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2006

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Articles 1 - 30 of 3774

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Upper Extremity Dynamics During Lofstrand Crutch-Assisted Gait In Children With Myelomeningocele, Brooke A. Slavens, Jamie Frantz, Peter F. Sturm, Gerald F. Harris Dec 2006

Upper Extremity Dynamics During Lofstrand Crutch-Assisted Gait In Children With Myelomeningocele, Brooke A. Slavens, Jamie Frantz, Peter F. Sturm, Gerald F. Harris

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Background/Objective:

We present a 3-dimensional biomechanical model of the upper extremities to characterize joint dynamics during 2 patterns of Lofstrand crutch-assisted gait in children with myelomeningocele. The upper extremity model incorporates recommendations by the International Society of Biomechanics.

Methods:

A Vicon motion analysis system (14 cameras) captured the marker patterns. Instrumented crutches measured reaction forces. Five subjects with L3 or L4 level myelodysplasia (aged 9.8 ± 1.6 years) were analyzed during reciprocal and swing-through Lofstrand crutch-assisted gait.

Results:

The mean walking speed, cadence, and stride length were greatest during swing-through gait. Although the gait patterns had different morphologies ...


Afci Quarterly Input – Unlv October 1 Through December 31, 2006, Harry Reid Center For Environmental Studies. Nuclear Science And Technology Division Dec 2006

Afci Quarterly Input – Unlv October 1 Through December 31, 2006, Harry Reid Center For Environmental Studies. Nuclear Science And Technology Division

Transmutation Research Program Reports (TRP)

Quarterly report highlighting research projects, activities and objectives of the Transmutation Research Program at the Nuclear Science & Technology Division, Harry Reid Research Center.

The University of Nevada, Las Vegas supports the AFCI through research and development of technologies for economic and environmentally sound refinement of spent nuclear fuel. The UNLV program has four components: infrastructure, international collaboration, student-based research, and management and program support.


Random Feature Subspace Ensemble Based Approaches For The Analysis Of Data With Missing Features, Hussein Syed Mohammed Dec 2006

Random Feature Subspace Ensemble Based Approaches For The Analysis Of Data With Missing Features, Hussein Syed Mohammed

Theses and Dissertations

Missing data in real world applications is not an uncommon occurrence. It is not unusual for training, validation or field data to have missing features in some (or even all) of their instances, as bad sensors, failed pixels, malfunctioning equipment, unexpected noise causing signal saturation, data corruption, and so on, are all familiar scenarios in many practical applications.

In this thesis, the feasibility of an ensemble of classifiers trained on a feature subset space is investigated as an effective and practical solution for the missing feature problem. Two ensemble of classifiers approach motivated by the Random Subspace Method are proposed ...


Use Of Principal Component Analysis With Linear Predictive Features In Developing A Blind Snr Estimation System, Matthew James Marbach Dec 2006

Use Of Principal Component Analysis With Linear Predictive Features In Developing A Blind Snr Estimation System, Matthew James Marbach

Theses and Dissertations

Signal-to-noise ratio is an important concept in electrical communications, as it is a measurable ratio between a given transmitted signal and the inherent background noise of a transmission channel. Currently signal-to-noise ratio testing is primarily performed by using an intrusive method of comparing a corrupted signal to the original signal and giving it a score based on the comparison. However, this technique is inefficient and often impossible for practical use because it requires the original signal for comparison. A speech signal's characteristics and properties could be used to develop a non-intrusive method for determining SNR, or a method that ...


An Architecture For Intelligent Health Assessment Enabled Ieee 1451 Compliant Smart Sensors, Donald Albert Nickles Dec 2006

An Architecture For Intelligent Health Assessment Enabled Ieee 1451 Compliant Smart Sensors, Donald Albert Nickles

Theses and Dissertations

As systems become increasingly complex and costly, potential failure mechanisms and indicators are numerous and difficult to identify, while the cost of loss is very expensive - human lives, replacement units, and impacts to national security. In order to ensure the safety and long-term reliability of vehicles, structures, and devices attention must be directed toward the assessment and management of system health. System health is the key component that links data, information, and knowledge to action. Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) doctrine calls for comprehensive real-time health assessment and management of systems where the distillation of raw data into information takes ...


