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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Non-Invasive Detection And Assessment Of Coronary Stenosis From Blood Mean Residence Times., Javad Hashemi Dec 2019

Non-Invasive Detection And Assessment Of Coronary Stenosis From Blood Mean Residence Times., Javad Hashemi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Coronary artery stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of a coronary artery caused by an atherosclerotic lesion that reduces lumen space. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the gold standard method to determine the severity of coronary stenosis based on the determination of rest and hyperemic pressure fields, but requires an invasive medical procedure. Normal FFR is 1.0 and FFR RT, to account for varying volume and flow rate of individual segments. BloodRT was computed in 100 patients who had undergone the pressure-wire FFR procedure, and a threshold for BloodRT was determined to assess the physiological significance of a ...


Stabilization Of Bimodal Colloidal Systems Via Nanoparticle Haloing In Microgravity., Luke Hawtrey Dec 2019

Stabilization Of Bimodal Colloidal Systems Via Nanoparticle Haloing In Microgravity., Luke Hawtrey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Colloidal suspensions typically contain a multi-phase system of solid particles suspended in a liquid medium. Colloids are widely used in industrial applications such as inks, paints, motor oils, foods, cosmetics, and many more. Colloidal systems are typically formed by the interaction of the attractive van der Waals forces and one or more repulsive forces. These repulsive forces include electrostatic repulsion, steric hindrance, and nanoparticle haloing. Nanoparticle Haloing (NPH) is a phenomenon discovered in 2001 as a viable method to stabilize colloidal systems of uncharged silica microparticles using highly charged zirconia nanoparticles. For this thesis the effects of NPH were tested ...


Purification Of Biomass Hydrolyzates For The Promotion Of Xylose Diester Formation, Laura Fernandez Dec 2019

Purification Of Biomass Hydrolyzates For The Promotion Of Xylose Diester Formation, Laura Fernandez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The application of a novel xylose isolation procedure using phenyl boronic acid esterification has been limited to the hydrolyzates of low extractive biomasses like hardwoods and agricultural resides. Hydrolyzates with lower sugar and higher extractive concentrations, like softwoods, have not yielded xylose, or even xylose diester (XDE), the first intermediate product in the new process, under the same conditions. This research applied evaporation concentration, adsorbent separation and membrane filtration to these lower performing biomass hydrolyzates to maximize the yield of the XDE formation step of the new xylose extraction process. Lab-scale tests of these techniques were applied to pine hydrolyzate ...


A Kinetic And Thermodynamic Model Of Ethylene Dichloride Pyrolysis., Travis J Czechorski Nov 2019

A Kinetic And Thermodynamic Model Of Ethylene Dichloride Pyrolysis., Travis J Czechorski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ethylene dichloride (EDC) is a precursor for the production of vinyl chloride (VCM) which is subsequently polymerized to form polyvinyl chloride (PVC). To convert EDC to VCM, EDC undergoes a pyrolysis process in the absence of oxygen at temperatures exceeding 500C. However, process yields are limited by the uncontrolled production of side-products that can degrade the quality of PVC and poison the reactor. Thus, tight process controls and costly separations guided by heuristics and plant operator experience are used to optimize EDC pyrolysis. To improve the process, I have programed a kinetic model of EDC pyrolysis based upon estimations of ...


Cellulose Nanofibrils (Cnf) For Textile Applications: Production Of Neat Cnf Filaments And Reinforcement Of Natural Fiber Yarns, Shokoofeh Ghasemi Aug 2019

Cellulose Nanofibrils (Cnf) For Textile Applications: Production Of Neat Cnf Filaments And Reinforcement Of Natural Fiber Yarns, Shokoofeh Ghasemi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Being the most abundant natural polymer on earth, cellulose materials have been used in many different applications. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are a relatively new group of lignocellulose resource-based nanomaterials and have been the topic of many research efforts in wood products and material science field over the recent years. Using CNF in textile applications is one way to diversify product portfolio of these materials as they contain nanoscale fibrils with high mechanical properties which can fulfil textile industry’s demand for strong natural fibers. Considering that CNF is a wood-based cellulosic material in the form of water suspension, in order ...


Fluid Flow Analysis Of Diluted Evaporating American Whiskey Droplets., Martin J. Brown Vi Aug 2019

Fluid Flow Analysis Of Diluted Evaporating American Whiskey Droplets., Martin J. Brown Vi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The recent discovery of the unique structures, whiskey webs, formed when the evaporation of diluted American whiskey, has raised many questions as to the nature of the structures. Their formation process follows as such: (1) dilution of the whiskey to form nanoaggregates, (2) formation of a monolayer at the air-liquid interface, (3) chaotic ethanol evaporation caused monolayer collapse (via dynamic pressure), (4) bulk fluid evaporation caused monolayer collapse (via reduction of surface area), where the web-like structures reside on the surface, and finally, (5) web-like structures deposit on the substrate. The webs imaged via SEM had a striking resemblance to ...


