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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Processing Of Alnico Magnets By Additive Manufacturing, Emma White, Emily Rinko, Timothy Prost, Timothy Horn, Christopher Ledford, Christopher Rock, Iver E. Anderson Nov 2019

Processing Of Alnico Magnets By Additive Manufacturing, Emma White, Emily Rinko, Timothy Prost, Timothy Horn, Christopher Ledford, Christopher Rock, Iver E. Anderson

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Permanent magnets without rare earth (RE) elements, such as alnico, will improve supply stability and potentially decrease permanent magnet cost, especially for traction drive motors and other increased temperature applications. Commercial alnico magnets with the highest energy product are produced by directional solidification (DS) to achieve a <001> columnar grain orientation followed by significant final machining, adding to the high cost. Additive manufacturing (AM) is an effective method to process near net-shape parts with minimal final machining of complex geometries. AM also, has potential for texture/grain orientation control and compositionally graded structures. This report describes fabrication of alnico magnets by ...


Open Source Waste Plastic Granulator, Arvind Ravindran, Sean Scsavnicki, Walker Nelson, Peter Gorecki, Jacob Franz, Shane Oberloier, Theresa K. Meyer, Andrew Barnard, Joshua M. Pearce Oct 2019

Open Source Waste Plastic Granulator, Arvind Ravindran, Sean Scsavnicki, Walker Nelson, Peter Gorecki, Jacob Franz, Shane Oberloier, Theresa K. Meyer, Andrew Barnard, Joshua M. Pearce

Michigan Tech Publications

In order to accelerate deployment of distributed recycling by providing low-cost feed stocks of granulated post-consumer waste plastic, this study analyzes an open source waste plastic granulator system. It is designed, built, and tested for its ability to convert post-consumer waste, 3D printed products and waste into polymer feedstock for recyclebots of fused particle/granule printers. The technical specifications of the device are quantified in terms of power consumption (380 to 404 W for PET and PLA, respectively) and particle size distribution. The open source device can be fabricated for less than $2000 USD in materials. The experimentally measured power ...


Smart Additive Manufacturing: In-Process Sensing And Data Analytics For Online Defect Detection In Metal Additive Manufacturing Processes, Mohammad Montazeri Oct 2019

Smart Additive Manufacturing: In-Process Sensing And Data Analytics For Online Defect Detection In Metal Additive Manufacturing Processes, Mohammad Montazeri

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The goal of this dissertation is to detect the incipient flaws in metal parts made using additive manufacturing processes (3D printing). The key idea is to embed sensors inside a 3D printing machine and conclude whether there are defects in the part as it is being built by analyzing the sensor data using artificial intelligence (machine learning). This is an important area of research, because, despite their revolutionary potential, additive manufacturing processes are yet to find wider acceptance in safety-critical industries, such as aerospace and biomedical, given their propensity to form defects. The presence of defects, such as porosity, can ...


Mechanical And Corrosion Properties Of Additively Manufactured Cocrfemnni High Entropy Alloy, Michael A. Melia, Jay D. Carroll, Shaun R. Whetten, Saba N. Esmaeely, Jenifer Locke (Warner), Emma White, Iver E. Anderson, Michael Chandross, Joseph R. Michael, Nicolas Argibay, Eric J. Schindelholz, Andrew B. Kustas Oct 2019

Mechanical And Corrosion Properties Of Additively Manufactured Cocrfemnni High Entropy Alloy, Michael A. Melia, Jay D. Carroll, Shaun R. Whetten, Saba N. Esmaeely, Jenifer Locke (Warner), Emma White, Iver E. Anderson, Michael Chandross, Joseph R. Michael, Nicolas Argibay, Eric J. Schindelholz, Andrew B. Kustas

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

This study investigates the mechanical and corrosion properties of as-built and annealed equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi alloy produced by laser-based directed energy deposition (DED) Additive Manufacturing (AM). The high cooling rates of DED produced a single-phase, cellular microstructure with cells on the order of 4 μm in diameter and inter-cellular regions that were enriched in Mn and Ni. Annealing created a chemically homogeneous recrystallized microstructure with a high density of annealing twins. The average yield strength of the as-built condition was 424 MPa and exceeded the annealed condition (232 MPa), however; the strain hardening rate was lower for the as-built material stemming ...