Data Fusion Of Complementary Information From Parietal And Occipital Event Related Potentials For Early Diagnosis Of Alzheimer's Disease, Nicholas Stepenosky Dec 2006

Data Fusion Of Complementary Information From Parietal And Occipital Event Related Potentials For Early Diagnosis Of Alzheimer's Disease, Nicholas Stepenosky

Theses and Dissertations

The number of the elderly population affected by Alzheimer's disease is rapidly rising. The need to find an accurate, inexpensive, and non-intrusive procedure that can be made available to community healthcare providers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is becoming an increasingly urgent public health concern. Several recent studies have looked at analyzing electroencephalogram signals through the use of many signal processing techniques. While their methods show great promise, the final outcome of these studies has been largely inconclusive. The inherent difficulty of the problem may be the cause of this outcome, but most likely it is ...


Multiresolution Wavelet Analysis Of Event-Related Eeg Potentials Using Ensemble Of Classifier Data Fusion Techniques For Early Diagnosis Of Alzheimer's Disease, Apostolos Topalis Dec 2006

Multiresolution Wavelet Analysis Of Event-Related Eeg Potentials Using Ensemble Of Classifier Data Fusion Techniques For Early Diagnosis Of Alzheimer's Disease, Apostolos Topalis

Theses and Dissertations

The recent advances and knowledge in medicine and nutrition have greatly improved our average life expectancy. An unfortunate consequence of this longer life span, however, is a dramatic increase in the number of individuals suffering from dementia, and more specifically, from Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, AD remains under-diagnosed and under-treated until its more severe stages due to lack of standard diagnostic tools available to community clinics. A search for biomarkers that will allow early diagnosis of the disease is therefore necessary to develop effective medical treatments. Such a biomarker should be non-invasive, simple to obtain, safe, inexpensive, accurate, and ...


A "Divide-And-Conquer" Strategy For Nde Signal Inversion In Gas Transmission Pipelines, Justin Gary Bram Dec 2006

A "Divide-And-Conquer" Strategy For Nde Signal Inversion In Gas Transmission Pipelines, Justin Gary Bram

Theses and Dissertations

Signal inversion in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications is a critical step before remediation decisions are made. The accuracy and confidence of the signal inversion results therefore play a key role in evaluating the effectiveness of the NDE procedure. Conventional NDE signal inversion algorithms that employ artificial neural networks treat all geometric regions of the NDE signal equally. Consequently, when the inversion algorithm is presented with input data that is significantly different from the training data, the performance of the network deteriorates significantly. This thesis presents a superior alternative for NDE signal inversion. Different geometric regions of the NDE signature are ...


Boosted Ensemble Algorithm Strategically Trained For The Incremental Learning Of Unbalanced Data, Michael David Muhlbaier Dec 2006

Boosted Ensemble Algorithm Strategically Trained For The Incremental Learning Of Unbalanced Data, Michael David Muhlbaier

Theses and Dissertations

Many pattern classification problems require a solution that needs to be incrementally updated over a period of time. Incremental learning problems are often complicated by the appearance of new concept classes and unbalanced cardinality in training data. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm capable of incrementally learning from severely unbalanced data. This work introduces three novel ensemble based algorithms derived from the incremental learning algorithm, Learn++. Learn++.NC is designed specifically for incrementally learning New Classes through dynamically adjusting the combination weights of the classifiers' decisions. Learn++.UD handles Unbalanced Data through ...


The Unbalanced Classification Problem: Detecting Breaches In Security, Paul Evangelista Dec 2006

The Unbalanced Classification Problem: Detecting Breaches In Security, Paul Evangelista

West Point ETD

This research proposes several methods designed to improve solutions for security classification problems. The security classification problem involves unbalanced, high-dimensional, binary classification problems that are prevalent today. The imbalance within this data involves a significant majority of the negative class and a minority positive class. Any system that needs protection from malicious activity, intruders, theft, or other types of breaches in security must address this problem. These breaches in security are considered instances of the positive class. Given numerical data that represent observations or instances which require classification, state of the art machine learning algorithms can be applied. However, the ...


Wave Propagation In Nanofibers, Xiangfa Wu, Yuris A. Dzenis Dec 2006

Wave Propagation In Nanofibers, Xiangfa Wu, Yuris A. Dzenis

Faculty Publications from Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience

Surface effect on the longitudinal and flexural wave propagation in straight nanofibers/nanowires is studied within the framework of continuum mechanics. Modified Euler-Bernoulli and Rayleigh-Love rod equations and modified Timoshenko beam equation were developed to take into account the surface effect. It was found that surface tension/stress plays appreciable influence on the wave propagation in nanofibers/nanowires at very small diameters. Wave dispersion relations were presented in closed form, and numerical calculations were performed to show the variation of the phase velocity with the wave number at varying surface property and fiber diameter. The given results can be used ...


