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2019

Aerospace Engineering

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Articles 1 - 30 of 375

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Bubble Pinch-Off In Turbulence, Daniel J. Ruth, Wouter Mostert, Stephane Perrard, Luc Deike Dec 2019

Bubble Pinch-Off In Turbulence, Daniel J. Ruth, Wouter Mostert, Stephane Perrard, Luc Deike

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Although bubble pinch-off is an archetype of a dynamical system evolving toward a singularity, it has always been described in idealized theoretical and experimental conditions. Here, we consider bubble pinch-off in a turbulent flow representative of natural conditions in the presence of strong and random perturbations, combining laboratory experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical modeling. We show that the turbulence sets the initial conditions for pinch-off, namely the initial bubble shape and flow field, but after the pinch-off starts, the turbulent time at the neck scale becomes much slower than the pinching dynamics: The turbulence freezes. We show that the average ...


Characterization Of Simulated Low Earth Orbit Space Environment Effects On Acid-Spun Carbon Nanotube Yarns, Ryan A. Kemnitz, Gregory R. Cobb, Abhendra K. Singh, Carl R. Hartsfield Dec 2019

Characterization Of Simulated Low Earth Orbit Space Environment Effects On Acid-Spun Carbon Nanotube Yarns, Ryan A. Kemnitz, Gregory R. Cobb, Abhendra K. Singh, Carl R. Hartsfield

Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study is to quantify the detrimental effects of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet (UV) C radiation on the mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, and piezoresistive effect of acid-spun carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns. Monotonic tensile tests with in-situ electrical resistance measurements were performed on pristine and exposed yarns to determine the effects of the atomic oxygen and UVC exposures on the yarn’s material properties. Both type of exposures were performed under vacuum to simulate space environment conditions. The CNT yarns’ mechanical properties did not change significantly after being exposed to UV radiation, but were significantly degraded by the ...


Performance Modeling Of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Zigzag-Channel Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers, Katrine Birgitte Bennett Dec 2019

Performance Modeling Of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Zigzag-Channel Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers, Katrine Birgitte Bennett

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) is currently being studied as the working fluid in power producing Brayton cycles due to its excellent physical and thermodynamic properties, especially near the critical point. Printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) are being considered for use as condensers and recuperators for this purpose due to their high strength and compact designs. Many experimental and numerical studies are being conducted to characterize and optimize sCO2 PCHE operation and develop correlations to describe their thermal-hydraulic performance. Additionally, a few experimental and numerical structural assessments of these PCHEs have been conducted, but all have been somewhat limited due to ...


Highly Reactive Energetic Films By Pre-Stressing Nano-Aluminum Particles, Michael N. Bello, Alan M. Williams, Valery I. Levitas, Nobumichi Tamura, Daniel K. Unruh, Juliusz Warzywoda, Michelle L. Pantoya Dec 2019

Highly Reactive Energetic Films By Pre-Stressing Nano-Aluminum Particles, Michael N. Bello, Alan M. Williams, Valery I. Levitas, Nobumichi Tamura, Daniel K. Unruh, Juliusz Warzywoda, Michelle L. Pantoya

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Energetic films were synthesized using stress altered nano-aluminum particles (nAl). The nAl powder was pre-stressed to examine how modified mechanical properties of the fuel particles influenced film reactivity. Pre-stressing conditions varied by quenching rate. Slow and rapid quenching rates induced elevated dilatational strain within the nAl particles that was measured using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). An analytical model for stress and strain in a nAl core–Al2O3 shell particle that includes creep in the shell and delamination at the core–shell boundary, was developed and used for interpretation of strain measurements. Results show rapid quenching induced 81% delamination at the ...


Multiscale Modeling Of Fracture In Quasi-Brittle Materials Using Bifurcation Analysis And Element Elimination Method, Keyvan Zare Rami Dec 2019

Multiscale Modeling Of Fracture In Quasi-Brittle Materials Using Bifurcation Analysis And Element Elimination Method, Keyvan Zare Rami

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Analyzing the fracture of heterogeneous materials is a complex problem, due to the fact that the mechanical behavior of a heterogeneous material is strongly dependent on a variety of factors, such as its microstructure, the properties of each constituent, and interactions between them. Therefore, these factors must be effectively taken into account for accurate analysis, for which the multiscale method has been widely used. In this scheme, the computational homogenization method is used to obtain the effective macroscopic properties of a heterogeneous material based on the response of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). The growth of damage in an RVE ...