Laser‐Induced Keyhole Defect Dynamics During Metal Additive Manufacturing, Andrew M. Kiss, Anthony Y. Fong, Nicholas P. Calta, Vivek Thampy, Aiden A. Martin, Philip J. Depond, Jenny Wang, Manyalibo J. Matthews, Ryan T. Ott, Christopher J. Tassone, Kevin H. Stone, Matthew J. Kramer, Anthony Van Buuren, Michael F. Toney, Johanna Nelson Weker Oct 2019

Laser‐Induced Keyhole Defect Dynamics During Metal Additive Manufacturing, Andrew M. Kiss, Anthony Y. Fong, Nicholas P. Calta, Vivek Thampy, Aiden A. Martin, Philip J. Depond, Jenny Wang, Manyalibo J. Matthews, Ryan T. Ott, Christopher J. Tassone, Kevin H. Stone, Matthew J. Kramer, Anthony Van Buuren, Michael F. Toney, Johanna Nelson Weker

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) metal additive manufacturing provides distinct advantages for aerospace and biomedical applications. However, widespread industrial adoption is limited by a lack of confidence in part properties driven by an incomplete understanding of how unique process parameters relate to defect formation and ultimately mechanical properties. To address that gap, high‐speed X‐ray imaging is used to probe subsurface melt pool dynamics and void‐formation mechanisms inaccessible to other monitoring approaches. This technique directly observes the depth and dynamic behavior of the vapor depression, also known as the keyhole depression, which is formed by recoil pressure from ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of AlₓCrcufeni₂ High-Entropy Alloys Coatings By Laser Metal Deposition, Wenyuan Cui, Xinchang Zhang, Lan Li, Yitao Chen, Tan Pan, Frank W. Liou Aug 2019

Fabrication And Characterization Of AlₓCrcufeni₂ High-Entropy Alloys Coatings By Laser Metal Deposition, Wenyuan Cui, Xinchang Zhang, Lan Li, Yitao Chen, Tan Pan, Frank W. Liou

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are becoming new hot spots in the metallic materials community, which are defined to contain equiatomic or close-to-equiatomic compositions. HEAs can possess many interesting mechanical properties, and in particular, they have the great potential to be used as coating materials requiring high hardness and wear resistance. In this study, the feasibility of fabrication AlₓCrCuFeNi₂ (x=0,0.75) HEAs was investigated via laser metal deposition from elemental powders. The microstructure, phase structure, and hardness were studied by an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and Vickers hardness tester ...


Modeling Thermal And Mechanical Cancellation Of Residual Stress From Hybrid Additive Manufacturing By Laser Peening, Guru Madireddy, Chao Li, Jingfu Liu, Michael P. Sealy Jul 2019

Modeling Thermal And Mechanical Cancellation Of Residual Stress From Hybrid Additive Manufacturing By Laser Peening, Guru Madireddy, Chao Li, Jingfu Liu, Michael P. Sealy

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals often results in parts with unfavorable mechanical properties. Laser peening (LP) is a high strain rate mechanical surface treatment that hammers a workpiece and induces favorable mechanical properties. Peening strain hardens a surface and imparts compressive residual stresses improving the mechanical properties of a material. This work investigates the role of LP on layer-by-layer processing of 3D printed metals using finite element analysis. The objective is to understand temporal and spatial residual stress development after thermal and mechanical cancellation caused by cyclically coupling printing and peening. Results indicate layer peening frequency is a critical process ...


Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panagiotis Pantidis Jul 2019

Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panagiotis Pantidis

Doctoral Dissertations

Structural systems are potentially subjected to damage initiating scenarios throughout the course of their service time. Depending on the nature and extent of the damaging event, they may experience significant reduction or even complete loss of their mechanical performance. This dissertation delves into the mechanics of structural systems under the notion of missing members from their domain, investigating types of structural systems: a) multi-story steel framed buildings, and b) materials with a truss-lattice microstructure.

Part I of the dissertation investigates the performance of multi-story steel framed buildings under a column removal scenario, developing an analytical framework for their quasi-static robustness ...


