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2000

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Spatial Buckling Behavior Of High-Rise Rack Frames, Lip H. Teh, Gregory J. Hancock, Murray J. Clarke Oct 2000

Spatial Buckling Behavior Of High-Rise Rack Frames, Lip H. Teh, Gregory J. Hancock, Murray J. Clarke

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The paper investigates the global elastic buckling behavior of a high-rise adjustable pallet rack frame composed of thin-walled open sections. It is concluded that the simple element used in many commercial programs for 3D frame analysis is not sufficiently refined for accurate linear buckling analyses of high-rise rack frames.


Structural Stability Of Braced Scaffolding And Formwork With Spigot Joints, John Enright, Robert Harriss, Gregory J. Hancock Oct 2000

Structural Stability Of Braced Scaffolding And Formwork With Spigot Joints, John Enright, Robert Harriss, Gregory J. Hancock

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Steel Scaffolding systems are often constructed from cold-formed circular hollow sections. The beams of this system are normally called "ledgers" and the columns are normally called "standards". To allow the system to be quickly erected on site, "spigot joints" are inserted in the standards. The spigot joints consist of smaller diameter tubes which slide into the larger diameter tubes to provide a safe connection under gravity load. However, the spigot joints may have a lack of fit, and when located midway between the ledgers, they can cause significant out-of-straightness in a standard. This PΔ effect may weaken the standard as ...


Mechanical Properties Of Stainless Steel Lipped Channels, M. Macdonald, J. Rhodes, G. T. Taylor Oct 2000

Mechanical Properties Of Stainless Steel Lipped Channels, M. Macdonald, J. Rhodes, G. T. Taylor

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

This paper describes and discusses the results obtained from a series of tensile tests performed on cold formed stainless steel Type 304 members of lipped channel cross-section. Standard tensile tests on coupons cut from the webs of the sections were carried out, as were full section tensile tests. Ramberg-Osgood type curves based on the procedure suggested in the ASCE design code were fitted to the stress-strain results and these are compared with the experimental results and Ramberg-Osgood type curves derived on an alternative basis.


Eccentrically Loaded Bolted Connections For Type 304 And 3cr12 Stainless Steel Lipped Channels, P. Van Tonder, Q. C. Oliphant, G. J. Van Den Berg Oct 2000

Eccentrically Loaded Bolted Connections For Type 304 And 3cr12 Stainless Steel Lipped Channels, P. Van Tonder, Q. C. Oliphant, G. J. Van Den Berg

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

In this paper the results of a study on eccentrically loaded bolted connections in lipped channels are presented. The steels chosen for this study are AISI Type 304 and Type 3CR12 stainless steel. It is concluded in this investigation that an acceptable prediction of the strength of eccentrically loaded bolted connections of stainless steel lipped channels may be obtained through the combination between the eccentric loaded equation and the normal bolted connection equations for stainless steel.


Automated Design Of Steel Trusses, B. Mobasher, S. D. Rajan, S. Y. Chen Oct 2000

Automated Design Of Steel Trusses, B. Mobasher, S. D. Rajan, S. Y. Chen

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Designing an automated procedure for the optimal design of any structural system poses special challenges. Converting this methodology into a practical tool is even more challenging. In this research, a point-and-click software system is developed for the optimal design of roof truss systems. The starting point is a roof template containing minimal user input - outline of the truss, truss spacing, load information, and cost figures. A ground structure is constructed as the starting point of the design iterations. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization tool to drive the design changes. Using the database of available sections, the ...


Stub Column Tests On Cold-Formed Steel Angle Sections, M. Dhanalakshmi, N. E. Shanmugam Oct 2000

Stub Column Tests On Cold-Formed Steel Angle Sections, M. Dhanalakshmi, N. E. Shanmugam

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

An investigation on the ultimate load capacity of non-perforated and perforated equal angle cold-formed steel stub columns is presented in this paper. An experimental study has been undertaken to study the behavior of such members subjected to compression. Members were tested to failure under axial or eccentric loading. A comparison of experimental and finite element failure loads, as well as the failure modes of tested specimens, shows that the finite element model is capable of predicting the ultimate load capacity and the failure modes with reasonable accuracy.