Methodology Of Topology Optimization, Naziha Khandoker Dec 2019

Methodology Of Topology Optimization, Naziha Khandoker

Honors Theses

The need for lighter products is becoming increasingly essential as it cuts material cost and significant amount of weight, which is a key factor in the automotive and aerospace industries. Topology optimization allows us to achieve that by applying the concept to different structures with the goal of optimal distribution of material within finite volume design domain. Its algorithms selectively remove and relocate elements to achieve the optimum performance. This project performs a study on the effect of each design parameter over mechanical performance using Finite Element Analysis and applies it to set of wing attachment brackets. The optimized brackets ...


Axial Compressor Based On Plastic Additive Manufacturing, Chris Phu Dec 2019

Axial Compressor Based On Plastic Additive Manufacturing, Chris Phu

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Turbomolecular pumps designed to function in very low pressures tend to be too prohibitively expensive for student researchers. On the other hand, while conventional pumps are affordable, they can’t function in extreme low pressures. An additively manufactured axial compressor however is inexpensive to manufacturer and only needs to be build up enough pressure for a conventional pump to function. After many design iterations, a final iteration that is near vacuum chamber ready has been 3D printed and tested for spin functionally. The designed axial compressor is easy to assemble and very modular. Conclusions from each of the design iterations ...


The Effectiveness Of Augmented Reality For Astronauts On Lunar Missions: An Analog Study, Godfrey Valencio D’Souza Dec 2019

The Effectiveness Of Augmented Reality For Astronauts On Lunar Missions: An Analog Study, Godfrey Valencio D’Souza

Dissertations and Theses

The uses of augmented reality and head-up displays are becoming more prominent in industries such as aviation, automotive, and medicine. An augmented reality device such as the Microsoft HoloLens can project holograms onto the user’s natural field of view to assist with completion of a variety of tasks. Unfortunately, only a little research and development has begun in the space sector for astronauts using these head-up displays. Future lunar missions could incorporate augmented reality for astronauts to ease task load and improve accuracy. This study evaluated the usability, subjective workload, and task performance of 22 participants using the Microsoft ...


Droplets As Carriers For Flexible Electronic Devices, Mingxing Zhou, Ziyue Wu, Yicong Zhao, Qing Yang, Wei Ling, Ya Li, Hang Xu, Cheng Wang, Xian Huang Dec 2019

Droplets As Carriers For Flexible Electronic Devices, Mingxing Zhou, Ziyue Wu, Yicong Zhao, Qing Yang, Wei Ling, Ya Li, Hang Xu, Cheng Wang, Xian Huang

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Coupling soft bodies and dynamic motions with multifunctional flexible electronics is challenging, but is essential in satisfying the urgent and soaring demands of fully soft and comprehensive robotic systems that can perform tasks in spite of rigorous spatial constraints. Here, the mobility and adaptability of liquid droplets with the functionality of flexible electronics, and techniques to use droplets as carriers for flexible devices are combined. The resulting active droplets (ADs) with volumes ranging from 150 to 600 µL can conduct programmable functions, such as sensing, actuation, and energy harvesting defined by the carried flexible devices and move under the excitation ...


Magnetic Field Induced Ferrofluid Droplet Breakup In A Simple Shear Flow At A Low Reynolds Number, Md Rifat Hassan, Cheng Wang Dec 2019

Magnetic Field Induced Ferrofluid Droplet Breakup In A Simple Shear Flow At A Low Reynolds Number, Md Rifat Hassan, Cheng Wang

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The breakup phenomenon of a ferrofluid droplet in a simple shear flow under a uniform magnetic field is numerically investigated in this paper. The numerical simulation, based on the finite element method, uses a level set method to capture the dynamic evolution of the droplet interface between the two phases. Focusing on small Reynolds numbers (i.e., Re ≤ 0.03), systematic numerical simulations are carried out to analyze the effects of magnetic field strength, direction, and viscosity ratio on the breakup phenomenon of the ferrofluid droplet. The results suggest that applying a magnetic field along α = 45° and 90° relative ...