A Hybrid Process Integrating Reverse Engineering, Pre-Repair Processing, Additive Manufacturing, And Material Testing For Component Remanufacturing, Xinchang Zhang, Wenyuan Cui, Wei Li, Frank W. Liou Jun 2019

A Hybrid Process Integrating Reverse Engineering, Pre-Repair Processing, Additive Manufacturing, And Material Testing For Component Remanufacturing, Xinchang Zhang, Wenyuan Cui, Wei Li, Frank W. Liou

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Metallic components can gain defects such as dents, cracks, wear, heat checks, deformation, etc., that need to be repaired before reinserting into service for extending the lifespan of these parts. In this study, a hybrid process was developed to integrate reverse engineering, pre-repair processing, additive manufacturing, and material testing for the purpose of part remanufacturing. Worn components with varied defects were scanned using a 3D scanner to recreate the three-dimensional models. Pre-repair processing methods which include pre-repair machining and heat-treatment were introduced. Strategies for pre-repair machining of defects including surface impact damage, surface superficial damage and cracking were presented. Pre-repair ...


Evaluation Of Tensile Properties For Selective Laser Melted 316l Stainless Steel And The Influence Of Inherent Process Features, Paul Swartz Jun 2019

Evaluation Of Tensile Properties For Selective Laser Melted 316l Stainless Steel And The Influence Of Inherent Process Features, Paul Swartz

Master's Theses

Optimal print parameters for additively manufacturing 316L stainless steel using selective laser melting (SLM) at Cal Poly had previously been identified. In order to further support the viability of the current settings, tensile material characteristics were needed. Furthermore, reliable performance of the as-printed material had to be demonstrated. Any influence on the static performance of parts in the as-printed condition inherent to the SLM manufacturing process itself needed to be identified. Tensile testing was conducted to determine the properties of material in the as-printed condition. So as to have confidence in the experimental results, other investigations were also conducted to ...


Mechanical Properties And Applications Of Recycled Polycarbonate Particle Material Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing, Matthew J. Reich, Aubrey Woern, Nagendra Gautam Tanikella, Joshua M. Pearce May 2019

Mechanical Properties And Applications Of Recycled Polycarbonate Particle Material Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing, Matthew J. Reich, Aubrey Woern, Nagendra Gautam Tanikella, Joshua M. Pearce

Michigan Tech Publications

Past work has shown that particle material extrusion (fused particle fabrication (FPF)/fused granular fabrication (FGF)) has the potential for increasing the use of recycled polymers in 3D printing. This study extends this potential to high-performance (high-mechanical-strength and heat-resistant) polymers using polycarbonate (PC). Recycled PC regrind of approximately 25 mm2 was 3D printed with an open-source Gigabot X and analyzed. A temperature and nozzle velocity matrix was used to find useful printing parameters, and a print test was used to maximize the output for a two-temperature stage extruder for PC. ASTM type 4 tensile test geometries as well as ...


A Study On Ultrasonic Energy Assisted Metal Processing : Its Correeltion With Microstructure And Properties, And Its Application To Additive Manufacturing., Anagh Deshpande May 2019

A Study On Ultrasonic Energy Assisted Metal Processing : Its Correeltion With Microstructure And Properties, And Its Application To Additive Manufacturing., Anagh Deshpande

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Additive manufacturing or 3d printing is the process of constructing a 3-dimensional object layer-by-layer. This additive approach to manufacturing has enabled fabrication of complex components directly from a computer model (or a CAD model). The process has now matured from its earlier version of being a rapid prototyping tool to a technology that can fabricate service-ready components. Development of low-cost polymer additive manufacturing printers enabled by open source Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) printers and printers of other technologies like SLA and binder jetting has made polymer additive manufacturing accessible and affordable. But the metal additive manufacturing technologies are still expensive ...


Open Source Completely 3-D Printable Centrifuge, Salil S. Sule, Aliaksei Petsiuk, Joshua M. Pearce May 2019

Open Source Completely 3-D Printable Centrifuge, Salil S. Sule, Aliaksei Petsiuk, Joshua M. Pearce

Michigan Tech Publications

Centrifuges are commonly required devices in medical diagnostics facilities as well as scientific laboratories. Although there are commercial and open source centrifuges, the costs of the former and the required electricity to operate the latter limit accessibility in resource-constrained settings. There is a need for low-cost, human-powered, verified, and reliable lab-scale centrifuges. This study provides the designs for a low-cost 100% 3-D printed centrifuge, which can be fabricated on any low-cost RepRap-class (self-replicating rapid prototyper) fused filament fabrication (FFF)- or fused particle fabrication (FPF)-based 3-D printer. In addition, validation procedures are provided using a web camera and free and ...