Functional Disaster Resistant Buildings, Florida Solar Energy Center, William Young Dec 2006

Functional Disaster Resistant Buildings, Florida Solar Energy Center, William Young

FSEC Energy Research Center®

Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunami and earthquakes, are becoming a greater problem as they destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. One proactive strategy to minimize this type of destruction and disruption to lives is the implementation of disaster-resistant buildings that are energy efficient, fortified to the latest codes, and incorporate renewable energy systems. This approach uses the best energy-efficient buildings, fortified to the latest ...


Problems And Solutions: Training Disaster Organizations On The Use Of Pv, Florida Solar Energy Center, William Young Dec 2006

Problems And Solutions: Training Disaster Organizations On The Use Of Pv, Florida Solar Energy Center, William Young

FSEC Energy Research Center®

In 1992, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) assisted the University of Miami Field Epidemiology Survey Team (FEST) with photovoltaic systems to power temporary medical clinics after Hurricane Andrew struck south Dade County. At that time, it became apparent that there were no educational materials prepared for disaster relief or emergency management personnel on the use of photovoltaic (PV) to supply electrical power in response to a disaster. This need prompted FSEC to create an education program to develop awareness and train organizations on the proper use of PV in disasters. Since then, FSEC has ...


Risk Identification, Classification And Response Methods In The Sudanese Construction Industry, Zena Alwan Dec 2006

Risk Identification, Classification And Response Methods In The Sudanese Construction Industry, Zena Alwan

Archived Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Interface Characteristics Of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers For Interconnect Applications, Yusuke Ominami, Quoc Ngo, Makoto Suzuki, Alexander J. Austin, Cary Y. Yang, Alan M. Cassell, Jun Li Dec 2006

Interface Characteristics Of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers For Interconnect Applications, Yusuke Ominami, Quoc Ngo, Makoto Suzuki, Alexander J. Austin, Cary Y. Yang, Alan M. Cassell, Jun Li

Electrical and Computer Engineering

The authors characterize the detailed interface structure of Ni-catalyzed vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for interconnect applications. Stacked graphitic layers and cup-shape structures of CNFs around the interface region have been observed using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The interaction between the Ni catalyst and Ti layer dramatically affects the CNF structure during initial growth. The effect of interface nanostructures on contact resistance is also discussed.


Reduced Loss Through Improved Fabrication For Single Air Interface Bends In Polymer Waveguides, S. Kim, Gregory P. Nordin, Y. Lin, J. Cardenas Dec 2006

Reduced Loss Through Improved Fabrication For Single Air Interface Bends In Polymer Waveguides, S. Kim, Gregory P. Nordin, Y. Lin, J. Cardenas

Faculty Publications

We have previously demonstrated high efficiency small-area 45° single air interface waveguide bends in a perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) material system [Opt. Express 12, 5314 (2004)]. In this paper we show how the loss per bend can be decreased through improved bend interface position accuracy and sidewall smoothness. This is achieved with electron-beam lithography (EBL) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at the cost of increased fabrication complexity compared to our previous work based on a UV contact mask aligner. Using the EBL-based fabrication process, the measured loss per bend decreases from 0.33 dB/bend to 0.124 dB/bend (97 ...


Elastic Degradable Polyurethanes For Biomedical Applications, Changhong Zhang Dec 2006

Elastic Degradable Polyurethanes For Biomedical Applications, Changhong Zhang

All Theses

Several series of polyurethanes were synthesized with linear or crosslinked structures by using different synthesis routes. Two studies are mentioned: (1) the synthesis of degradable polyurethanes with linear structure and the investigation of the elasticity and cytophilicity of the materials as function of the chain extender, and (2) the synthesis and the investigation of the biocompatibility, degradation, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of the polyurethane-based hydrogels with crosslinked structure.


Evidence Of Long-Wavelength Collective Excitations In Magnetic Superlattices, Nikolay I. Polushkin, Steven A. Michalski, Lanping Yue, Roger D. Kirby Dec 2006

Evidence Of Long-Wavelength Collective Excitations In Magnetic Superlattices, Nikolay I. Polushkin, Steven A. Michalski, Lanping Yue, Roger D. Kirby

Faculty Publications: Materials Research Science and Engineering Center

We report on a mechanism of dynamic dipolar coupling in magnetic superlattices via long-wavelength nonevanescent fields. In the spin excitation spectra of our heterophase stripe structures, such interactions mediate a singlet ↔ doublet crossover in the frequency regime driven by the orientation of an external static field. This crossover is a new feature observed in collective behavior of superlattices, though there is some analogy of this phenomenon with birefringence taking place in optical superlattices. We envision applying the collective effects described here in microwave photonic devices.


