety culture, communication, and overall hazard mitigation. This research explores the changes and improvements that are made in maintenance programs where an SMS is formally implemented. In the United States it is legal for children under the age of twenty-four months to fly in commercial aircraft on the lap of a parent or guardian, while being unsecured or unrestrained. Throughout ...


Emerging Need For A European Approach To Space Traffic Management, Tomas Hrozensky Feb 2019

Emerging Need For A European Approach To Space Traffic Management, Tomas Hrozensky

Space Traffic Management Conference

The intensification of space activities worldwide, together with the emergence of new actors and disruptive concepts (e.g. miniaturized satellites, mega-constellations, in-orbit operations), create new challenges to ensure the safety and security of space systems and operations as well as the long-term sustainability of space activities. Among policy responses to these challenges, the development of a new approach to space traffic management was recently brought to the forefront by the adoption of a policy directive in this domain by the United States.

A comparable STM policy has not yet been developed in Europe even though considerations for the safety, security ...


Analogies And Comparisons For Stm Data Bodies, Phillip M. Cunio, Brien Flewelling Feb 2019

Analogies And Comparisons For Stm Data Bodies, Phillip M. Cunio, Brien Flewelling

Space Traffic Management Conference

Space Traffic Management (STM) has already demonstrated its potential to be extremely data-intensive. The large number of objects on orbit today, if observed constantly throughout their lifetimes, could produce a staggeringly large number of observations that might in turn generate large numbers of orbits. Orbit data with a lengthy time history can be used to produce estimates of maneuver frequency, susceptibility to natural forces such as drag, and (if combined with photometric data) assessments of behavioral patterns of life.

A future of mega-constellations and a growing number of nations and organizations with assets on orbit would make it likely that ...


Astria Ontology: Open, Standards-Based, Data-Aggregated Representation Of Space Objects, Jennie Wolfgang, Kathleen Krysher, Michael Slovenski, Unmil P. Karadkar, Shiva Iyer, Moriba K. Jah Feb 2019

Astria Ontology: Open, Standards-Based, Data-Aggregated Representation Of Space Objects, Jennie Wolfgang, Kathleen Krysher, Michael Slovenski, Unmil P. Karadkar, Shiva Iyer, Moriba K. Jah

Space Traffic Management Conference

The necessity for standards-based ontologies for long-term sustainability of space operations and safety of increasing space flights has been well-established [6, 7]. Current ontologies, such as DARPA’s OrbitOutlook [5], are not publicly available, complicating efforts for their broad adoption. Most sensor data is siloed in proprietary databases [2] and provided only to authorized users, further complicating efforts to create a holistic view of resident space objects (RSOs) in order to enhance space situational awareness (SSA).

The ASTRIA project is developing an open data model with the goal of aggregating data about RSOs, parts, space weather, and governing policies in ...


Combined Report: Aviation Weather Knowledge Assessment & General Aviation (Ga) Pilots’ Interpretation Of Weather Products, Beth Blickensderfer, John Lanicci, Thomas A. Guinn, Robert Thomas, Jennifer E. Thropp, Jayde King, Yolanda Ortiz, Jessica Cruit, Nicholas Defilipis, Krijn Berendschot, Jacqueline Mcsorley, John Kleber Feb 2019

Combined Report: Aviation Weather Knowledge Assessment & General Aviation (Ga) Pilots’ Interpretation Of Weather Products, Beth Blickensderfer, John Lanicci, Thomas A. Guinn, Robert Thomas, Jennifer E. Thropp, Jayde King, Yolanda Ortiz, Jessica Cruit, Nicholas Defilipis, Krijn Berendschot, Jacqueline Mcsorley, John Kleber

General Aviation Weather Display Interpretation

Prior research has indicated that general aviation (GA) pilots may lack adequate knowledge of aviation weather concepts and skill at interpreting aviation weather displays. Therefore, the purpose of the current project was to develop and validate a comprehensive set of aviation weather knowledge and interpretation multiple-choice questions, and in turn, to use the questions to assess pilot understanding of aviation weather concepts and displays. An interdisciplinary research team that included two meteorologists, one Gold Seal Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI), a human factors psychologist, and several human factors graduate students performed this research.


