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2000

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Quality Of The 2000 Soybean Crop In The United States, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. Dec 2000

Quality Of The 2000 Soybean Crop In The United States, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Technical Reports and White Papers

Quality, as measured in several ways, is of increasing importance to soybean markets. Since 1972, customers have reported differences in protein and oil contents among soybeans of different origins (Hurburgh, et al., 1990). Geographic differences in composition are primarily caused by weather and environmental factors. In recent years, soybean component variations have been studied extensively (Westgate, et al., 1999). From a customer perspective, monitoring of crop quality on an annual basis is important to estimate outputs and value.


Planter Clean-Out Tips When Changing Seed Varieties, H. Mark Hanna, Wally Greenlees Dec 2000

Planter Clean-Out Tips When Changing Seed Varieties, H. Mark Hanna, Wally Greenlees

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Information to help you manage identity-preserved grain.


Supply Management Organizations For Grain, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Don Hofstrand Nov 2000

Supply Management Organizations For Grain, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Don Hofstrand

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The purpose of a supply management network (supply chain) is to deliver a specific product to a specific place at a predetermined time for the least cost and/or the maximum profit of the end user. In the process, numerous business issues will be involved. Among them are production, input acquisition accounting, logistics, quality control, and documentation. By definition, the increased profit of the user does not necessarily mean maximum profit for the supply chain participants. However, an increase in profits for both parties would be necessary to prompt a switch from unorganized to organized marketing.


Field Equipment Clean-Out For Identity-Preserved Grain Production, H. Mark Hanna, Darren H. Jarboe, Graeme R. Quick Nov 2000

Field Equipment Clean-Out For Identity-Preserved Grain Production, H. Mark Hanna, Darren H. Jarboe, Graeme R. Quick

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

As many growers move toward specialty or value added crops, some are interested in segregating grain production by seed varieties or hi-breds within grain genetics, rather than by grain types (e. g. com, soybeans, oats). Consumer demand is driving the emergence of these value-added markets. Initial efforts have focused on developing a framework to segregate genetically modified (GMO) grain from non-GMO grain for export sale. Both traditional plant breeding and biotechnology are creating an ever-increasing array of products that require specialized management to segregate, maintain, preserve and market the trait's value. Com and soybeans carrying genes for antibiotics and ...


Fate And Transport Of Nutrients In An Iowa Agricultural Watershed, James L. Baker, Stewart W. Melvin, Marius M. Agua, John J. Rodecap Nov 2000

Fate And Transport Of Nutrients In An Iowa Agricultural Watershed, James L. Baker, Stewart W. Melvin, Marius M. Agua, John J. Rodecap

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Transport of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in various forms to water resources can cause water quality concerns relative to drinking water and aquatic life that has to live in those waters receiving agricultural drainage. Of particular concern is the fate of nutrients applied as fertilizer and/or animal manures, and their potential transport with runoff water, eroded soil/sediment, and leaching water. In order to reduce or control nutrient transport/losses, an understanding of the factors that affect losses (chemical, hydrologic, and management) is needed. An ongoing monitoring study of the Upper Maquoketa River in northeast Iowa is providing ...


Proposed Nutrient Criteria For Iowa's Water Resources And How Can Agriculture Meet Them, James L. Baker Nov 2000

Proposed Nutrient Criteria For Iowa's Water Resources And How Can Agriculture Meet Them, James L. Baker

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

U.S. EPA is requiring States to develop (or at least have a plan for developing) criteria for total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) in flowing waters (river and streams) and standing waters (lakes and reservoirs) by the end of 2004. The purpose of these criteria are to protect the designated uses of the States' waters in line with the national goals of the Clear Water Act of 1972 to achieve, wherever attainable, water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and recreation in and on the water. To help the States develop ...


Integrated Approach Of Conservation Tillage And Manure Management Utilizing The Hub And Spokes Concept In Northeast Iowa, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark Licht, David Kwaw-Mensah, Mark Hanna, George Cummins, Ken Pecinovsky Nov 2000

Integrated Approach Of Conservation Tillage And Manure Management Utilizing The Hub And Spokes Concept In Northeast Iowa, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark Licht, David Kwaw-Mensah, Mark Hanna, George Cummins, Ken Pecinovsky

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Tillage, nutrient and manure management have a significant impact on surface and groundwater quality, especially surface water runoff. In order to meet the designated criteria set by the TMDL rules for the State of Iowa for over 157 impaired water bodies, soil erosion control and residue management, along with manure management, have to be a priority. A recent tillage survey sponsored by the Iowa Resource Management Partnership (IRMP) committee in 1999, and published in 2000, indicated the need for improvement in adopting conservation practices. The survey shows no increase in conservation tillage practice (i.e., no-till) for the period of ...