A Reinforcement Learning Approach To Spacecraft Trajectory Optimization, Daniel S. Kolosa Dec 2019

A Reinforcement Learning Approach To Spacecraft Trajectory Optimization, Daniel S. Kolosa

Dissertations

This dissertation explores a novel method of solving low-thrust spacecraft targeting problems using reinforcement learning. A reinforcement learning algorithm based on Deep Deterministic Policy Gradients was developed to solve low-thrust trajectory optimization problems. The algorithm consists of two neural networks, an actor network and a critic network. The actor approximates a thrust magnitude given the current spacecraft state expressed as a set of orbital elements. The critic network evaluates the action taken by the actor based on the state and action taken. Three different types of trajectory problems were solved, a generalized orbit change maneuver, a semimajor axis change maneuver ...


Estimation Of The Fatigue Life Of Additively Manufactured Metallic Components Using Modified Strain Life Parameters Based On Surface Roughness, Grohs Dec 2019

Estimation Of The Fatigue Life Of Additively Manufactured Metallic Components Using Modified Strain Life Parameters Based On Surface Roughness, Grohs

Master's Theses

In this study, a method is developed to estimate the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of additively manufactured titanium Ti6Al4V, aluminum 7075–T6, and steel 4340 alloys through modified strain life parameters using finite element analysis (FEA). This method is highly beneficial to the fatigue analysis of as-built additively manufactured metal components, which possess rough surfaces that reduce fatigue life significantly but are challenging to analyze directly using finite element simulation because of complex geometries, i.e., modeling an exact surface profile is arduous.

An effective stress concentration factor, incorporating roughness data, is defined to quantify their ...


Performance Enhancement And Characterization Of An Electromagnetic Railgun, Paul M. Gilles Dec 2019

Performance Enhancement And Characterization Of An Electromagnetic Railgun, Paul M. Gilles

Master's Theses

Collision with orbital debris poses a serious threat to spacecraft and astronauts. Hypervelocity impacts resulting from collisions mean that objects with a mass less than 1g can cause mission-ending damage to spacecraft. A means of shielding spacecraft against collisions is necessary. A means of testing candidate shielding methods for their efficacy in mitigating hypervelocity impacts is therefore also necessary. Cal Poly’s Electromagnetic Railgun was designed with the goal of creating a laboratory system capable of simulating hypervelocity (≥ 3 km/s) impacts. Due to several factors, the system was not previously capable of high-velocity (≥ 1 km/s) tests. A deficient ...


Dynamic Pressure Sensing For The Flight Test Data System, Marc Y. Goupil Dec 2019

Dynamic Pressure Sensing For The Flight Test Data System, Marc Y. Goupil

Master's Theses

This thesis describes the design, assembly, and test of the FTDS-K, a new device in the Boundary Layer Data System (BLDS) family of flight data acquisition systems. The FTDS-K provides high-frequency, high-gain data acquisition capability for up to two pressure sensors and an additional three low-frequency pressure sensors. Development of the FTDS-K was separated into a core module, specialized analog subsystem, and practical testing of the FTDS-K in a flow measurement mission. The core module combines an nRF52840-based microcontroller module, switching regulator, microSD card, real-time clock, temperature sensor, and trio of pressure sensors to provide the same capabilities as previous-generation ...


Numerical Investigation Of Scaling Effects Of A Ramjet-Powered Projectile, Arjun Jaishankar Vedam Dec 2019

Numerical Investigation Of Scaling Effects Of A Ramjet-Powered Projectile, Arjun Jaishankar Vedam

Dissertations and Theses

Ramjet flowpath miniaturization is a potentially useful technology for integration into munitions to increase range, accuracy, and lethality. The emphasis of this effort is to numerically characterize the performance of a miniature hydrogen-fueled and ethylene-fueled ramjet flowpath during Mach 3 and Mach 3.5 sea-level flight. The effect of geometric scale on ramjet performance is evaluated using high-fidelity RANS CFD models. Sensitivity to nonequilibrium laminar and turbulence-limited chemistry, and transitional turbulence treatments are evaluated. The physical sources of small scale performance limitations are identified for both fuel types. Finally, flowpath integration for small-scale applications is briefly addressed.