Preflight Weather Worksheet, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Jan 2019

Preflight Weather Worksheet, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Weather Training Modules

Preflight Weather Worksheet

  • Big Picture
  • Hazards
  • Visibility


Usability Analysis Of Convective Sigmets, Jackie Mcsorley, Beth Blickensderfer Jan 2019

Usability Analysis Of Convective Sigmets, Jackie Mcsorley, Beth Blickensderfer

General Aviation Weather Display Interpretation

  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results

○ Interface Analysis: System Usability Scale

○ Workload Analysis: NASA-TLX

  • Discussion
  • Current Investigations


Aviation Weather Products In General Aviation: Interpretability And Usability Research Trends, Jacqueline Mcsorley, Jayde King, Beth Blickensderfer Jan 2019

Aviation Weather Products In General Aviation: Interpretability And Usability Research Trends, Jacqueline Mcsorley, Jayde King, Beth Blickensderfer

General Aviation Weather Display Interpretation

As a result of advances in weather forecasting and technology, today’s General Aviation (GA) pilots have access to a wealth of aviation weather information. During pre-flight planning, GA pilots may access weather radar images, satellite pictures, winds, and forecast maps. During flight, pilots can access in-cockpit weather displays, as well as, handheld portable weather devices. Despite the increasing advancement and accessibility of weather displays, there is limited research addressing the interpretability of both in-cockpit and preflight weather displays. This is particularly concerning considering that preflight planning and poor product interpretability have been cited as possible contributing factors for GA ...


Evaluation Of Suas Education And Training Tools, Brent Terwilliger, Scott Burgess, James Solti, Kristine Kiernan, Christian Janke, Andrew Shepherd Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Suas Education And Training Tools, Brent Terwilliger, Scott Burgess, James Solti, Kristine Kiernan, Christian Janke, Andrew Shepherd

Publications

The wide distribution and demographic composition of students seeking small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) education presents a need to fully understand the capabilities, limitations, and dependencies of effective training tools. Concepts, practices, and technologies associated with modeling and simulation, immersive gaming, augmented and mixed-reality, and remote operation have demonstrated efficacy to support engaged student learning and objective satisfaction. Identification and comparison of key attributes critical to an aviation educational framework, such as competency-based training, enables educational designers to identify those tools with the highest potential to support successful learning. A series of factors, such as system performance, regulatory compliance, environmental ...


Beyond 2020 Nextgen Compliance: Human Factors And Cognitive Loading Issues For Commercial And General Aviation Pilots, Mark D. Miller, Sam Holley Jan 2019

Beyond 2020 Nextgen Compliance: Human Factors And Cognitive Loading Issues For Commercial And General Aviation Pilots, Mark D. Miller, Sam Holley

Publications

As previously identified by the authors, digitized flight decks have realigned SHELL model components and introduced cognitive overload con­cerns. Considering changes from implementing Next Generation air traffic management requirements in 2020, the authors assess digitized interfaces associated with cockpit displays of information integral to performance based navigation and similar operations. Focus is placed on Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast, digitized communications, and expanded electronic flight bags. The ADSB (In) cockpit display will enable pilots to have flight visual awareness on aircraft, terrain, weather and hazards to flight through live satellite updates every second. Increased optical demands and cognitive loading are ...


A Change In The Dark Room: The Effects Of Human Factors And Cognitive Loading Issues For Nextgen Tracon Air Traffic Controllers, Mark D. Miller, Sam Holley, Bettina Mrusek, Linda Weiland Jan 2019

A Change In The Dark Room: The Effects Of Human Factors And Cognitive Loading Issues For Nextgen Tracon Air Traffic Controllers, Mark D. Miller, Sam Holley, Bettina Mrusek, Linda Weiland

Publications

By 2020 all aircraft in United States airspace must use ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Out. This is a key component of the Next Generation (NextGen) Air Transportation System, which marks the first time all aircraft will be tracked continuously using satellites instead of ground-based radar. Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (STARS) in the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) is a primary NextGen upgrade where digitized automation/information surrounds STARS controllers while controlling aircraft. Applying the SHELL model, the authors analyze human factors changes affecting TRACON controllers from pre-STARS technology through NextGen technologies on performance. Results of an informal survey of ...