Prediction Of Paper Coating Mechanical Behavior Based On Particle-Scale Models, Daniel H. Varney May 2019

Prediction Of Paper Coating Mechanical Behavior Based On Particle-Scale Models, Daniel H. Varney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The mechanical properties of pigmented coatings are important for a number of situations; including coated paper, architectural paints, and structures in flexible lithium ion batteries. Coated paper and board undergo a variety of post coating application processes which have the potential to cause serious quality problems such as cracking, picking, and crack-at-the fold (CAF). Because a large number of parameters are known to influence the results, fundamental models are needed to help describe these processes and link them to the coating formulations and to the defects.

A discrete element method (DEM) computer model was developed to describe the pigment level ...


Conversion Of Pretreated Hardwood To Medium-Chain Fatty Acids For Production Of Biolubricants, Koorosh Kashkooli May 2019

Conversion Of Pretreated Hardwood To Medium-Chain Fatty Acids For Production Of Biolubricants, Koorosh Kashkooli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA, e.g., hexanoic, heptanoic and octanoic acid) are versatile chemical compounds that are suitable precursors for the production of high-carbon-number, value-added chemicals such as bio-based lubricants. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, e.g., acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric acid) and methane are the natural fermentation products of anaerobic digestion, however, they have a lower value compared to MCFAs. Our current investigation seeks to integrate the production of MCFAs through chain elongation fermentation of pretreated biomass with catalytic conversion of MCFAs to lubricant molecules. By adding reducing agents such as ethanol and lactic acid to the anaerobic digestion, and ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Evaluation Of Metal Complexes With Cancer Selective Anti-Proliferative Effects And Hydrogen Evolution Catalytic Properties., Nicholas Vishnosky May 2019

Synthesis, Characterization, And Evaluation Of Metal Complexes With Cancer Selective Anti-Proliferative Effects And Hydrogen Evolution Catalytic Properties., Nicholas Vishnosky

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bis-thiosemicarbazones (BTSC) and their metal chelates have properties that are useful in several different scientific fields. These systems have already received attention in major fields of biology and engineering. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts need to be cheap and operate under minimal overpotentials with a long lifetime. The treatment of cancer requires, novel agents that have potent cytotoxic activity against cancer cells while displaying minimal side effects. In this dissertation the modular synthesis of these bis-thiosemicarbazone systems is utilized to regulate the redox chemistry for employment in the desired sector of chemistry. The ligand and metal chelates synthesized were characterized ...


Plasma Oxidation Of Liquid Precursors For Complex Metal Oxides., Babajide Patrick Ajayi May 2019

Plasma Oxidation Of Liquid Precursors For Complex Metal Oxides., Babajide Patrick Ajayi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Clean energy production and storage are two of the most significant challenges in the 21st century currently limited by the discovery and development of new and advanced materials. Complex oxides and alloys made using earth-abundant elements will play a crucial role in technology development moving forward, however, current preparation techniques are limited by their inability to produce complex oxides and alloys with precise composition control at fast timescales. A concept was proposed to produce mixed metal oxides with composition control through the oxidation of liquid precursors via plasma oxidation. It was hypothesized that the oxidation process can be completed ...


Plasma-Assisted Liquid Phase Epitaxy Of Gallium Nitride Using Molten Gallium., Daniel Felipe Jaramillo-Cabanzo May 2019

Plasma-Assisted Liquid Phase Epitaxy Of Gallium Nitride Using Molten Gallium., Daniel Felipe Jaramillo-Cabanzo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Next generation semiconductor materials such as Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) are rapidly replacing Silicon (Si) for high power and high frequency applications due to Si’s inherent limitations. Despite the advantages of GaN over SiC, adoption of GaN has been hindered due to the lack of a cost-effective bulk production technique. Thus, the inability to precure native substrates requires GaN-based architectures to be heteroepitaxially synthesized on non-native substrates, such as sapphire and even SiC. This research seeks to develop a cost effective and scalable method to produce low defect, bulk GaN encouraging the adoption of GaN based ...


Nanowire Based Adsorbents/Catalysts For Co2 Capture And Utilization., Apolo Nambo May 2019

Nanowire Based Adsorbents/Catalysts For Co2 Capture And Utilization., Apolo Nambo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Even today, the major energy source is fossil fuels, which release CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. CO2 capture, storage (CCS) and/or utilization (CCU) technologies are two routes to mitigate this problem. Sorbents are being investigated in either temperature swing or pressure swing absorption approaches for carbon capture from flue gases. Solid sorbent based technology is a promising one but suffers from slow kinetics, low capacity and need for high temperatures. Thus, new sorbent materials that can have good CO2 sorption capacity, recyclability are sought. Similarly, one of the utilization approaches for CO ...