Nde In-Process For Metal Parts Fabricated Using Powder Based Additive Manufacturing, Leonard J. Bond, Lucas W. Koester, Hossein Taheri Mar 2019

Nde In-Process For Metal Parts Fabricated Using Powder Based Additive Manufacturing, Leonard J. Bond, Lucas W. Koester, Hossein Taheri

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Ensuring adequate quality for additive manufactured (AM) materials presents unique metrology challenges to the on-line process measurement and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) communities. AM parts now have complex forms that are not possible using subtractive manufacturing and there are moves for their use in safety criticality components. This paper briefly reviews the status, challenges and metrology opportunities throughout the AM process from powder to finished parts. The primary focus is on new acoustic signatures that have been demonstrated to correlate process parameters with on-line measurement for monitoring and characterization during the build. In-process, quantitative characterization and monitoring of material state is ...


An Energy Profile Model For Fused Deposition Modeling 3d Printing Process, Calvin Hawkins Jan 2019

An Energy Profile Model For Fused Deposition Modeling 3d Printing Process, Calvin Hawkins

ROEU 2018-19

This project develops a strategy to monitor and estimate the energy consumption of fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing, which will benefit manufacturers and designers seeking to design and manufacture products with minimal energy consumption.


Design And Mechanical Characterization Of 3d Printed Gradient Porosity Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds, Andrea Felicelli Jan 2019

Design And Mechanical Characterization Of 3d Printed Gradient Porosity Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds, Andrea Felicelli

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions, an already prevalent problem, is expected to double by 2020 from the rate in 2013 due to factors such as higher life expectancies and lower levels of physical activity. Every year in the United States, over half a million patients receive bone defect repairs, with costs greater than $2.5 billion. Current repairs are typically done with bone grafts, which are often costly and can result in added complications in the donor surgical site. Tissue engineering, a growing field that seeks to assist and enhance tissue defect repairs through the use of synthetic ...


Additive Manufactured Ear Pinna For Spatial Cue Preservation In Custom Hearing Devices, Carlos Felipe Acosta Carrasco Jan 2019

Additive Manufactured Ear Pinna For Spatial Cue Preservation In Custom Hearing Devices, Carlos Felipe Acosta Carrasco

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Advancements in additive manufacturing/3D printing technologies has permitted the fabrication of intricate features such as the ones present in the human ear. The outer ear, also known as the pinna, allows for the spectral cues from incoming sound to be captured and identified. The hypothesis of the preservation of auditory localization and externalization relies on the fabrication of an ear pinna via additive manufacturing embedded into a headset for spectral cue preservation and hearing protection. Before exploring these custom circumaural hearing devices, a study on the fabrication process of AM pinnae was performed. The KEMAR system for acoustic research ...


Rasters Vs Contours For Thin Wall Ultem 9085 Fdm Applications, Vausman Kota Jan 2019

Rasters Vs Contours For Thin Wall Ultem 9085 Fdm Applications, Vausman Kota

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Currently many components are additively manufactured via fused deposition modeling (FDM). However, FDM results in gaps between passes which produces a poor surface finish and porous material that is difficult to hold pressure. Commercial scale air systems require a pressure to be maintained within thin walled components with minimal post processing and clean up after fabrication. A design of experiments (DOE) was created to identify the optimal raster vs contour ratio for UTLEM 9085 CG fabricated using FDM at different build angles and wall thicknesses. A custom-built pressurized test system was developed, the leak rates were calculated and the surfaces ...


The Effect Of Cell Size And Surface Roughness On The Compressive Properties Of Abs Lattice Structures Fabricated By Fused Deposition Modeling, Leah Hope Mason Jan 2019

The Effect Of Cell Size And Surface Roughness On The Compressive Properties Of Abs Lattice Structures Fabricated By Fused Deposition Modeling, Leah Hope Mason

Masters Theses

"Postprocessing is an important step in many manufacturing methods, but it is especially important for additive manufacturing. Researchers looking to improve the surface roughness of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) parts fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM) have determined that acetone smoothing not only achieves improved surface roughness but increases compressive strength as well. This could be very beneficial to lattice structures, which are known for already having an excellent strength to weight ratio. If the compressive strength of ABS lattice structures could be improved even further using acetone smoothing, it could expand the applications for plastic lattice structures and improve ...


