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2019

Chemistry

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Identification Of An Ags2 Complex On Ag(110), Peter M. Spurgeon, Da-Jiang Liu, Junepyo Oh, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel Dec 2019

Identification Of An Ags2 Complex On Ag(110), Peter M. Spurgeon, Da-Jiang Liu, Junepyo Oh, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

Adsorbed sulfur has been investigated on the Ag(110) surface at two different coverages, 0.02 and 0.25 monolayers. At the lower coverage, only sulfur adatoms are present. At the higher coverage, there are additional bright features which we identify as linear, independent AgS2 complexes. This identification is based upon density functional theory (DFT) and its comparison with experimental observations including bias dependence and separation between complexes. DFT also predicts the absence of AgS2 complexes at low coverage, and the development of AgS2 complexes around a coverage of 0.25 monolayers of sulfur, as is experimentally observed. To our ...


Evaluation Of The Mechanisms And Effectiveness Of Nano-Hydroxides, Wood And Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars To Remove Fluoride And Heavy Metals From Water, Anna Rose Wallace, Wenjie Sun Dr, Chunming Su Dr Dec 2019

Evaluation Of The Mechanisms And Effectiveness Of Nano-Hydroxides, Wood And Dairy Manure-Derived Biochars To Remove Fluoride And Heavy Metals From Water, Anna Rose Wallace, Wenjie Sun Dr, Chunming Su Dr

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses and Dissertations

The development of effective treatment processes for the removal contaminants, such as fluoride and heavy metals, from polluted water have been urgently needed due to serious environmental health and safety concerns. In this dissertation, a variety of materials including various (hydro)oxide nanomaterials, biochars and surface modified biochar were studied to evaluate their effectiveness and mechanism on removing fluoride or mixed heavy metals from water.

In the Chapter 2, this study investigated the adsorptive removal of fluoride from water using various (hydro)oxide nanomaterials, focusing on ferrihydrite, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and brucite, which have the potential to be used as sorbents ...


Low Temperature Liquid Metal Batteries For Energy Storage Applications, Cameron A. Lippert, Kunlei Liu, James Landon, Susan A. Odom, Nicolas E. Holubowitch Dec 2019

Low Temperature Liquid Metal Batteries For Energy Storage Applications, Cameron A. Lippert, Kunlei Liu, James Landon, Susan A. Odom, Nicolas E. Holubowitch

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Patents

The present invention relates to a molten metal battery of liquid bismuth and liquid tin electrodes and a eutectic electrolyte. The electrodes may be coaxial and coplanar. The eutectic electrolyte may be in contact with a surface of each electrode. The eutectic electrolyte may comprise ZnC12:KCI.


Instrumentation For Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Application Of Electron Decoupling For Electron Relaxation Measurement, Nicholas Howard Alaniva Dec 2019

Instrumentation For Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Application Of Electron Decoupling For Electron Relaxation Measurement, Nicholas Howard Alaniva

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic nuclear polarization nuclear magnetic resonance (DNP NMR) exploits internal electron spin and nuclear spin interactions to increase sensitivity and uncover valuable information regarding structure and dynamics of a system. To manipulate these interactions, instrumentation is developed to combine high-power microwave and radiofrequency irradiation with the ability to spin samples at the magic angle (MAS) at temperatures from 90 K to 4.2 K. Electron decoupling uses frequency-modulated microwaves to mitigate the electron-nuclear dipolar interaction, improving signal intensity and resolution in DNP NMR experiments. Electron decoupling is combined with short DNP periods to encode electron spin information in polarized nuclear ...


Zirconia-Based Compositions For Use In Passive NoX Adsorber Devices, Deborah Jayne Harris, David Alastair Scapens, John G. Darab, Mark Crocker, Yaying Ji Dec 2019

Zirconia-Based Compositions For Use In Passive NoX Adsorber Devices, Deborah Jayne Harris, David Alastair Scapens, John G. Darab, Mark Crocker, Yaying Ji

Chemistry Faculty Patents

A passive NOx adsorbent includes: palladium, platinum or a mixture thereof and a mixed or composite oxide including the following elements in percentage by weight, expressed in terms of oxide: 10-90% by weight zirconium and 0.1-50% by weight of least one of the following: a transition metal or a lanthanide series element other than Ce.

Although the passive NOx adsorbent can include Ce in an amount ranging from 0.1 to 20% by weight expressed in terms of oxide, advantages are obtained particularly in the case of low-Ce or a substantially Ce-free passive NOx adsorbent.