Autonomous Airliners Anytime Soon?, Samuel M. Vance, Evan C. Bird, Daniel J. Tiffin Jan 2019

Autonomous Airliners Anytime Soon?, Samuel M. Vance, Evan C. Bird, Daniel J. Tiffin

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

This research seeks to extend the body of knowledge on factors influential in the decision to fly on an autonomous airliner as a passenger. Only a handful of studies have probed this direct question in the last 16 years, but the data is showing a growing public acceptance of this type of travel. Pivotal in this consideration is the basic element of trust – trust in automated airliners and trust in the airline and Air Traffic Control systems which are responsible for autonomous airliners. Human trust has many forms and manifestations, but in the end, it is a dichotomous or binary ...


Speech Interfaces And Pilot Performance: A Meta-Analysis, Kenneth A. Ward Jan 2019

Speech Interfaces And Pilot Performance: A Meta-Analysis, Kenneth A. Ward

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

As the aviation industry modernizes, new technology and interfaces must support growing aircraft complexity without increasing pilot workload. Natural language processing presents just such a simple and intuitive interface, yet the performance implications for use by pilots remain unknown. A meta-analysis was conducted to understand performance effects of using speech and voice interfaces in a series of pilot task analogs. The inclusion criteria selected studies that involved participants performing a demanding primary task, such as driving, while interacting with a vehicle system to enter numbers, dial radios, or enter a navigation destination. Compared to manual system interfaces, voice interfaces reduced ...


Global Aviation System: Towards Sustainable Development, Marina P. Bonser Dr. Jan 2019

Global Aviation System: Towards Sustainable Development, Marina P. Bonser Dr.

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Aviation around the world has integrated into a global system. As the integration process continues, more aspects and levels of it need to be lead towards the sustainable development of the whole system via advancing strategic management, global communication proficiency, and technological expertise. It becomes essential to enrich global language (English) proficiency with cross-cultural communication competence not only for communication in the air but also for airport security, passenger and cargo services, aircraft and equipage engineering, building, and maintenance. Nowadays lower levels of management need more advanced strategic thinking and problem solving skills, and higher levels of management need global ...


A Trust In Air Traffic Controllers (T-Atc) Scale, Bradley S. Baugh, Scott R. Winter Jan 2019

A Trust In Air Traffic Controllers (T-Atc) Scale, Bradley S. Baugh, Scott R. Winter

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Trust is a concept that cannot be easily measured. Further, trust is domain-specific. Trust is a foundational aspect of safe flight operations in the National Airspace System, and while there has been much attention to trust in teams and trust in automation, there appears to be a gap in knowledge of a pilot’s trust in air traffic controllers. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Trust in Air Traffic Controllers (T-ATC) scale, a summative scale to measure a pilot’s trust in air traffic controllers. This study followed a three-step methodology. In steps one and ...


Aircraft Interior Design And Satisfaction For Different Activities; A New Approach Toward Understanding Passenger Experience, Golnoosh Torkashvand, Lucas Stephane, Peter Vink Jan 2019

Aircraft Interior Design And Satisfaction For Different Activities; A New Approach Toward Understanding Passenger Experience, Golnoosh Torkashvand, Lucas Stephane, Peter Vink

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Among airlines and aircraft manufacturers there is much attention for passenger experience. However, there is not much literature on how the activities of passengers can be supported by the aircraft interior. The current study focuses on the need finding and requirements analysis of flight passengers. Twenty-three activities were defined based on retrospective interviews and brainstorming sessions. Respondents were asked to rate their overall perception related to the importance of each of those 23 activities on a Linkert scale, from “not at all important” to “extremely important”. On a separate question they were also asked to rate their overall satisfaction by ...