Remanufacturing Of Precision Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing Technology, Xinchang Zhang Jan 2019

Remanufacturing Of Precision Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing Technology, Xinchang Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Critical metallic components such as jet engine turbine blades and casting die/mold may be damaged after servicing for a period at harsh working environments such as elevated temperature and pressure, impact with foreign objects, wear, corrosion, and fatigue. Additive manufacturing has a promising application for the refurbishment of such high-costly parts by depositing materials at the damaged zone to restore the nominal geometry. However, several issues such as pre-processing of worn parts to assure the repairability, reconstructing the repair volume to generate a repair tool path for material deposition, and inspection of repaired parts are challenging. The current research ...


Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li Jan 2019

Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is a recently developed freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing dense ceramic components from single and multiple constituents. In this process, aqueous paste of ceramic particles with a very low binder content ( < 1 vol%) is extruded through a moving nozzle to print each layer sequentially. Once one layer is printed, it is surrounded by oil to prevent undesirable water evaporation from the perimeters of the part. The oil level is regulated just below the topmost layer of the part being fabricated. Infrared radiation is then applied to uniformly and partially dry the top layer so that the yield stress of the paste increases to avoid part deformation. By repeating the above steps, the part is printed in a layer-wise fashion, followed by post-processing. Paste extrusion precision of different extrusion mechanisms was compared and analyzed, with an auger extruder determined to be the most suitable paste extruder for the CODE system. A novel fabrication system was developed based on a motion gantry, auger extruders, and peripheral devices. Sample specimens were then produced from 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia using this fabrication system, and their properties, including density, flexural strength, Young's modulus, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness were measured. The results indicated that superior mechanical properties were achieved by the CODE process among all the additive manufacturing processes. Further development was made on the CODE process to fabricate ceramic components that have external/internal features such as overhangs by using fugitive support material. Finally, ceramic composites with functionally graded materials (FGMs) were fabricated by the CODE process using a dynamic mixing device"--Abstract, page iv.


Glocal Integrity In 420 Stainless Steel By Asynchronous Laser Processing, Michael P. Sealy, Haitham Hadidi, Cody Kanger, X. L. Yan, Bai Cui, J. A. Mcgeough Jan 2019

Glocal Integrity In 420 Stainless Steel By Asynchronous Laser Processing, Michael P. Sealy, Haitham Hadidi, Cody Kanger, X. L. Yan, Bai Cui, J. A. Mcgeough

Mechanical & Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Cold working individual layers during additive manufacturing (AM) by mechanical surface treatments, such as peening, effectively “prints” an aggregate surface integrity that is referred to as a glocal (i.e., local with global implications) integrity. Printing a complex, pre-designed glocal integrity throughout the build volume is a feasible approach to improve functional performance while mitigating distortion. However, coupling peening with AM introduces new manufacturing challenges, namely thermal cancellation, whereby heat relaxes favorable residual stresses and work hardening when printing on a peened layer. Thus, this work investigates glocal integrity formation from cyclically coupling LENS® with laser peening on 420 stainless ...


3d Printing In Low Resource Healthcare Settings: Analysis Of Potential Implementations, Alenna Beroza Jan 2019

3d Printing In Low Resource Healthcare Settings: Analysis Of Potential Implementations, Alenna Beroza

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

3D printing has gained significant momentum in the past ten years, and its unique advantages make it especially ideal for use in low resource healthcare settings, where many designs have already been successfully implemented. Yet, little has been studied on how 3D printing can be sustainably and functionally implemented in low resource healthcare systems as a manufacturing practice. In this report, three business models are proposed for this implementation: In-House Operator, Independent Operator, and Print Farm. These models were then tested over four months in Kisumu county, Kenya, at two workshops and seven public hospitals. I worked with local medical ...


Mechanical Characterization Of Anisotropic Fused Deposition Modeled Polylactic Acid Under Combined Monotonic Bending And Torsion Conditions, Aaron T. Santomauro Jan 2019

Mechanical Characterization Of Anisotropic Fused Deposition Modeled Polylactic Acid Under Combined Monotonic Bending And Torsion Conditions, Aaron T. Santomauro

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Mechanical strength of polylactic acid (PLA) is increasingly relevant with time because of its attractive mechanical properties and 3D printability. Additive manufacturing (AM) methods, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA), and selective laser sintering (SLS), serve a vital role in assisting designers with cheap and efficient generation of the desired components. This document presents research to investigate the anisotropic response of multi-oriented PLA subjected to multiple monotonic loading conditions. Although empirical data has previously been captured for multi-oriented PLA under tensile and compressive loading conditions, the data has yet to be applied with regard to a representative component ...