Flexural Wrinkling Behaviour Of Lightly Profiled Sandwich Panels, Mahen Mahendran, D. Mcandrew Oct 2000

Flexural Wrinkling Behaviour Of Lightly Profiled Sandwich Panels, Mahen Mahendran, D. Mcandrew

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

In Australia, sandwich panels are commonly made of flat or lightly profiled steel faces and expanded polystyrene foam cores. Flexural wrinkling is often the governing criterion in the design of these panels. The use of lightly profiled faces is expected to increase the flexural wrinkling stress considerably whereas the presence of joints between the polystyrene foam slabs in the transverse direction introduces a reduction to the flexural wrinkling stress. Therefore a series of full scale experiments and finite element analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of lightly profiled faces and transverse joints on the flexural wrinkling stress of panels ...


Lateral Strength Of Wind Load Bearing Wall Stud-To-Track Connection, R. M. Schuster, S. R. Fox Oct 2000

Lateral Strength Of Wind Load Bearing Wall Stud-To-Track Connection, R. M. Schuster, S. R. Fox

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

A common application of cold formed steel in building construction is for wind load bearing steel studs (curtain walls). These wall studs are designed to carry lateral load only, and frame into horizontal steel track members at the top and bottom of the wall assembly. The stud-to-track connection consists of studs framing perpendicularly into the track and are connected with sheet metal screws. The design of the wall stud must include a check of the web crippling capacity at the end reactions. The current design expressions, however, do not apply to the type of bearing in these stud-to-track connections. Reported ...


Fire Resistance Of Loadbearing Lsf Assemblies, Farid Alfawakhiri, Mohamed A. Sultan Oct 2000

Fire Resistance Of Loadbearing Lsf Assemblies, Farid Alfawakhiri, Mohamed A. Sultan

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

This paper presents an analytical thermal-structural model for loadbearing lightweight steel framed (LSF) walls exposed to fire on one side. The model reflects temperature and deformation data from six standard fire resistance tests conducted recently by the National Research Council of Canada in partnership with the North American steel industry. Some characteristic patterns in thermal transmission and structural behaviour are discussed. Temperature histories across LSF assemblies are simulated numerically by explicit integration of transient heat transfer equations. The apparent thermal properties are calibrated for gypsum board and three types of insulation. Analytical procedures are presented to simulate lateral deformation histories ...


Yield Strength Increase Of Cold Formed Sections Due To Cold Work Of Forming, P. A. Sloof, R. M. Schuster Oct 2000

Yield Strength Increase Of Cold Formed Sections Due To Cold Work Of Forming, P. A. Sloof, R. M. Schuster

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The design approach for predicting the increase in yield strength due to cold work of forming in the AISI 1996 Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural members is different from the approach used by the CSA Standard, CSA S136-94, Cold Formed Steel Structural Members. The AISI approach is based on the experimental work conducted by Karren and Winter, while the S136 approach is based on theoretical work by Lind and Schroff. Lind and Schroff used Karren and Winter's data to substantiate their theory. Karren and Winter conducted tests on five full sections and also collected strength data ...


Experimental Investigation Of Cold-Formed Steel Beam-Column Sub-Frames: Pilot Study, M. F. Wong, K. F. Chung Oct 2000

Experimental Investigation Of Cold-Formed Steel Beam-Column Sub-Frames: Pilot Study, M. F. Wong, K. F. Chung

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

This paper presents the findings of an experimental investigation on the structural performance of bolted moment connections in cold-formed steel beam-column sub-frames. A total of eight tests with three different connection configurations in both internal and external columns were carried out. Double lipped C-sections back-to-back with hot rolled steel gusset plates of 10 mm and of 16 mm in two different shapes were tested; four bolts per member were used in the connections. Among the tests, three different modes of failure were identified and the measured moment resistances at the connections were found to vary from 36% to 97% of ...


Web Crippling Of Cold Formed Steel C-And Z- Sections, B. Beshara, R. M. Schuster Oct 2000

Web Crippling Of Cold Formed Steel C-And Z- Sections, B. Beshara, R. M. Schuster

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

An experimental investigation of cold formed steel stiffened C-and Z sections subjected to web crippling is presented in this paper. This study was devoted to two loading conditions according to the AISI Specification, namely End Two Flange (ETF) and Interior Two Flange (ITF) loading, with particular emphasis on large inside bend radius to thickness ratios, R, (up to 12) and the specimens being fastened to the support during testing. There is no experimental data available in the literature regarding the web crippling resistance of such members that are fastened to the support and have inside bend radius to thickness ratios ...