Numerical Treatment Of Schrödinger’S Equation For One-Particle And Two-Particle Systems Using Matrix Method, Spatika Dasharati Iyengar Dec 2019

Numerical Treatment Of Schrödinger’S Equation For One-Particle And Two-Particle Systems Using Matrix Method, Spatika Dasharati Iyengar

Dissertations and Theses

With an increased interest in accurately predicting aerothermal environments for planetary entry, recent researches have concentrated on developing high fidelity computational models using quantum-mechanical first principles. These calculations are dependent on solving the Schrödinger equation using molecular orbital theory techniques. They are either approximate solutions to actual equations or exact solutions to approximate equations. Exact solutions have not found favor due to the computational expense of the problem. Hence, a novel numerical approach is developed and tested here using linear algebraic matrix methods to enable precise solutions.

The finite-difference technique is used to cast the Time-Independent Schrödinger equation (TISE) in ...


Wall-Jet Turbulence And Mixing Control By Way Of A Pulsed Inlet Velocity, Cristale D. Garnica Vallejo Dec 2019

Wall-Jet Turbulence And Mixing Control By Way Of A Pulsed Inlet Velocity, Cristale D. Garnica Vallejo

Dissertations and Theses

Understanding wall-jet-induced turbulence and mixing is an important challenge in modern engineering, as drag reduction and mixing enhancement are attainable by modifying the flow development. Simulations are performed to investigate the effect on skin friction and flow mixing due to introducing controlled perturbations, at the initial shear layer of a planar wall-jet using jet inlet cyclic pulsing. The billow production by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, the instability that drives turbulence in a wall-jet, is modified by the excitation of the inlet velocity profile by a sine wave perturbation. Two types of wall-jet simulations are carried out, a two-dimensional compressible case at ...


Fuel Shortages During Hurricanes: Epidemiological Modeling And Optimal Control, Sabique Ul Islam Dec 2019

Fuel Shortages During Hurricanes: Epidemiological Modeling And Optimal Control, Sabique Ul Islam

Dissertations and Theses

Hurricanes are powerful agents of destruction with significant socioeconomic impacts. A persistent problem due to the large-scale evacuations during hurricanes in the southeastern United States is the fuel shortages during the evacuation. Fuel shortages often lead to stranded vehicles and exacerbate the evacuation efforts. Computational models can aid in emergency preparedness and help mitigate the impacts of hurricanes. In this thesis, the hurricane fuel shortages are modeled using the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model. Crowd-sourced data corresponding to Hurricane Irma and Florence are utilized to parametrize the model. An estimation technique based on Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is employed to evaluate ...


Development Of A Research Spacecraft Test-Bed With Implementation Of Control Laws To Compensate Undesired Dynamics, Yomary Angélica Betancur Vesga Dec 2019

Development Of A Research Spacecraft Test-Bed With Implementation Of Control Laws To Compensate Undesired Dynamics, Yomary Angélica Betancur Vesga

Dissertations and Theses

The development of research spacecraft systems has a significant impact on the preparation and simulation of future space missions. Hardware, software and operation procedures can be adequately tested, validated and verified before they are deployed for the actual mission. In this thesis, a spacecraft vehicle test-bed named Extreme Access System (EASY) was developed. EASY aims at supporting validation and verification of guidance, navigation and control algorithms. Description of EASY spacecraft systems, sub-systems and integration is presented in this thesis along with an analysis of results from numerical simulation and actual implementation of control laws. An attitude control architecture based on ...


