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2004

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2988

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Emisja Chlorowodoru Ze Spalania Węgla W Kotle Pyłowym, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Przemysław Szczygłowski, Marek Bogacki Dec 2004

Emisja Chlorowodoru Ze Spalania Węgla W Kotle Pyłowym, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Przemysław Szczygłowski, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

Emission of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from coal combustion is not controlled just like for example sulpfur dioxide emission. But HCl emission is also important, because chlorine content in some types of coal can reach the similar level to sulfur content. In the paper the measurement results of HCl emission to the air during combustion of three types of coal with law content of chlorine were presented. The researches were carried out for a steam pulverized coal boiler (max. boiler efficiency – 430 t/h) during three various loads (respectively 65, 80 and 95 % of maximum efficiency) without flue gas desulfurization. The ...


Behavior Of Structural Concrete Members Strengthened By Composite Fabrics, Jian Chen Dec 2004

Behavior Of Structural Concrete Members Strengthened By Composite Fabrics, Jian Chen

Dissertations

The new technique of using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials to repair and strengthen various concrete members is becoming more and more popular in structural retrofitting field. Among all the confining materials, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) fabric jackets are identified as an effective way to enhance the strength and ductility of concrete members due to its superior mechanical properties. This study investigates the detailed structural behavior of confined concrete members using CFRP fabric jackets by both analytical and experimental approaches.

A series of CFRP wrapped concrete cylinder tests were conducted to study the compressive stress-strain behavior for CFRP confined ...


Qos Constrained Cellular Ad Hoc Augmented Networks, Chi-Tung Chen Dec 2004

Qos Constrained Cellular Ad Hoc Augmented Networks, Chi-Tung Chen

Dissertations

In this dissertation, based on different design criteria, three novel quality of service (QoS) constrained cellular ad hoc augmented network (CAHAN) architectures are proposed for next generation wireless networks. The CAHAN architectures have a hybrid architecture, in which each MT of CDMA cellular networks has ad hoc communication capability. The CAHAN architectures are an evolutionary approach to conventional cellular networks. The proposed architectures have good system scalability and high system reliability.

The first proposed architecture is the QoS constrained minimum-power cellular ad hoc augmented network architecture (QCMP CAHAN). The QCMP CAHAN can find the optimal minimum-power routes under the QoS ...


Tide-Influenced Contaminant Transport In Coastal Aquifers, Yong Peng Dec 2004

Tide-Influenced Contaminant Transport In Coastal Aquifers, Yong Peng

Dissertations

Coastal aquifers are distinguished from other aquifers because of tidal effects which cause complicated groundwater flow and contaminant transport phenomena in regions immediately adjacent to the coast. This study is designed to address the significance of tidal influence on contaminant transport by focusing on one-dimensional homogeneous coastal aquifers.

This study formulates a conceptual model and corresponding flow and transport equations, analyzes coastal boundary conditions, solves numerically the transport equation, and uses experiments to verify the numerical results.

Results of numerical and experimental studies conclude that tides can have a significant impact on contaminant transport, especially when under unconfined conditions, subject ...


Computational Studies Of Viscoelastic Multiphase Flows, Shriram B. Pillapakkam Dec 2004

Computational Studies Of Viscoelastic Multiphase Flows, Shriram B. Pillapakkam

Dissertations

A finite element code based on the level set method is developed for performing two and three dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of viscoelastic two-phase flow problems. The Oldroyd-B constitutive equation is used to model the viscoelastic liquid. The code is used to study transient and steady state shapes of Newtonian and viscoelastic drops in simple shear and buoyancy driven flows. The roles of the governing dimensionless parameters: Capillary number (Ca), Deborah Number (De) and the polymer concentration parameter c, in determining deformation of drops and bubbles, are also analyzed.

The numerical code permits us to vary Ca, De and ...