Purlin Design To Aisi Lrfd Using Rational Buckling Analysis, Murry J. Clarke, Gregory J. Hancock Oct 2000

Purlin Design To Aisi Lrfd Using Rational Buckling Analysis, Murry J. Clarke, Gregory J. Hancock

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The latest edition of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members was published in 1996 (AISI, 1996). Design rules are presented in both allowable stress design (ASD) and load and resistance factor design (LRFD) formats. The LRFD rules of the latest AISI Specification form the basis of the Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4600:1996 Cold-Formed Steel Structures (SA/SNZ, 1996), which was published in late 1996 and supersedes the corresponding Australian permissible stress Standard AS 1538-1988. One of the main applications of cold-formed steel is purlins and girts in ...


The Development Of An Australian Standard For Stainless Steel Structures, Kim J. R. Rasmussen Oct 2000

The Development Of An Australian Standard For Stainless Steel Structures, Kim J. R. Rasmussen

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The paper describes the recent development of an Australian standard for the design of cold-formed stainless steel structures. The standard is based on the ANSI/ASCE-8 (1991) Specification for the Design of Cold-formed Stainless Steel Structural Members but augmented to provide rules for cold-formed hollow section members and welded connections. Explicit design rules for the flexural buckling of compression members are also implemented. Further, mechanical properties are included for weldable chromium steels and austenitic-ferritic (duplex) alloys, which are in addition to the alloys included in the ANSII ASCE-8 Specification. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the new rules ...


Distortional Buckling Of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Compression Members, A. Liang, G. J. Van Den Berg, Rudolph Laubscher Oct 2000

Distortional Buckling Of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Compression Members, A. Liang, G. J. Van Den Berg, Rudolph Laubscher

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

In this paper the critical local buckling strength of cold-formed stainless steel compression members, with special emphasis on the method developed by Lau and Hancock for distortional buckling is discussed. Cold-formed stainless steel channel and I-section members under axial compression in distortional buckling are analysed. A control experiment is carried out for comparing analytical methods with a finite element method and experimental values.


Optimum Design Of Cold Formed Steel Residential Roof Trusses, L. Xu, H. Min Oct 2000

Optimum Design Of Cold Formed Steel Residential Roof Trusses, L. Xu, H. Min

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

A computer-based optimal design approach for residential roof trusses using cold-formed steel C-sections is presented. The truss design is based on CSA S136-94 and the truss design guide published by the American Iron and Steel Institute and the Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute. A genetic algorithm was adopted to obtain the minimum cost design with consideration to truss topology and member size simultaneously. The presented design examples demonstrate the applicability and efficiency ofthe proposed approach.


Lessons From Recent Collapses Of Metal Buildings, David B. Peraza Oct 2000

Lessons From Recent Collapses Of Metal Buildings, David B. Peraza

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

This paper presents case studies of three roof collapses of metal buildings, discusses the most signigicant features of each case, and summarizes lessons learned that can be used to reduce future failures.


Racking Performance Of Long Steel-Frame Shear Walls, Alexander J. Salenikovich, Daniel J. Dolan, Samuel W. Easterling Oct 2000

Racking Performance Of Long Steel-Frame Shear Walls, Alexander J. Salenikovich, Daniel J. Dolan, Samuel W. Easterling

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The response of cold-formed steel-frame shear walls to lateral forces is the focus of the paper. Results are presented for monotonic and cyclic tests of sixteen full-size shear walls with and without openings. Walls of five configurations with sheathing area ratio ranging from 1.0 to 0.3 were tested. The specimens were 12-m (40-ft.) long and 2.4-m (8-ft.) high with 11-mm (7/16-in.) oriented strandboard (OSB) sheathing. One specimen had additional 13-mm (0.5-in.) gypsum wallboard sheathing. All specimens were tested in horizontal position with no dead load applied in the plane of the wall. Resistance of walls ...