Highly Reactive Energetic Films By Pre-Stressing Nano-Aluminum Particles, Michael N. Bello, Alan M. Williams, Valery I. Levitas, Nobumichi Tamura, Daniel K. Unruh, Juliusz Warzywoda, Michelle L. Pantoya Dec 2019

Highly Reactive Energetic Films By Pre-Stressing Nano-Aluminum Particles, Michael N. Bello, Alan M. Williams, Valery I. Levitas, Nobumichi Tamura, Daniel K. Unruh, Juliusz Warzywoda, Michelle L. Pantoya

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Energetic films were synthesized using stress altered nano-aluminum particles (nAl). The nAl powder was pre-stressed to examine how modified mechanical properties of the fuel particles influenced film reactivity. Pre-stressing conditions varied by quenching rate. Slow and rapid quenching rates induced elevated dilatational strain within the nAl particles that was measured using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). An analytical model for stress and strain in a nAl core–Al2O3 shell particle that includes creep in the shell and delamination at the core–shell boundary, was developed and used for interpretation of strain measurements. Results show rapid quenching induced 81% delamination at the ...


Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm For Solving Fuzzy Multi-Objective Bed Allocation Model, Abdulhakeem Luqman Hasan Dec 2019

Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm For Solving Fuzzy Multi-Objective Bed Allocation Model, Abdulhakeem Luqman Hasan

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

With the improvement of the medical services frameworks rivalry, hospitals face more and more challenges. In the interim, allotment of resource has a crucial influence on performing competitive benefits in a hospitals. To choose the suitable beds number is one of the most essential tasks in hospital administration. Anyway, in true condition, bed allotment choice is a multiple-side problem with weakness and haphazardness of the information available. It is so sophisticated. Therefore, the research about bed allotment difficulty is comparatively rare under considering multiple departments, nursing hours, and stochastic information about arrival and service of patients. In this paper, we ...


Novel Silica Filled Deep Eutectic Solvent Based Nanofluids For Energy Transportation, Changhui Liu, Hui Fang, Xinjian Liu, Ben Xu, Zhonghao Rao Nov 2019

Novel Silica Filled Deep Eutectic Solvent Based Nanofluids For Energy Transportation, Changhui Liu, Hui Fang, Xinjian Liu, Ben Xu, Zhonghao Rao

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Liquid range of nanofluids is a crucial parameter as it intensively determines their application temperature scope. Meanwhile, improved thermal conductivity and stability are of great significances and comprise the main fundamental research topics of nanofluids. In this work, 2- butoxy-3,4-dihydropyran (DP), produced from a convenient one-pot three-component reaction in water, was employed as dual lipophilic brusher and metal nanoparticle anchor. It was found that DP was able to enhance the dispersing ability and thermal conductivity of SiO2 nanoparticle filled deep eutectic solvent (DES) based nanofluids simultaneously. The key to the success of this protocol mainly relies on the electrophilic ...


Fabricating Fe Nanocrystals Via Encapsulation At The Graphite Surface, Ana Lii-Rosales, Yong Han, King C. Lai, Dapeng Jing, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel Nov 2019

Fabricating Fe Nanocrystals Via Encapsulation At The Graphite Surface, Ana Lii-Rosales, Yong Han, King C. Lai, Dapeng Jing, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

In this paper, the authors describe the conditions under which Fe forms encapsulated nanocrystals beneath the surface of graphite, and they characterize these islands (graphite + Fe) thoroughly. The authors use the experimental techniques of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) plus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the computational technique of density functional theory (DFT). Necessary conditions for encapsulation are preexisting ion-induced defects in the graphite substrate and elevated deposition temperature of 875–900 K. Evidence of encapsulation consists of atomically resolved STM images of a carbon lattice, both on top of the islands and on the sloping sides. The nature of the ...


Understanding The Synthesis Of Supported Vanadium Oxide Catalysts Using Chemical Grafting, Alyssa M. Love, Melissa C. Cendejas, Michael P. Hanrahan, Scott L. Carnahan, Pajean Uchupalanun, Aaron J. Rossini, Ive Hermans Nov 2019

Understanding The Synthesis Of Supported Vanadium Oxide Catalysts Using Chemical Grafting, Alyssa M. Love, Melissa C. Cendejas, Michael P. Hanrahan, Scott L. Carnahan, Pajean Uchupalanun, Aaron J. Rossini, Ive Hermans

Chemistry Publications

The complexity of variables during incipient wetness impregnation synthesis of supported metal oxides precludes an in‐depth understanding of the chemical reactions governing the formation of the dispersed oxide sites. This contribution describes the use of vapor phase deposition chemistry (also known as grafting) as a tool to systematically investigate the influence of isopropanol solvent on VO(OiPr)3 anchoring during synthesis of vanadium oxide on silica. We find that the availability of anchoring sites on silica not only depends on the pretreatment of the silica but also on the solvent present. H‐bond donors can reduce the reactivity of ...