Crystalization Studies In Hollow Fiber Devices, Dimitrios Zarkadas Dec 2004

Crystalization Studies In Hollow Fiber Devices, Dimitrios Zarkadas

Dissertations

Crystallization was examined under a new perspective and in a flow environment much different from that available in currently used industrial devices. Three crystallization techniques were tested in the unique flow environment offered by hollow fiber devices. In addition, a new type of heat exchanger based on hollow fibers was tested as well as the potential use of porous hollow fiber devices as mixing devices. Hollow fiber devices are compact, extremely efficient on a volumetric basis, easy to scale up and control and their inherent characteristics promote the creation of homogeneous temperature and concentration conditions on a scale considerably smaller ...


Turbo Space-Time Coding For Mimo Systems : Designs And Analyses, Hangjun Chen Dec 2004

Turbo Space-Time Coding For Mimo Systems : Designs And Analyses, Hangjun Chen

Dissertations

Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems can provide high diversity, high data rate or a mix of both, for wireless communications. This dissertation combines both modes and suggests analyses and techniques that advance the state of the art of MIMO systems. Specifically, this dissertation studies turbo space-time coding schemes for MIMO systems.

Before the designs of turbo space-time codes are presented, a fundamental tool to analyze and design turbo coding schemes, the extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chart method, is extended from the binary/nonbinary code case to coded modulation case. This extension prepares the convergence analysis for turbo space-time code ...


The Feasibility Of Micromachined Dynamic Resonant Beam Coriolis True Mass Flow Meter, Sang Hwui Lee Dec 2004

The Feasibility Of Micromachined Dynamic Resonant Beam Coriolis True Mass Flow Meter, Sang Hwui Lee

Dissertations

The technological advances of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) in the past two decades have been remarkable for innovations in microfluidic systems as well as automotive applications such as pressure sensors and accelerometers. MEMS flow sensing has emerged as a field of interest in microfluidics, with a variety of sensing methods being miniaturized, such as thermal anemometry, ultrasonic sensing and flow measurement based on the Coriolis effect. Coriolis sensing is particularly attractive since, unlike most other methods which provide volumetric flow information, Coriolis sensing is capable of providing a direct, true mass flow measurement. Because of this advantage, Coriolis flow sensing has ...


Detection Of Network Anomalies And Novel Attacks In The Internet Via Statistical Network Traffic Separation And Normality Prediction, Jun Jiang Dec 2004

Detection Of Network Anomalies And Novel Attacks In The Internet Via Statistical Network Traffic Separation And Normality Prediction, Jun Jiang

Dissertations

With the advent and the explosive growth of the global Internet and the electronic commerce environment, adaptive/automatic network and service anomaly detection is fast gaining critical research and practical importance. If the next generation of network technology is to operate beyond the levels of current networks, it will require a set of well-designed tools for its management that will provide the capability of dynamically and reliably identifying network anomalies. Early detection of network anomalies and performance degradations is a key to rapid fault recovery and robust networking, and has been receiving increasing attention lately.

In this dissertation we present ...


Cyclic Prefix Assisted Block Transmission For Low Complexity Communication System Design, Haibin Huang Dec 2004

Cyclic Prefix Assisted Block Transmission For Low Complexity Communication System Design, Haibin Huang

Theses

This thesis presents new results on cyclic prefix (CP) assisted block transmission for low complexity communication system design. Two important aspects are studied: the CP based low-complexity schemes for channel equalization and channel estimation.

Specifically, based on the simple frequency domain equalization, a low complexity joint receiver is proposed for CP-CDMA system, which is a special application of block transmission.

And in this work the finite impulse response (FIR) model is used for the unknown communication channels. To identify an unknown FIR channel, a novel channel estimation method is proposed by exploiting the cyclic prefix technique. Compared to a conventional ...