A Theoretical And Experimental Analysis Of Cold-Formed Steel Shapes Subjected To Bending - Channel And Simple Lipped Channel, Roberto Martins Goncalves, Maximiliano Malite, Carlos Eduardo Javaroni Oct 2000

A Theoretical And Experimental Analysis Of Cold-Formed Steel Shapes Subjected To Bending - Channel And Simple Lipped Channel, Roberto Martins Goncalves, Maximiliano Malite, Carlos Eduardo Javaroni

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Cold-formed steel shapes have been widely employed in steel construction, where they frequently offer a lower cost solution than do traditional laminated shapes. A classic application of cold-formed steel shapes is purlins in the roof panel of industrial buildings, connected to the roof panel by means of screws. The combined effect of these two elements has been the subject of investigations in some countries. Design criteria were included in the AISI Code in 1991 and 1996. This paper presents and discusses the results obtained from bending tests carried out on shapes commonly used in Brazil, i.e., the channel and ...


Knee Joints In Cold-Formed Channel Portal Frames, Julie Mills Oct 2000

Knee Joints In Cold-Formed Channel Portal Frames, Julie Mills

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Light gauge cold-formed channel sections are frequently used in portal frame construction for small span agricultural and industrial sheds. A testing program at the University of South Australia has shown that the knee joint currently used in these sheds fails at bending moments well below required design values. An alternative joint construction using multiple Teks screws is being developed and is exhibiting much better performance.


Cyclic Pull-Out Strength Of Steel Roof And Wall Cladding Systems, Mahen Mahendran, Dhammika Mahaarachchi Oct 2000

Cyclic Pull-Out Strength Of Steel Roof And Wall Cladding Systems, Mahen Mahendran, Dhammika Mahaarachchi

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

When crest-fixed thin steel roof cladding systems are subjected to wind uplift, local pull-through or pull-out failures occur prematurely at their screwed connections. During high wind events such as storms and cyclones these localised failures then lead to severe damage to buildings and their contents. In recent times, the use of thin steel battens/purlins has increased considerably. This has made the pull-out failures more critical in the design of steel cladding systems. Recent research has developed a design formula for the static pull-out strength of steel cladding systems. However, the effects of fluctuating wind uplift loading that occurs during ...


Calibration Of Cold Formed Steel Shear Equations, B. Craig, R. M. Schuster Oct 2000

Calibration Of Cold Formed Steel Shear Equations, B. Craig, R. M. Schuster

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

There is a difference in the shear design criteria between the Canadian cold formed steel design Standard, CSA S136-94 (from here on referred to as S136) and the American Iron and Steel Institute Specification for the design of cold formed steel structures, AISI-96 (from here on referred to as AISI). The focus of this paper was to carry out the appropriate calibrations for the factor of safety, Ω, and the resistance factor, ϕ, using the current design approaches of both countries. In the case of the S136 Standard, only the resistance factor was determined. It was assumed at the outset ...


Finite Element Analysis Of Cold-Formed Channel Columns, Ben Young, Jintang Yan Oct 2000

Finite Element Analysis Of Cold-Formed Channel Columns, Ben Young, Jintang Yan

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The paper presents a numerical investigation into the behaviour and strengths of cold-formed plain and lipped channel columns using finite element analysis. A non-linear finite element model is developed and verified against the fixed-ended channel column tests conducted by Young and Rasmussen (1998a, 1998b and 1998c). Geometric and material non-linearities were included in the finite element model. It is demonstrated that the finite element model closely predicted the ultimate loads and the behaviour of the tested cold-formed channel columns. Hence, the model was used for an extensive parametric study of cross-section geometries. Furthermore, the results of the numerical investigation are ...


Experimental Investigation Of Cold-Formed Channels Subjected To Combined Bending And Web Crippling, Ben Young, Gregory J. Hancock Oct 2000

Experimental Investigation Of Cold-Formed Channels Subjected To Combined Bending And Web Crippling, Ben Young, Gregory J. Hancock

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

An experimental investigation of cold-formed channels subjected to combined bending and web crippling is described in this paper. A series of tests was performed on unlipped channels rolled from high strength structural steel sheets having nominal plate thickness up to 6 mm, and a maximum web slenderness value of 45. This value is considerably lower than the intended web slenderness values used in the Australian/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS 4600, 1996) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI, 1996) Specification for cold-formed steel structures. In the past, the typical thickness of cold-formed steel members was less than 3 ...