Biomass And Grain Harvesting Advances, Graeme R. Quick Nov 2000

Biomass And Grain Harvesting Advances, Graeme R. Quick

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Five different approaches to whole plant harvesting of com - with the aim of simultaneous collection of the stover - have been tested. Many of the principles are relevant to other crops. This work has advanced the frontiers of biomass harvesting and handling. The different approaches to corn stover harvesting have been shown publicly:


Quality Management Systems For Agriculture: Principles, Charles R. Hurburgh, Ray S. Hansen Nov 2000

Quality Management Systems For Agriculture: Principles, Charles R. Hurburgh, Ray S. Hansen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Quality management systems, with their associated statistical process controls and product tracking, are not new to world industry, but the concept is a radical departure from the generic commodity mindset that has typified agriculture. Trading undifferentiated commodities at constantly eroding margins provides little incentive for quality beyond that needed for minimal acceptance. A number of powerful and wide-ranging forces are converging to create a climate of change.


Planning Tillage For 2001, H. Mark Hanna, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Michael J. Tidman Nov 2000

Planning Tillage For 2001, H. Mark Hanna, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Michael J. Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

It's not too early to plan your tillage strategy for 2001. In fact, now is an ideal time to make the decision to switch from conventional tillage to a conservation tillage system, especially if there has been no soil disturbance (tillage) since harvest. Because tillage operations open the soil surface to receive or lose moisture, you should decide now what you intend to do—before limiting your options by performing a primary tillage operation.


Proposed Design Modifications To Reduce Risk Of Operating Rotary Field Mowers, Katie L. White, Larry G. Wells, Scott A. Shearer, Larry R. Piercy Nov 2000

Proposed Design Modifications To Reduce Risk Of Operating Rotary Field Mowers, Katie L. White, Larry G. Wells, Scott A. Shearer, Larry R. Piercy

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

The primary objective of this project was to reduce risk of injury associated with operating a rotary mower driven by a tractor power take-off (PTO) by developing and evaluating design improvements and determining their economic feasibility. Researchers have concluded that alteration of machinery design has a greater impact on the reduction of accidents than safety training. Implementation of an Operator Presence Sensing System (OPSS) and removal of the PTO are the two injury-reducing, engineering modifications evaluated by this research. Hydraulic power allows this to occur by providing dynamic braking, few moving parts (removal of the PTO), and controllable power. A ...


Combined Ir Imaging-Neural Network Method For The Estimation Of Internal Temperature In Cooked Chicken Meat, Juan G. Ibarra, Yang Tao, Hongwei Xin Nov 2000

Combined Ir Imaging-Neural Network Method For The Estimation Of Internal Temperature In Cooked Chicken Meat, Juan G. Ibarra, Yang Tao, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A noninvasive method for the estimation of internal temperature in chicken meat immediately following cooking is proposed. The external temperature from IR images was correlated with measured internal temperature through a multilayer neural network. To provide inputs for the network, time series experiments were conducted to obtain simultaneous observations of internal and external temperatures immediately after cooking during the cooling process. An IR camera working at the spectral band of 3.4 to 5.0 μm registered external temperature distributions without the interference of close-to-oven environment, while conventional thermocouples registered internal temperatures. For an internal temperature at a given time ...


Survey: Iowa No-Till Holds Steady, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael J. Tidman Oct 2000

Survey: Iowa No-Till Holds Steady, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael J. Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

A recent survey shows no change in conventional or no-till systems status in Iowa corn and soybean rotation, in spite of perception or informal reports to the contrary. The survey asked producers about their tillage practices during crop years 1997–1999.


Pay Attention To Water Management, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna Oct 2000

Pay Attention To Water Management, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna

Integrated Crop Management News

The unseasonably warm weather and below-normal precipitation across the United States present a challenge in planning for wise water use in the home and in the field, especially if the trend persists. In the East and Midwest, water management for crop production, lawns and domestic use is often left to the whim of nature. This easy-going attitude may be sufficient in areas experiencing near normal rainfall. Unpredictable weather conditions and lack of moisture availability may lead to water shortages and consequently crop failures, so the need for water management for domestic and agricultural uses is critical. Overuse of water may ...


Swine Housing Impacts On Environment And Behavior: A Comparison Between Hoop Structures And Total Environmental Control, Don C. Lay, M. F. Haussmann, M. J. Daniels, Jay D. Harmon, Thomas L. Richard Oct 2000

Swine Housing Impacts On Environment And Behavior: A Comparison Between Hoop Structures And Total Environmental Control, Don C. Lay, M. F. Haussmann, M. J. Daniels, Jay D. Harmon, Thomas L. Richard

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The effect of housing on animal environment and behavior have been studied in a comparative trial with three deep-bedded hoop structures and one totally, environmentally- controlled slatted-floor building. In order to assess animal welfare, behavior indicative of both poor and rich welfare were quantified. Behavior indicative of poor welfare were considered to be the performance of aberrant behavior, stereotypical behavior and excessive fighting. Behaviors indicative of rich behavior were the performance of normal maintenance behaviors and play behavior. Hoop structures experienced lower winter air temperatures than did the confinement building (mean, 4.8 0 vs. 18.1 0 C), but ...