Experimental Technique For Studying High-Temperature Phase Equilibria In Reactive Molten Metal Based Systems, Alexandre Ermoline Dec 2004

Experimental Technique For Studying High-Temperature Phase Equilibria In Reactive Molten Metal Based Systems, Alexandre Ermoline

Dissertations

The general objective of this work is to develop an experimental technique for studying the high-temperature phase compositions and phase equilibria in molten metal-based binary and ternary systems, such as Zr-O-N, B-N-O, Al-O, and others. A specific material system of Zr-O-N was selected for studying and testing this technique.

The information about the high-temperature phase equilibria in reactive metal-based systems is scarce and their studying is difficult because of chemical reactions occurring between samples and essentially any container materials, and causing contamination of the system.

Containerless microgravity experiments for studying equilibria in molten metal-gas systems were designed to be conducted ...


Corrosion Studies On Alpha Tantalum And Beta Tantalum Coated Steel, Sung Min Maeng Dec 2004

Corrosion Studies On Alpha Tantalum And Beta Tantalum Coated Steel, Sung Min Maeng

Dissertations

Tantalum coating by sputtering, one form of physical vapor deposition (PVD), has been investigated as a replacement for chromium coatings on gun bores to protect them from erosion and corrosion due to its high ductility and high corrosion resistance in aggressive environments. When deposited as a film on steel substrates by sputtering, either α-Ta, β-Ta, or a mixture of both phases have been observed under varying deposition conditions. To evaluate corrosion behavior of Ta coatings, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization were conducted as a function of coating thickness. The coating porosity was observed to decrease with increasing coating thickness ...


Uniaxial And Triaxial Behavior Of High Strength Concrete With And Without Steel Fibers, Xiaobin Lu Dec 2004

Uniaxial And Triaxial Behavior Of High Strength Concrete With And Without Steel Fibers, Xiaobin Lu

Dissertations

This study first presents an extensive experimental research program on the true uniaxial and triaxial compression behavior for both high strength concrete (HSC) and steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete (SFHSC). The experimental study mainly focuses on the octahedral shear stress strain relationship of those two types of concrete, which is adopted as the basis to develop a new incremental constitutive model. Emphasis is also put on the investigation of the variation of tangent Poisson's ratio under not only uniaxial but also triaxial stress conditions. The effect of cyclic loading on this parameter is also addressed.

According to this ...


Congestion Control In Resilient Packet Ring Networks, Alharbi Fahd Dec 2004

Congestion Control In Resilient Packet Ring Networks, Alharbi Fahd

Dissertations

The Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) is a new metro technology; RPR shares SONET's ability in providing fast recovery from link and node failures as well as inherits the cost and simplicity of Ethernet. RPR, like SONET/SDH, is a ring based architecture consisting of two optical rotating rings (uni-directional). In RPR, packets are removed from the ring at the destination so that different segments of the ring can be used at the same time for different flows; as a result, the spatial reuse feature is achieved. Enabling the spatial reuse feature introduces the challenge of guaranteeing fairness among the ...


Development And Application Of Fractionation Procedure For Drinking Water Organic Matters, Yong Pu Dec 2004

Development And Application Of Fractionation Procedure For Drinking Water Organic Matters, Yong Pu

Dissertations

USEPA mandates a control of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished drinking water and recommends reduction of natural organic matters (NOM), DBP precursors, to achieve this regulatory goal. Studies relating NOM with DBP include fractionation of water samples, characterization of collected organic fractions, fractions' formation potential tests, and jar or similar tests to remove NOM. This study discussed a current resin fractionation procedure on principle, procedure, and its efficiency when applied to water samples of low NOM (< 5mgIL). The primary objective of this research is to develop a fractionation procedure intended for water of low NOM by carefully applying mass balance concept through each fraction's fractionation and a selection of stable ion exchange resins. A new protocol was presented with triple columns of XAD-8 adsorption resin, one column of AG-MP-50 cationic resin, and another column of WA 10 weak anionic resin in sequence. This protocol was experimented and confirmed for its efficiency (±10% loss of mass) with samples from Canal Road (CR) and Raritan Millstone (RM) surface water treatment plants (WTPs) in central New Jersey. The second objective of this study is to develop a statistical model with a potential of online delineation of organic fractions of NOM. The resulting model based on samples of Passaic Valley Water Commission (PVWC) WTP in northern New Jersey was applied to predict organic fractions of samples from CR and RM plants. Paired T-test (paired t ratio 1.15 < t critical 2.02) indicated a good correlation between the predicted and actual fraction concentration. Finally, samples of Middlesex Water Company (MWC) were fractionated and Trihalomethane formation potential tests (THMFP) on collected fraction showed hydrophilic matters possessed a higher potential to produce TTHM in finished water than hydrophobic matter. Jar tests indicated while coagulation was effective in removing hydrophobic matter, it may not be optimum for removal of hydrophilic matter.