Sustainable Solutions, Fall/Winter 2020, Issue 41 Nov 2019

Sustainable Solutions, Fall/Winter 2020, Issue 41

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Performance Of Concrete Made With A Calcined Clay – Limestone-Portland Cement Exposed To Natural Conditions, Fernando Martirena, Ernesto Díaz, Dayran Rocha, Hamed Maraghechi, Karen Louise Scrivener Nov 2019

Performance Of Concrete Made With A Calcined Clay – Limestone-Portland Cement Exposed To Natural Conditions, Fernando Martirena, Ernesto Díaz, Dayran Rocha, Hamed Maraghechi, Karen Louise Scrivener

International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures

This work presents the results of an investigation carried out to assess durability of concrete made with a calcined clay- limestone-Portland cement with 47% of clinker, hereafter named LC3, produced during an industrial trial in 2013. LC3 was used to cast concrete blocks and later expose them at a natural location at the northern coast of Cuba. Reference concrete was cast with Cuban Portland cement having 88% of clinker. Throughout three years (2015, 2016, 2017) concrete cores were systematically taken and the specimens were subjected to a testing program that included Formation factor, chloride profiling, surface resistivity, air permeability and ...


Decorative Articles Based On Polymeric Materials, Yaser M. Asal Mr., M. A. Radwan, Hany A. Elazab Dr, Bassant Hussein, Mohamed A. Sadek Nov 2019

Decorative Articles Based On Polymeric Materials, Yaser M. Asal Mr., M. A. Radwan, Hany A. Elazab Dr, Bassant Hussein, Mohamed A. Sadek

Chemical Engineering

The aim of the research is to create decorative articles based on polymeric materials, study the effects of fillers and the type of moulds that it can cope with the exothermic reaction nature of resin to create a scientific background on the usage of the resins in daily life products. The polymeric materials that will be concentrated on are the unsaturated polyester resins and epoxy resins. The unsaturated polyester is of many types and chemical constituents, the used experimentally is a general-purpose type and the epoxy also have different types and the used is a commercially 3D floor coating type ...


Top-Down And Bottom-Up Fabrication Of Key Components In Miniature Energy Storage Devices, Wenhao Li Oct 2019

Top-Down And Bottom-Up Fabrication Of Key Components In Miniature Energy Storage Devices, Wenhao Li

Doctoral Dissertations

The advent of miniature electronic devices demands power sources of commensurate form factors. This spurs the research of micro energy storage devices, e.g., 3D microbatteries. A 3D microbattery contains nonplanar microelectrodes with high aspect ratio and high surface area, separated by a nanoscale electrolyte. The device takes up a total volume as small as 10 mm3, allowing it to serve on a chip and to provide power in-situ. The marriage of nanotechnology and electrochemical energy storage makes microbattery research a fascinating field with both scientific excitement and application prospect. However, successful fabrication of well-functioned key components and the ...


Designing Ion-Containing Polymers With Controlled Structure And Dynamics, Joshua Enokida Oct 2019

Designing Ion-Containing Polymers With Controlled Structure And Dynamics, Joshua Enokida

Doctoral Dissertations

Ion-containing polymers are a unique class of materials for which strong electrostatic interactions dictate physical properties. By altering molecular parameters, such as the backbone chemical structure, the ion content, and the ion-pair identity, the structure and dynamics of these polymers can be altered. Further investigation of the molecular parameters that govern their structure-property relationships is critical for the future development of these polymeric materials. Particularly, the incorporation of ammonium-based counterions into these polymers offers a facile method to tune their electrostatic interactions and hydrophobicity. Applying this concept, a bulky dimethyloctylammonium (DMOA) counterion was used to modify the organic solubility of ...


Novel Avenues Toward Controlling The Photophysical Properties Of Ultra-Small Silicon Quantum Dots, Mohammed Abdelhameed Oct 2019

Novel Avenues Toward Controlling The Photophysical Properties Of Ultra-Small Silicon Quantum Dots, Mohammed Abdelhameed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Quantum dots (QDs) have attracted an increasing attention in the last decade over many conventional organic dyes. This is due to their unique optical properties including broad absorption spectra, high photostability, and size-tunable photoluminescence (PL). However, some toxicity concerns associated with traditional quantum dots have hindered their wide applicability. Interestingly, silicon quantum dots (SQDs) have been shown to be more advantageous than most of QDs thanks to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, low cytotoxicity, and versatile surface functionalization capability. Thus, SQDs are promising candidates for various biological and biomedical applications such as bioimaging, biosensing, and photodynamic therapy. Unfortunately, only a ...