Influence Of Mechanical Properties Of Paper Coating On The Crack At The Fold Problem, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi Najafi May 2019

Influence Of Mechanical Properties Of Paper Coating On The Crack At The Fold Problem, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi Najafi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Paper coating layers are subject to various stresses and deformations in many converting processes such as calendering, printing, slitting, and folding of the paper. In some cases, products may crack during folding to generate a defect called cracking at the fold (CAF). The parameters that influence these defects are not well understood. The overall goal of this thesis is to better understand the CAF behavior as related to material properties of the coating layer.

A method was developed to produce free-standing pigmented coating layers thick enough to be tested in bending as well as tension. The mechanical properties of these ...


Parameters That Influence The Performance Of Dispersion Barrier Coatings, Randy Raditya May 2019

Parameters That Influence The Performance Of Dispersion Barrier Coatings, Randy Raditya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Barrier coating layers are important in many paper grades used in food packaging and have the potential to help reduce our use of plastics in some situations. Barrier layers to produce water proof packaging such as milk or juice cartons or coffee cups are common. Water based dispersion barrier coatings have the potential to be a low-cost alternative to extrusion coated layers. Water borne coatings are reported to be easy to recycle and break down in the environment. However, barrier properties are often less than what is desired and expected for these water borne coatings. The reason for this poor ...


Magnetic Amphiphiles And Their Potential Applications For Low Energy Separations Processes, Alexander Fortenberry Jan 2019

Magnetic Amphiphiles And Their Potential Applications For Low Energy Separations Processes, Alexander Fortenberry

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Predicting the behavior of magnetic surfactants in magnetic fields is critical for designing magnetically driven processes such as chemical separations or the tuning of surface tensions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the ability of magnetic fields to alter the interfacial properties of magnetic surfactant solutions depends on the strength of association between the magnetic and surfactant moieties of the surfactant molecules. Our research shows that the stability of a magnetic surfactant in an aqueous environment is dependent upon the type of complex that contains the paramagnetic element and these findings provide valuable insight for the design of magnetic surfactants ...


Cellulose Nanocrystals As 'Green' Emulsifiers Stabilized Crude Oil In Water Emulsions, Omayma Alazzam Jan 2019

Cellulose Nanocrystals As 'Green' Emulsifiers Stabilized Crude Oil In Water Emulsions, Omayma Alazzam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the ability of CNC to stabilize crude o/w Pickering emulsions. The effects of concentration of CNC, ionic strength of the aqueous phase, volume fraction of crude oil to water, and the presence of divalent ions on the stability of crude o/w emulsions were examined. Emulsions stabilized with different concentrations of CNC vary from 0.1 to 1.0wt% were prepared and examined by visual assessment for creaming analysis and microscopic pictures to analyze droplet size and size distribution. Low concentration of CNC as 0.1wt% didn’t help with forming stable emulsions. As the concentration ...


Hydrophobization Of Cellulose-Based Fibers For Packaging Applications With Alkyl Ketene Dimers (Akd) And Food-Grade Waxes Via Supercritical Impregnation With Carbon Dioxide – Experimental And Thermodynamic Modeling Approaches, Kolawole Adenekan Jan 2019

Hydrophobization Of Cellulose-Based Fibers For Packaging Applications With Alkyl Ketene Dimers (Akd) And Food-Grade Waxes Via Supercritical Impregnation With Carbon Dioxide – Experimental And Thermodynamic Modeling Approaches, Kolawole Adenekan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This modified material has applications in food packaging, where frequently water-repellant surfaces are required. This method is preferable to traditional coating methods because it sizes across the entire thickness of the substrate rather than just the surface and can be used for non-planar surfaces; uses significantly less material than traditional methods and will be an excellent technique for multilayered and intelligent coating.


Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Thin-Films For Selective Ion Separations In Electrodialysis, Saloumeh Kolahchyan Jan 2019

Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Thin-Films For Selective Ion Separations In Electrodialysis, Saloumeh Kolahchyan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The onset of climate change and rising global population has caused greater water scarcity, a considerable problem which threatens our world. The demand for fresh water is pushing a fast development of water purification technologies. Among these technologies, membrane-based water desalination processes are playing an interesting role in both academia and industry. Electrodialysis (ED) is an electro-membrane separation process aimed at water treatment through ion removal, which is achieved through the selective control and transport of ionic species. ED is a popular water treatment method; however, it is limited by membrane scaling, lack of ion selectivity, and high energy consumption ...