This study developed an accurate fractionation procedure for low NOM waters. It provided a better understanding of organic matter transformation at different treatment stages ...


Bus Arrival Time Prediction Using Stochastic Time Series And Markov Chains, Rajat Rajbhandari Dec 2004

Bus Arrival Time Prediction Using Stochastic Time Series And Markov Chains, Rajat Rajbhandari

Dissertations

Public transit agencies rely on disseminating accurate and reliable information to transit users to achieve higher service quality and attract more users. With the development of new technologies, the concept of providing users with reliable information about bus arrival times at bus stops has become increasingly attractive. Due to the fact that bus operation parameters and variables are highly stochastic, modeling prediction of bus travel and arrival times has become one of the many challenging tasks.

Stochastic time series and delay propagation models to predict bus arrival times using historical information were developed. Markov models were developed to predict propagation ...


A Co-Processor Design To Support Mpi Primitives In Configurable Multiprocessor Designs, Rohan Bafna Dec 2004

A Co-Processor Design To Support Mpi Primitives In Configurable Multiprocessor Designs, Rohan Bafna

Theses

The Message-Passing Interface (MIPI) is a widely used standard for inter-processor communication in parallel computers. This standard is normally implemented in software, thus resulting in large communication latencies. A hardware implementation can reduce communication latencies significantly, thereby increasing the bandwidth. However, this approach cannot be applied in practice to the very large set of functions in MPI.

Reconfigurable computing has reached levels where entire parallel systems can be built inside one or more FPGAs (Field-Programmable Gate Arrays). In this scheme, specialized components must be built for inter-processor communication and the resulting code is difficult to port to other reconfigurable platforms ...


Study Of Steganalysis Methods, Wen Chen Dec 2004

Study Of Steganalysis Methods, Wen Chen

Theses

Steganography is the art and science of hiding the presence of conmunication by embedding secret message into digital images. The steganographic techniques can be applied in many areas. On one hand, people can benefit from their application. For example, they can be used for copyright protection. On the other hand, these techniques may be used by criminals or terrorists for malicious purposes. For example, terrorists may use the techniques to transmit the secret plan of terror attacks. Law enforcement and security authorities have concerns about such activities. It is necessary to devise the methods to detect steganographic systems. The detection ...


Parameter Based Synthesis Of Sign Language, Amanda Irving Dec 2004

Parameter Based Synthesis Of Sign Language, Amanda Irving

Theses

The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate synthesis of signs in American Sign Language with a finite number of parameters. The parameters in this method include 22 key locations, six location modifiers, six orientation indicators, 46 hand shapes, six predefined movements and seven possible end effectors. These parameters can be used in conjunction with a computer script and they maximize precision and versatility while minimizing development time and resources. The parameters for each sign are stored in an individual text file averaging approximately half a kilobyte.

The success of this project is demonstrated using UGS's Jack Software ...