Tillage In 2001: No-Till, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael J. Tidman Sep 2000

Tillage In 2001: No-Till, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael J. Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

This article discusses the no-till conservation system and is the final article in a series on tillage options (see August 21 ICM article on strip-tillage and the August 7 issue on ridge-tillage) that Iowa producers may consider in making tillage practice and management plans for the 2001 crop year.


Tb177: Evaluation Of An Experimental Filter Medium For Water Re-Use Systems, John Riley, David Cole, Robert Bayer Sep 2000

Tb177: Evaluation Of An Experimental Filter Medium For Water Re-Use Systems, John Riley, David Cole, Robert Bayer

Technical Bulletins

This report describes the development and testing of a new material for use as a filter medium in recirculating aquaculture systems and other water quality control situations. The material consists of a combination of activated carbon and a hydrophilic urethane foam in a homogeneous matrix. Its physical properties relevant to filtration were determined. It was then tested for its ability to remove various dissolved organic compounds and inorganic nitrogenous compounds in the form of a synthetic waste-water containing ammonia and nitrite. Finally it was subjected to long-term use in the biofilter of a fish culture system. It proved to be ...


Safe Farm: 1999 Iowa Farm Injury And Fatality Data By County, Charles V. Schwab, Laura J. Miller Sep 2000

Safe Farm: 1999 Iowa Farm Injury And Fatality Data By County, Charles V. Schwab, Laura J. Miller

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Injury and fatality data are listed by hospitalized or not hospitalized, and engaged in production or present during production.


Reconditioning Corn And Soybeans To Optimal Processing Moisture Contents, Michael D. Montross, Dirk E. Maier Sep 2000

Reconditioning Corn And Soybeans To Optimal Processing Moisture Contents, Michael D. Montross, Dirk E. Maier

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Experimental trials were carried out to evaluate the technical feasibility of reconditioning overly dry corn and soybeans to optimal market and processing moisture contents. Data obtained from experimental trials were used to validate an aeration simulation model. This model was used to evaluate the feasibility of reconditioning soybeans and corn. Reconditioning of grain was feasible at low airflow rates (0.11 m3 min–1 t–1) over a six-month period when an automatic aeration controller was used. Using downflow aeration and monthly unloading of the bin allowed for the greatest net economic gain. Predicted reconditioning in Des Moines, Iowa ...


Avhrr Estimates Of Surface Temperature During The Southern Great Plains 1997 Experiment, Amy L. Kaleita, Praveen Kumar Aug 2000

Avhrr Estimates Of Surface Temperature During The Southern Great Plains 1997 Experiment, Amy L. Kaleita, Praveen Kumar

Amy L. Kaleita

In this study we aim to (1) explore the differences in the accuracy of satellitederived land-surface skin temperature for day and nighttime observations, (2) assess the effects of large solar zenith angles, and (3) develop an understanding of the spatial variability of the observed temperatures. Land-surface skin temperatures are obtained using the split-window technique from observations of the AVHRR instrument aboard the NOAA-12 and NOAA-14 satellites for the SGP97 (Southern Great Plains 1997) hydrology experiment. From the study of several days of observations we find that observed biases with respect to the ground temperature, both during day and night, are ...


Tillage In 2001: Fall Strip-Tillage, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael J. Tidman Aug 2000

Tillage In 2001: Fall Strip-Tillage, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael J. Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

Every tillage practice has distinct advantages and disadvantages, requires specific equipment, and requires that you learn how to successfully implement the practice in your operation. In this article, we discuss the merits of fall strip-tillage and present some of the facts you need to consider to implement fall strip-tillage.


Tillage In 2001: Consider The Options, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael J. Tidman Aug 2000

Tillage In 2001: Consider The Options, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael J. Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

Implementing a new tillage strategy in 2001 takes planning, and now is the perfect time to start. How you manage residue and tillage during and immediately after this year's harvest can influence the effectiveness of next year's tillage operations a great deal, especially if you plan to move to a conservation tillage system such as ridge-till, strip-till, or no-till. Conservation tillage practices not only help keep soil in place and improve water quality but also help conserve moisture.