Fuel Efficient Control Design And Constrained Motion Analysis For Spacecraft Coulomb Formation In Elliptic Chief Orbits, Muhammad Wasif Memon Dec 2019

Fuel Efficient Control Design And Constrained Motion Analysis For Spacecraft Coulomb Formation In Elliptic Chief Orbits, Muhammad Wasif Memon

Dissertations and Theses

The use of Coulomb force has been analyzed in recent years to provide propulsion in space for various applications. Coulomb formation can also be utilized to make close formation spacecraft missions fuel efficient. In this study, the Coulomb formation of two craft is studied in elliptic chief orbits for two formation geometries. The first formation requires both spacecraft to be aligned along the nadir (radial) direction and the second formation requires both spacecraft to maintain a constant separation distance relative to each other while each spacecraft rotates freely on the surface of a sphere with the ratio of the radii ...


In-Situ Measurement Of Resin Shrinkage For Aerospace Components, Samarth Motagi Dec 2019

In-Situ Measurement Of Resin Shrinkage For Aerospace Components, Samarth Motagi

Dissertations and Theses

Resin shrinkage due to chemical changes and thermal gradients plays an important role in the residual stress evolution during composite manufacturing. In this thesis, we develop a new in-situ experimental approach for measuring resin shrinkage during curing with the help of digital image correlation (DIC) instrumented on a specially designed autoclave with borosilicate viewports. The images of the resin sample are captured at regular intervals with the help of DIC to measure the displacement and strains during the curing process. We utilize this method for a comparative analysis of resin shrinkage in two common aerospace epoxies, Epoxy 105 and EPON ...


Adaptive Learning Terrain Estimation For Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications, Pedro L. Vergara Garcia Dec 2019

Adaptive Learning Terrain Estimation For Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications, Pedro L. Vergara Garcia

Dissertations and Theses

For the past decade, terrain mapping research has focused on ground robots using occupancy grids and tree-like data structures, like Octomap and Quadtrees. Since flight vehicles have different constraints, ground-based terrain mapping research may not be directly applicable to the aerospace industry. To address this issue, Adaptive Learning Terrain Estimation algorithms have been developed with an aim towards aerospace applications. This thesis develops and tests Adaptive Learning Terrain Estimation algorithms using a custom test benchmark on representative aerospace cases: autonomous UAV landing and UAV flight through 3D urban environments. The fundamental objective of this thesis is to investigate the use ...


Autonomous Autorotation Of A Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Using Model Predictive Control, Elias Wilson Dec 2019

Autonomous Autorotation Of A Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Using Model Predictive Control, Elias Wilson

Dissertations and Theses

Tilt rotor vehicles are governed by FAA laws also used for conventional helicopters, which require autorotational maneuvering and landing given a total power failure. With low inertia rotors and high disk loading of tilt rotor vehicles, this already difficult task becomes significantly more challenging. In this work, a model predictive controller is developed to autonomously maneuver and land a tilt rotor given complete power loss. A high fidelity model of a tilt rotor vehicle is created and used to simulate the vehicle dynamics and response to control inputs. A reduced order dynamic model is used within a model predictive control ...


Tumble Bot, Alena Beyer, Blake Gonzales, Jensen Severance, Liam Chaffey Dec 2019

Tumble Bot, Alena Beyer, Blake Gonzales, Jensen Severance, Liam Chaffey

Mechanical Engineering

Passive locomotion is the ability for an object to move from one place to another by the means of the environment. In nature species such as tumbleweed, fox tails, plankton, and man o’ war jellyfish rely on passive modes of transportation for survival and are able to cross vast distances with little to no expenditure of their own energy. This document seeks to explore the feasibility of building a machine relies on the energy of Mars’ environment to explore the Martian surface.

The “Tensegrity Tumbleweed Locomotion” (nicknamed Tumble Bot) senior project was sponsored by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The ...


Revolution In Autonomous Orbital Navigation (Raon), Rachit Bhatia Dec 2019

Revolution In Autonomous Orbital Navigation (Raon), Rachit Bhatia

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Spacecraft navigation is a critical component of any space mission. Space navigation uses on-board sensors and other techniques to determine the spacecraft’s current position and velocity, with permissible accuracy. It also provides requisite information to navigate to a desired position, while following the desired trajectory. Developments in technology have resulted in new techniques of space navigation. However, inertial navigation systems have consistently been the bedrock for space navigation.