Optical Properties Of Sige Nanostructures, Varun Sharma Dec 2004

Optical Properties Of Sige Nanostructures, Varun Sharma

Theses

In this thesis, Raman Scattering (RS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements of Ge nanowires (NWs) grown via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) using chemical vapor deposition silicon substrates consisting of (100) and (111) crystallographic orientations are reported. Ge NWs grown are ~40 nm in diameter, approximately a micrometer in length, and a sharp narrow Raman peak at ~300cm-1 indicates single crystal quality. An absence of SiGe peak in the Raman spectra indicates that SiGe interdiffusion is insignificant for the NW volume. Low temperature PL-intensity-dependence spectra indicate that the observed emission originates at the Ge NW - Si substrate interface, where SiGe intermixing has been ...


Study Of Joint Embedding And Compression On Jpeg Compression Scheme Using Multiple Codebook Data Hiding, Amol Nishikant Sukerkar Dec 2004

Study Of Joint Embedding And Compression On Jpeg Compression Scheme Using Multiple Codebook Data Hiding, Amol Nishikant Sukerkar

Theses

This thesis studies a direct application of multiple codebook data hiding technique in the multimedia applications. It studies the practical implementation of a joint embedding and compression scheme. It presents a study of Type III data embedding technique using multiple codebook design on JPEG-85 compression scheme. The application of the above technique is compared with the Type III data embedding techniques using single codebook design. The comparison is carried out in tenns of the parameters such as mean square error and normalized correlation between the embedded and extracted watermark.

The performance of data hiding rate against the embedding distortion is ...


Scalable Wide Area Ad-Hoc Networking, Nithin Bose Dec 2004

Scalable Wide Area Ad-Hoc Networking, Nithin Bose

Theses

The scalability problem of routing algorithms in Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANET) has conventionally been addressed by introducing hierarchical architectures, clusters, and neighborhood zones. In all of these approaches, some nodes are assigned different routing related roles than others. Examples include cluster heads, virtual backbones and border nodes. The selection of these nodes on a fixed or dynamic basis adds complexity to the routing algorithm, in addition to placing significant demands on mobility and power consumption of these nodes. Furthermore, the scalability achieved with hierarchical architectures or partitions is limited.

This thesis demonstrates that location awareness can greatly aid in MANET ...


Investigation Of Static And Dynamic Enhancement Of Laminar Natural Convection Cooling Of Electronics, Laurie Ann Florio Dec 2004

Investigation Of Static And Dynamic Enhancement Of Laminar Natural Convection Cooling Of Electronics, Laurie Ann Florio

Dissertations

With the proliferation of consumer electronics devices and the increasingly demanding thermal control requirements for such devices, more effective and efficient means of cooling electronics are needed. The feasibility of three alternative approaches to enhancing pure natural convection cooling of electronics is investigated in the current research. The three static or dynamic methods investigated are alternate cross-flow passages, the strategic placement of transversely oscillating plates near the heat sources and a combined method using both the cross-flow passages and the strategically placed oscillating plates. These cooling methods are intended to operate in the regime for which natural convection cooling is ...


Image Data Hiding, Zhicheng Ni Dec 2004

Image Data Hiding, Zhicheng Ni

Dissertations

Image data hiding represents a class of processes used to embed data into cover images.

Robustness is one of the basic requirements for image data hiding. In the first part of this dissertation, 2D and 3D interleaving techniques associated with error-correction-code (ECC) are proposed to significantly improve the robustness of hidden data against burst errors.

In most cases, the cover image cannot be inverted back to the original image after the hidden data are retrieved. In this dissertation, one novel reversible (lossless) data hiding technique is then introduced. This technique is based on the histogram modification, which can embed a ...


High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project: Quarterly Progress Report October 1, 2004 Through December 31, 2004, Anthony Hechanova Dec 2004

High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project: Quarterly Progress Report October 1, 2004 Through December 31, 2004, Anthony Hechanova

Publications (NSTD)

UNLV hosted an NHI Systems Interface Meeting on Dec. 16 and a UNLVRF HTHX Kickoff Meeting on Dec. 17. The purpose of the meetings was to coordinate the FY05 research and development effort of the UNLV Research Foundation portion of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative among the DOE, national program technical directors and the UNLVRF collaborators. Collaborators also had the opportunity to discuss their research program plan and update their progress. It was decided that these type of collaboration meetings were very useful and they will be held quarterly at the various collaborator sites. The next meeting will be in March ...


Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen Dec 2004

Theoretical Modeling Of Protective Oxide Layer Growth In Non-Isothermal Lead-Alloys Coolant Systems, Yitung Chen

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of the proposed research project is to provide basic understanding of the protective oxide layer behaviors and to develop oxide layer growth models of steels in non-isothermal lead-alloys (lead or lead-bismuth eutectic) coolant systems. It is widely recognized that the corrosiveness of the lead-alloys is a critical obstacle and challenge for which it can be safely used or applied in the nuclear coolant systems. Active oxygen control technique can promote the formation of the “self-healing” oxide films on the structural material surface, drastically reducing steel corrosion and coolant contamination. Many experiments of steels exposed to flowing lead-alloys have ...


Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design: Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2004, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh Dec 2004

Development Of Integrated Process Simulation System Model For Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (Sftf) Design: Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2004, Yitung Chen, Sean Hsieh

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and Transmutation Research Program- University Participation Program (TRP-UPP) supported by Department of Energy of the United States have been developing many important technologies for the transmutation of nuclear waste to address long-term disposal issues. While successfully embedding AMUSE module into a dedicated System Engineering Model (TRPSEMPro), developed by the Nevada Center for Advanced Computational Methods (NCACM) at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), ANL is interested in further simulating the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Fuel Treatment Facility (SFTF) combining commercial process simulation and analysis packages and core ...


Electrospinning Of Biphasic Biopolymer And Polymer : A Feasibility And Characterization Study, Sherry Hsiu-Ying Wang Dec 2004

Electrospinning Of Biphasic Biopolymer And Polymer : A Feasibility And Characterization Study, Sherry Hsiu-Ying Wang

Theses

Electrospinning of polymeric materials have been experimented to achieve nanoscaled diameters. The approaches to the current study are to combine a natural material such as collagen with synthetic materials and determine if the interactions between the materials can be used in the electrospinning process. Collagen is a material of choice due to its biocompatibility. When collagen is combined with polymer, Polyethylene Oxide (PEG), the fiber diameters ranged from 150nm to one micron. The fibers produced have shown drastic phase separation. The next study involved using a duel solvent system to electrospin fibers. The polymer of choice is Poly (1-lactic acid ...


A Digital Signature And Watermarking Based Authentication System For Jpeg2000 Images, Rui Jing Dec 2004

A Digital Signature And Watermarking Based Authentication System For Jpeg2000 Images, Rui Jing

Theses

In this thesis, digital signature based authentication system was introduced, which is able to protect JPEG2000 images in different flavors, including fragile authentication and semi-fragile authentication. The fragile authentication is to protect the image at code-stream level, and the semi-fragile is to protect the image at the content level.

The semi-fragile can be further classified into lossy and lossless authentication. With lossless authentication, the original image can be recovered after verification. The lossless authentication and the new image compression standard, JPEG2000 is mainly discussed in this thesis.


Heterogeneous Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Using Geometric Transformations And Parzen Windows For The Nondestructive Evaluation Of Gas Transmission Pipelines, Joseph Anthony Oagaro Dec 2004

Heterogeneous Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Using Geometric Transformations And Parzen Windows For The Nondestructive Evaluation Of Gas Transmission Pipelines, Joseph Anthony Oagaro

Theses and Dissertations

The natural gas transmission pipeline network in the United States is a key component of the nation's energy supply infrastructure and extends for over 280,000 miles and has an average age of over 60 years. The integrity of the pipeline is maintained by periodic inline inspections using magnetic or ultrasonic pigs. Defect characterization algorithms developed using current pigging data are hampered by the fact that single inspection techniques (either magnetic or ultrasonic) do not yield sufficient information for accurately and repeatably characterizing defects. This thesis demonstrates that defect characterization algorithms using multiple inspection techniques can accomplish this task ...