Progress Toward Durable Icephobic Materials, Matthew J. Coady Oct 2019

Progress Toward Durable Icephobic Materials, Matthew J. Coady

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ice accumulation is a major engineering challenge in many fields including aerospace, power generation, transportation, and infrastructure. A variety of solutions are being researched to address this challenge. Perhaps the most promising method of combating ice accumulation is by applying coatings with low values of interfacial ice adhesion strength, τice. Icephobic materials are those with ice adhesion below 100 kPa, and it has been shown that passive delamination can occur on surfaces with τice below 20 kPa. While various low adhesion surfaces have been prepared, durability concerns pervade applications where surfaces experience repeated icing or freeze-thaw cycles, mechanical ...


Unraveling The Dynamic Network In The Reactions Of An Alkyl Aryl Ether Catalyzed By Ni/Γ-Al2o3 In 2-Propanol, Long Qi, Ali Chamas, Zachary R. Jones, Eric D. Walter, David W. Hoyt, Nancy M. Washton, Susannah L. Scott Oct 2019

Unraveling The Dynamic Network In The Reactions Of An Alkyl Aryl Ether Catalyzed By Ni/Γ-Al2o3 In 2-Propanol, Long Qi, Ali Chamas, Zachary R. Jones, Eric D. Walter, David W. Hoyt, Nancy M. Washton, Susannah L. Scott

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

The reductive cleavage of aryl ether linkages is a key step in the disassembly of lignin to its monolignol components, where selectivity is determined by the kinetics of multiple parallel and consecutive liquid-phase reactions. Triphasic hydrogenolysis of 13C-labeled benzyl phenyl ether (BPE, a model compound for the major β-O-4 linkage in lignin), catalyzed by Ni/γ-Al2O3, was observed directly at elevated temperatures (150–175 °C) and pressures (79–89 bar) using operando magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. Liquid–vapor partitioning in the NMR rotor was quantified using the 13C NMR resonances for the 2-propanol solvent, whose chemical shifts report on the ...


Atomically Intimate Contact Between Solid Electrolytes And Electrodes For Li Batteries, Fuzhen Li, Jingxuan Li, Feng Zhu, Ting Liu, Ben Xu, Tae-Hoon Kim, Matthew J. Kramer, Cheng Ma, Lin Zhou, Ce-Wen Nan Oct 2019

Atomically Intimate Contact Between Solid Electrolytes And Electrodes For Li Batteries, Fuzhen Li, Jingxuan Li, Feng Zhu, Ting Liu, Ben Xu, Tae-Hoon Kim, Matthew J. Kramer, Cheng Ma, Lin Zhou, Ce-Wen Nan

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Solid electrolytes, as a promising replacement for the flammable liquid electrolyte in conventional Li-ion batteries, may greatly alleviate the safety issues and improve the energy density. However, mainstream electrodes are also solid. If solid electrolytes were employed, creating intimate electrode-electrolyte contact similar to that between solid and liquid would be quite difficult. Here we discovered that, by forming epitaxial interfaces, such a seamless solid-solid contact can happen between two widely studied systems: the Li-rich layered electrode and perovskite solid electrolyte. Atomic-resolution electron microscopy unambiguously demonstrated that the former can be epitaxially embedded into the latter. The solid-solid composite electrode formed ...


High Throughput Screening Of 3d Printable Resins: Adjusting The Surface And Catalytic Properties Of Multifunctional Architectures, J. Sebastián Manzano, Hsin Wang, Igor I. Slowing Sep 2019

High Throughput Screening Of 3d Printable Resins: Adjusting The Surface And Catalytic Properties Of Multifunctional Architectures, J. Sebastián Manzano, Hsin Wang, Igor I. Slowing

Chemistry Publications

Identification of 3D printable materials is crucial to expand the breadth of physical and chemical properties attainable by additive manufacturing. Stereolithography (SLA), a widespread 3D printing method based on resin photo-polymerization, is ideally suited for exploring a large variety of monomers to produce functional three-dimensional solids of diverse properties. However, for most of the commercially available SLA 3D printers, screening monomers and resin compositions requires large volumes (~150 mL) in each printing cycle, making the process costly and inefficient. Herein, a high throughput block (HTB) adaptor was developed to screen arrays of monomers and resin compositions, consuming lower volumes (< 2 mL) and less time per print (< 1/16 based on a 44 matrix) than using the original hardware. Using this approach, a library of materials with different surface hydrophobicities were 3D printed by including long chain acrylates in the resins. In addition, several metal salts were dissolved in an acrylic acid-based resin, 3D printed and screened as heterogeneous catalysts for the selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Cu(II)-based resins produced the most active structures. Combinations of Cu(II) and long chain acrylate monomers were then used to 3D print complex catalytic architectures with varying degrees of hydrophobicity. Linear relationships were observed between 3D printed surface area, surface hydrophobicity and catalyst performance. For a high surface Schwarz P topology ca. 60 % enhancement in the catalytic activity of Cu(II) was attained by replacing the parent resin with one containing hydrophobic isodecyl groups, indicating that the immediate environment of the catalytic site affected its performance. The HTB enables fast screening of resins for 3D printing multifunctional architectures with intrinsic catalytic activity, tunable surface properties, and minimal waste.