Enhancing A Residential Safety Course With The Development Of An Online Component: A Limited Case Study, Steven A. Freeman, Karla M. Embleton Aug 2000

Enhancing A Residential Safety Course With The Development Of An Online Component: A Limited Case Study, Steven A. Freeman, Karla M. Embleton

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The Internet, and in particular the worldwide web, is changing the way in which education is delivered. Virtually every university and college across North America is now on the web (Saba, 1998). In fact, some universities are questioning whether it makes sense to differentiate between residential instruction and instruction at a distance (Boettcher, 1998). Experts in instructional technology predict that in the 21 st century the Internet, or one of its descendants, will become the dominant distribution system for distance education and training across much of the industrialized world (Simonson et al., 1999).

Many faculty are currently expanding their traditional ...


Time To Check The Terraces, H. Mark Hanna, Michael J. Tidman Jul 2000

Time To Check The Terraces, H. Mark Hanna, Michael J. Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

Now that the June rains are over, how did your terraces fare? No matter what kind of terrace you have in your operation, terraces are a critical water and soil management tool, so it is important to check them every year for weak spots and needed maintenance. If you notice a problem with your terraces, it's best to plan to address it now to avoid future problems. Below are the things you need to check when assessing the condition of your terraces, and some possible remedies for problems.


Validation Of Passive Air Sampling Monitors Onboard United States Navy Submarines, Larry A. Mcfarland Jul 2000

Validation Of Passive Air Sampling Monitors Onboard United States Navy Submarines, Larry A. Mcfarland

Community & Environmental Health Theses & Dissertations

An operating submarine creates a unique air quality mixture of compounds that result from a combination of human metabolism, construction materials, materials brought onboard and compounds created through the interaction of ship systems. A comprehensive study of submarine atmospheres is ongoing during deployments of U.S. Navy nuclear submarines. As part of the overall effort, a paired air sampling comparison field validation was conducted to compare the air sampling effectiveness of passive diffusive monitors compared to more traditional active air sampling methods when sampling for acrolein, formaldehyde and ozone in the enclosed submarine atmosphere. Acrolein monitors containing 2-hydroxymethylpiperidine (HMP) impregnated ...


Manure Incorporation Equipment Effects On Odor, Residue Cover, And Crop Yield, H. Mark Hanna, Dwaine S. Bundy, Jeffery C. Lorimor, Steven K. Mickelson, Stewart W. Melvin, Donald C. Erbach Jul 2000

Manure Incorporation Equipment Effects On Odor, Residue Cover, And Crop Yield, H. Mark Hanna, Dwaine S. Bundy, Jeffery C. Lorimor, Steven K. Mickelson, Stewart W. Melvin, Donald C. Erbach

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Land application of manure may produce unacceptable odors. Field experiments in undisturbed (no-till) soybean and corn residue were conducted to evaluate six liquid swine manure application/incorporation methods. The methods were injection with a commercial (1) chisel or (2) sweep, (3) incorporation with tandem disk harrow after broadcast application, (4) broadcast application with no incorporation, (5) injection with a narrow-profile knife, and (6) surface application behind row cleaners. The row cleaner and all injection treatments used spoke-covering wheels. Air samples over the soil surface were obtained immediately following and one day after manure application, and odor level was measured by ...


New Weight Restrictions For Manure Hauling Equipment, H. Mark Hanna Jun 2000

New Weight Restrictions For Manure Hauling Equipment, H. Mark Hanna

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Overview of updates for farm equipment weight restrictions. Includes weight restrictions with explanations.


Environmental Guidelines For New And Existing Piggeries, A Latto, John Noonan, R. J. Taylor Jun 2000

Environmental Guidelines For New And Existing Piggeries, A Latto, John Noonan, R. J. Taylor

Bulletins 4000 -

These guidelines apply to the management of Western Australia piggeries in Western Australia, including intensive Growing pigs under intensive conditions where the and extensive operations, straw-based housing and animals spend their entire life cycle indoors, is an combinations of these (otherwise referred to as semi- important part of the Western Australian and intensive housing).


Choosing Cultivation For Dry Soils, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Mark Hanna, Robert G. Hartzler, Michael J. Tidman May 2000

Choosing Cultivation For Dry Soils, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Mark Hanna, Robert G. Hartzler, Michael J. Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

More than half of Iowa's producers choose to cultivate every year. But this year, it's dry over much of the state, and predictions of a season-long drought have many producers concerned about weed control and cultivation. Regardless of moisture levels, most soil conservation plans seek to minimize cultivation and soil disturbance. But no producer should be expected to endure serious yield and income losses due to weed infestations. Cultivation results in a wide range of weed control effectiveness. Although a single cultivation cannot provide adequate weed control by itself, the use of row cultivation can reduce weed control ...


The Import Of Importing And Unnatural Acts: The Political Psychology Of Bioengineered Plants, Ibpp Editor May 2000

The Import Of Importing And Unnatural Acts: The Political Psychology Of Bioengineered Plants, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes political psychological aspects of opposition to the importing of bioengineered plants.