Use Of Friction Stir Processing And Friction Stir Welding For Nitinol Medical Devices, Blair London, Murray Mahoney, Alan Pelton Dec 2006

Use Of Friction Stir Processing And Friction Stir Welding For Nitinol Medical Devices, Blair London, Murray Mahoney, Alan Pelton

Materials Engineering

Metallic materials may be joined utilizing a friction stir processing technique. The friction stir processing technique utilizes a shaped, rotating tool to move material from one side of the joint to be welded to the other without liquefying the base material.


Structuring Emperical Methods For Reuse And Efficiency In Product Development Processes, Marshall Edwin Bare Dec 2006

Structuring Emperical Methods For Reuse And Efficiency In Product Development Processes, Marshall Edwin Bare

Theses and Dissertations

Product development requires that engineers have the ability to predict product performance. When product performance involves complex physics and natural phenomena, mathematical models are often insufficient to provide accurate predictions. Engineering companies compensate for this deficiency by testing prototypes to obtain empirical data that can be used in place of predictive models. The purpose of this work is to provide techniques and methods for efficient use of empirical methods in product development processes. Empirical methods involve the design and creation of prototype hardware and the testing of that hardware in controlled environments. Empirical methods represent a complete product development sub-cycle ...


Stabilisation Of Rail Tracks And Underlying Soft Soil Formations, Buddhima Indraratna, Mohamed A. Shahin, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Dec 2006

Stabilisation Of Rail Tracks And Underlying Soft Soil Formations, Buddhima Indraratna, Mohamed A. Shahin, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

Faculty of Engineering - Papers (Archive)

Construction of rail tracks requires appropriate improvement techniques for ballast and underlying soft formation soil, both of which deform and degrade progressively under heavy train loads. This paper aims to demonstrate and discuss some major aspects in relation to stabilisation of ballasted rail tracks overlaying soft formation soils. The use of geocomposites (i.e. bonded geogrid-geotextile layers) for enhancing the performance of rail tracks is described, with the aim of achieving reduced track settlement, increased resilient modulus and decreased ballast degradation. The effects of increasing the confining pressure on rail tracks in regard to particle breakage are studied using laboratory ...


Reconstructing Spectral Scenes Using Statistical Estimation To Enhance Space Situational Awareness, Travis F. Blake Dec 2006

Reconstructing Spectral Scenes Using Statistical Estimation To Enhance Space Situational Awareness, Travis F. Blake

Theses and Dissertations

A new sensor, the Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) Spectral Imaging Sensor (ASIS) has been developed at the Maui Space Surveillance Complex (MSSC). ASIS is capable of collecting resolved imagery of space objects in 10's-100's of spectral bands while using an adaptive optics system. However, the stringent requirements of collecting ground-based images requires a sensor that induces spectral blurring. Post-processing algorithms to remove this blurring are required to fully exploit these spectral images. This research focuses on developing the reconstruction algorithms, based on proven estimation theories, required to spectrally deblur the images collected from ASIS. Additionally, the research will ...


Wavefront Curvature Sensing From Image Projections, Jonathan C. Buffington Dec 2006

Wavefront Curvature Sensing From Image Projections, Jonathan C. Buffington

Theses and Dissertations

This research outlines the development and simulation of a signal processing approach to real time wavefront curvature sensing in adaptive optics. The signal processing approach combines vectorized Charge Coupled Device (CCD) read out with a wavefront modal estimation technique. The wavefront sensing algorithm analyzes vector projections of image intensity data to provide an estimate of the wavefront phase as a combination of several low order Zernike polynomial modes. This wavefront sensor design expands on an existing idea for vector based tilt sensing by providing the ability to compensate for additional modes. Under the proposed wavefront sensing approach, the physical wavefront ...


The Piezoresistive Effect In Microflexures, Gary K. Johns Dec 2006

The Piezoresistive Effect In Microflexures, Gary K. Johns

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to present a new model for predicting the piezoresistive effect in microflexures experiencing bending stresses. A linear model describing piezoresistivity exists for members in pure tension and compression. Extensions of this model to more complex loading conditions do not match experimental results. An accurate model of piezoresistivity in complex loading conditions would expand the design possibilities of piezoresistive devices. A new model to predict piezoresistive effects in tension, compression, and more complex loading conditions is proposed. The focus of this research is to verify a unidirectional form of this proposed model for microflexures in ...


Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Design Review And Approval, Florida Solar Energy Center, James Dunlop Dec 2006

Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Design Review And Approval, Florida Solar Energy Center, James Dunlop

FSEC Energy Research Center®

This document provides details of operations and procedures for the approval of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system designs and documentation conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. The principal goal of this process is to help ensure the safety and quality of installed PV systems, and provides an assurance to installers, consumers and financiers that approved designs meet accepted codes and industry practices, and are accompanied by a complete System Manual that meets the minimum requirements outlined in this document.


Executive Summary: Evaluation Of The Impact Of Vacant Home Space Conditioning Strategies On Summer Relative Humidity, Energy, And Peak Load; Phase Ii, Florida Solar Energy Center, James Cummings Dec 2006

Executive Summary: Evaluation Of The Impact Of Vacant Home Space Conditioning Strategies On Summer Relative Humidity, Energy, And Peak Load; Phase Ii, Florida Solar Energy Center, James Cummings

FSEC Energy Research Center®

The Vacant Home Space Conditioning Study was sponsored by Florida Power & Light (FPL) as part of its Conservation R&D Program and carried out by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). In the US, about one in four retiree "snowbirds" make Florida their destination to escape the northern cold. Snowbird residents number more than 900,000 in Florida during the winter. In some counties of FPL's territory these seasonal residents compose up to 15% of the population (Shih, 1981). This pattern of seasonal occupancy creates a need for space conditioning guidelines for vacant homes to avoid mold problems while ...


Test Method For Photovoltaic Module Ratings, Florida Solar Energy Center, Kevin Lynn Dec 2006

Test Method For Photovoltaic Module Ratings, Florida Solar Energy Center, Kevin Lynn

FSEC Energy Research Center®

This document describes the testing and reporting requirements for certification and labeling of photovoltaic modules (PV) for their power ratings. The test methods and procedures chosen for this purpose are based on consensus standards of relevant committees of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), or the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).


Trajectory Model Validation Using Newly Developed Altitude-Controlled Balloons During The International Consortium For Atmospheric Research On Transport And Transformations 2004 Campaign, Emily E. Riddle, Paul B. Voss, Andreas Stohl, Daniel Holcomb, Darren Maczka, K. Washburn, Robert W. Talbot Dec 2006

Trajectory Model Validation Using Newly Developed Altitude-Controlled Balloons During The International Consortium For Atmospheric Research On Transport And Transformations 2004 Campaign, Emily E. Riddle, Paul B. Voss, Andreas Stohl, Daniel Holcomb, Darren Maczka, K. Washburn, Robert W. Talbot

Engineering: Faculty Publications

During the summer of 2004, five altitude-controlled tracking balloons were flown as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformations (ICARTT) campaign. These Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloons, newly developed at the University of Massachusetts, are notable for their light weight (∼1 kg mass), efficient altitude control, case of launch, long-duration flight capability, and ability to perform repeated quasi-Lagrangian soundings. The balloons were embedded in urban plumes from New York and Boston which they tracked over New England, eastern Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a nearly constant altitude. The flights ranged from 10 to 111 ...


Effect Of South Caroline Belt Law On Safety Belt Use, Sourabh Patki Dec 2006

Effect Of South Caroline Belt Law On Safety Belt Use, Sourabh Patki

All Theses

A number of factors and accessories help save lives and prevent injuries to road users, yet safety belts have become synonymous with automobile safety today, unlike any accessory before or since their introduction in automobiles. However, the scientific advances in automobile safety, followed by the acceptance of the necessity for safety in automobiles by both the manufacturers and the population, finally leading to the introduction of safety features and their incorporation within the laws occurred over a much longer span, continuing even today. Today's Safety movement aims at increasing safety belt using an awareness campaigns, accompanied by enforcement. Safety ...


Life Cycle Cost Analysis Of Pavements: State-Of-The-Practice, Zeynep Guven Dec 2006

Life Cycle Cost Analysis Of Pavements: State-Of-The-Practice, Zeynep Guven

All Theses

Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is performed by transportation agencies in the design phase of transportation projects in order to be able to implement more economical strategies, to support decision processes in pavement type selection (flexible or rigid) and also to assess the relative costs of different rehabilitation options within each type of pavement. However, most of the input parameters are inherently uncertain. In order to implement the LCCA process in a reliable and trustworthy manner, this uncertainty must be addressed. This thesis summarizes a through research that aims at improving the existing LCCA approach for South Carolina Department of ...