Python Script For Homogeneous Aqueous Chemical Reaction Analysis And Associated Data Related To Radiolysis Simulations, Peter James Doyle, David Bartels Sep 2019

Python Script For Homogeneous Aqueous Chemical Reaction Analysis And Associated Data Related To Radiolysis Simulations, Peter James Doyle, David Bartels

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Nuclear Engineering

No abstract provided.


Antibacterial Properties Of Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coatings Prepared By A Simple Two-Step Shaking-Assisted Method, Pegah Kord Fooroshani, Elizabeth Polega, Kevin Thomson, Mohammad Saleh Akram Bhuiyan, Rattapol Pinnaratip, Mikhail Trought, Chito E. Kendrick, Yuesheng Gao, Kahryn Perrine, Lei Pan, Bruce P. Lee Sep 2019

Antibacterial Properties Of Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Coatings Prepared By A Simple Two-Step Shaking-Assisted Method, Pegah Kord Fooroshani, Elizabeth Polega, Kevin Thomson, Mohammad Saleh Akram Bhuiyan, Rattapol Pinnaratip, Mikhail Trought, Chito E. Kendrick, Yuesheng Gao, Kahryn Perrine, Lei Pan, Bruce P. Lee

Michigan Tech Publications

A simple two-step, shaking-assisted polydopamine (PDA) coating technique was used to impart polypropylene (PP) mesh with antimicrobial properties. In this modified method, a relatively large concentration of dopamine (20 mg ml−1) was first used to create a stable PDA primer layer, while the second step utilized a significantly lower concentration of dopamine (2 mg ml−1) to promote the formation and deposition of large aggregates of PDA nanoparticles. Gentle shaking (70 rpm) was employed to increase the deposition of PDA nanoparticle aggregates and the formation of a thicker PDA coating with nano-scaled surface roughness (RMS = 110 nm and Ra ...


Analytical Approach To Investigation Of Free Vibration Of Thin Rectangular Plate Immersed In Fluid, Resting On Winkler And Pasternak Foundations, Obanishola Sadiq, Gbeminiyi Sobamowo, Saheed Salawu Sep 2019

Analytical Approach To Investigation Of Free Vibration Of Thin Rectangular Plate Immersed In Fluid, Resting On Winkler And Pasternak Foundations, Obanishola Sadiq, Gbeminiyi Sobamowo, Saheed Salawu

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Dynamic behaviour of free vibration of rectangular plate is investigated. This study considered an analytical approach to investigation of free vibration of thin rectangular plate immersed in fluid, resting on Winkler and Pasternak foundations.The governing nonlinear partial differential equation is analyzed using two-dimensional differential transform method. The accuracy of the analytical solutions obtained is verified with existing results in literature and confirmed in excellent agreement. Thereafter, the analytical solutions are used for investigation of effect of elastic foundation, fluid and aspect ratio on vibrating plate.From the result, it is observed that, increase elastic foundation parameters increases natural frequency ...


Environmentally Responsible Land Use, Spring/Summer 2010, Issue 22 Sep 2019

Environmentally Responsible Land Use, Spring/Summer 2010, Issue 22

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Sustainable Communities, Fall/Winter 2010, Issue 21 Sep 2019

Sustainable Communities, Fall/Winter 2010, Issue 21

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Sustainable Building, Spring/Summer 2009, Issue 20 Sep 2019

Sustainable Building, Spring/Summer 2009, Issue 20

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Environmental History, Fall/Winter 2009, Issue 19 Sep 2019

Environmental History, Fall/Winter 2009, Issue 19

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Student Research, Spring/Summer 2008, Issue 18 Sep 2019

Student Research, Spring/Summer 2008, Issue 18

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Evolving Pollution Prevention, Fall/Winter 2008, Issue 17 Sep 2019

Evolving Pollution Prevention, Fall/Winter 2008, Issue 17

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16 Sep 2019

Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.