Recently, the successful space mission GOCE used on-board gravity gradiometer for mapping Earth’s gravitational field. This has motivated the development of new techniques like cold atom accelerometers, to create ultra-sensitive ...


Development And Testing Of A Hydrogen Peroxide Injected Thrust Augmenting Nozzle For A Hybrid Rocket, Mark C. Heiner Dec 2019

Development And Testing Of A Hydrogen Peroxide Injected Thrust Augmenting Nozzle For A Hybrid Rocket, Mark C. Heiner

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

During a rocket launch, the point at which the most thrust is needed is at lift-off where the rocket is the heaviest since it is full of propellant. Unfortunately, this is also the point at which rocket engines perform the most poorly due to the relatively high atmospheric pressure at sea level. The Thrust Augmenting Nozzle (TAN) investigated in this paper provides a solution to this dilemma. By injecting extra propellant into the nozzle but downstream of the throat, the internal nozzle pressure is raised and the thrust is increased, and the nozzle efficiency, or specific impulse is potentially improved ...


Damage Resistance And Tolerance Of 3d Woven Composites, Justin T. Mcdermott Dec 2019

Damage Resistance And Tolerance Of 3d Woven Composites, Justin T. Mcdermott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Composite materials have been adopted into primary aircraft structures by virtue of their great strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, fatigue insensitivity, and corrosion resistance. These characteristics are leveraged by aircraft designers to deliver improved fuel effciency and reduced scheduled maintenance burdens for their customers. These benefits have been impressively realized in the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 XWB, with airframes utilizing about 50% composites by weight. Tempering these successes, however, are the inherent vulnerabilities of carbon-fiber reinforced composites. When compared to conventional metallic structure, composite laminates are more sensitive to stress concentrations at mechanical fastenings and damage due to low-velocity impact ...


Boosting Verification Scalability Via Structural Grouping And Semantic Partitioning Of Properties, Rohit Dureja, Jason Baumgartner, Alexander Ivrii, Robert Kanzelman, Kristin Y. Rozier Nov 2019

Boosting Verification Scalability Via Structural Grouping And Semantic Partitioning Of Properties, Rohit Dureja, Jason Baumgartner, Alexander Ivrii, Robert Kanzelman, Kristin Y. Rozier

Aerospace Engineering Conference Papers, Presentations and Posters

From equivalence checking to functional verification to design-space exploration, industrial verification tasks entail checking a large number of properties on the same design. State-of-the-art tools typically solve all properties concurrently, or one-at-a-time. They do not optimally exploit subproblem sharing between properties, leaving an opportunity to save considerable verification resource via concurrent verification of properties with nearly identical cone of influence (COI). These high-affinity properties can be concurrently solved; the verification effort expended for one can be directly reused to accelerate the verification of the others, without hurting per-property verification resources through bloating COI size. We present a near-linear runtime algorithm ...


Blade Optimization For Ground Level Low Speed Wind Turbines, Ryan Foster Nov 2019

Blade Optimization For Ground Level Low Speed Wind Turbines, Ryan Foster

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Low speed wind turbines can provide inexpensive and clean energy in areas where large scale wind power generation is impractical. The purpose of this research is to explore factors that affect the efficiency of low speed wind turbines. The factors that were tested are span, chord length, angle of twist, taper ratio, average thickness, and sweep angle. The goal is to determine a combination of these variables to enable maximum power extraction from a low wind speed source.These parameters are optimized for the Southeastern region of the United States. NOAA weather data at ground level are used to determine ...


Design And Kinematic Analysis Of A Semi-Compliant Swashplate Mechanism, Niko Giannakakos Nov 2019

Design And Kinematic Analysis Of A Semi-Compliant Swashplate Mechanism, Niko Giannakakos

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Compliant mechanisms generate motion through the deformation or deflection of its flexible members rather than the revolute joints utilized in traditional rigid link mechanisms. If a compliant mechanism is designed as a single piece without the need of joints to create relative motion, then it is a monolithic system. If at least one part of the mechanism is flexible and assembled with rigid parts and joints, then it is a partially compliant mechanism. The superiorities of compliant mechanisms over rigid mechanisms are the reduced number of parts required to build the system, simple design, no backlash, no lubrication, less friction ...