Pull-Through Failures Of Crest-Fixed Steel Claddings Initiated By Transverse Splitting, Dhammika Mahaarachchi, Mahen Mahendran Oct 2000

Pull-Through Failures Of Crest-Fixed Steel Claddings Initiated By Transverse Splitting, Dhammika Mahaarachchi, Mahen Mahendran

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Crest-fixed steel claddings made of thin, high strength steel often suffer from local pull-through failures at their screw connections during high wind events such as storms and hurricanes. Currently there aren't any adequate design provisions for these cladding systems except for the expensive testing provisions. Since the local pull-through failures in the less ductile steel claddings are initiated by transverse splitting at the fastener hole, analytical studies have not been able to determine the pull-through failure loads. Analytical studies could be used if a reliable splitting criterion is available. Therefore a series of two-span cladding tests was conducted on ...


Buckling Of Cold Formed Stainless Steel Columns Under Concentric And Eccentric Loading, J. Rhodes, M. Macdonald, W. Mcniff Oct 2000

Buckling Of Cold Formed Stainless Steel Columns Under Concentric And Eccentric Loading, J. Rhodes, M. Macdonald, W. Mcniff

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

This paper describes the results obtained from a series of compression tests performed on cold formed stainless steel Type 304 columns of lipped channel cross-section. The cross-section dimensions, the column length and the eccentricity of the applied compressive load are varied to examine the effects on the buckling load capacity of the columns. The results obtained are compared to those obtained from the relevant design specifications in America and in Europe, and conclusions are drawn on the basis of the comparisons.


Estimation Of Restraint Forces For Z-Purlin Roofs Under Gravity Loads, M. C. Neubert, Thomas M. Murray Oct 2000

Estimation Of Restraint Forces For Z-Purlin Roofs Under Gravity Loads, M. C. Neubert, Thomas M. Murray

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The current specification provisions for the prediction of lateral restraint forces in Z-purlin supported roof systems under gravity loads are in Section D3.1 of the 1996 AlSI Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members (1996). The provisions need refinement, because they are empirical, have an incorrect treatment of roof slope and system effects, and ignore the effect of panel stiffness on restraint forces. Therefore, a new restraint force design procedure, having a stronger reliance on engineering principles, is proposed. Elastic stiffness models, with varying roof slope, panel stiffness, and cross-sectional properties, were used to develop the procedure ...


A Design Approach For Complex Stiffeners, Andrew T. Sarawit, Teoman Pekoz Oct 2000

A Design Approach For Complex Stiffeners, Andrew T. Sarawit, Teoman Pekoz

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

This paper presents a design approach for laterally braced cold-formed steel flexural members with edge stiffened flanges other then simple lips. The design method for flexural members given by Schafer and Pekoz (1999) is used here for designing these complex stiffeners. The method integrates distortional buckling into the unified effective width approach currently used in most cold-formed steel design specifications. A finite element method was first used to investigate the post-buckling behavior and carry out initial geometric imperfection sensitivity studies for various types of stiffeners. Then parametric studies were carried out for different types of stiffeners to compare the moment ...


The 1999 Supplement To The Aisi Design Specification, Roger L. Brockenbrough Oct 2000

The 1999 Supplement To The Aisi Design Specification, Roger L. Brockenbrough

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The AISI Committee on Specifications for Cold-Formed Steel recently developed Supplement No. 1 to the 1996 Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. The Supplement reflects new information developed through research projects, brings provisions in agreement with other specifications where appropriate, and also provides certain clarifications and corrections. The Supplement and the Specification have both been recently accepted as ANSI standards. The present paper reviews the major items included in the Supplement. The Committee continues to sponsor research projects aimed at developing a better understanding of particular areas of cold-formed steel behavior and more comprehensive design rules. Projects ...


Fe Models For Sheeting Under Interaction Load, Jan Kerstens, Bert Snijder, Monique Bakker, H. Hofmeyer Oct 2000

Fe Models For Sheeting Under Interaction Load, Jan Kerstens, Bert Snijder, Monique Bakker, H. Hofmeyer

International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Experiments show that, after ultimate load, sheeting may fail by three distinct post-failure modes. In this paper, three finite element models are presented, one for each post-failure mode. One of the finite element models was difficult to develop. A spring model explains this. The finite element models show that, at ultimate load, only two different ultimate failure modes exist. This is important for the development of mechanical models for sheeting failure.