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1997

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1110

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Emisja Metali Ciężkich Ze Spalania Odpadów Niebezpiecznych, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki Dec 1997

Emisja Metali Ciężkich Ze Spalania Odpadów Niebezpiecznych, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The paper presents the results of measurements of air emissions of heavy metals from hazardous waste incineration in a multiple hearth furnace and a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a single wet flue gas cleaning systems. In the multiple hearth furnace an industrial sewage sludge (from coke industry) was being incinerated. In the rotary kiln such wastes were being incinerated as: waste paints, varnish and lubricant, coal tars waste, contaminated cleaning rags, sawdust and used gloves, waste resins and plastics, rubber waste, outdated pharmaceuticals and medicines, and hospital waste. The research allowed us to determine the levels of pollutant concentrations ...


Enhanced Terahertz Pulse Generation And Detection Using Electric Field Singularities In Photo-Conducting Antennas, Yi Cai Dec 1997

Enhanced Terahertz Pulse Generation And Detection Using Electric Field Singularities In Photo-Conducting Antennas, Yi Cai

Dissertations

In recent years, generation of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses with frequency components in the terahertz (THz) range has been achieved by various techniques. Among those different methods, photo-conducting antennas have proven to be the most efficient source of THz radiation. THz spectrometers utilizing such photo-conducting antennas as transmitters and receivers are meanwhile routinely used for spectroscopic studies in the frequency regime between 0.1 to 5THz, which can be covered by neither conventional optical nor microwave spectrometers. However, THz emission power from the existing photo-conducting antenna is not sufficient for many applications (such as electro-optic sampling for real time THz detection ...


A Model For Travel Mode Switching, Lei Cao Dec 1997

A Model For Travel Mode Switching, Lei Cao

Dissertations

Transportation policy research assesses the effect of policy changes such as the imposition of a parking charge or the augmentation of passenger rail service, on individual travel behavior. Over the last few decades, Conditional Lo it Model has been strongly advocated among discrete choice models for transportation policy study due to its ease of estimation and realistic outcomes.

This dissertation analyzes the necessity of the entry of constraints in the indirect utility function. These functions are used in discrete choice models and form the basis for travel demand modeling. This dissertation proposes a hypothesis that the explicit entry of constraints ...


Decentralized Reliable Control For Large-Scale Lti Systems, Zhengfang Chen Dec 1997

Decentralized Reliable Control For Large-Scale Lti Systems, Zhengfang Chen

Dissertations

Reliable control concerns the ability of closed loop system to maintain stability and regulation properties during arbitrary sensor, controller, and actuator failure. Reliable control research has been an active research topic for more than 10 years.

Recent approach for reliable control includes the H method, the algebraic factorization design, and the robust servomechanism control. These methods have been surveyed and discussed in this thesis with the robust servomechanism control methodology serving as the basis of the research development of this work.

In this thesis, the reliable control for large-scale, multi-input/output linear system is considered. Two concepts of reliable control ...


Micro Electromechanical Relays And Their Application In Variable Inductor Networks, Shifang Zhou Dec 1997

Micro Electromechanical Relays And Their Application In Variable Inductor Networks, Shifang Zhou

Dissertations

A family of microrelay devices together with integrated inductor networks has been designed, simulated, fabricated and experimental characterized. These switched networks utilize microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as a fabrication technology and take advantage of the economies of semiconductor cleanroom batch-processing.

A new type of microrelay has been developed using a suspended TaSi2/SiO2 bimorph cantilever beam, gold-to-gold electrical contact, aluminum as sacrificial layer, and a combined thermal and electrostatic means of actuation. For the first time a micro variable inductor network which is digitally controlled by microrelays has been demonstrated. A test structure for electrical micro contact characterization has ...


Microengineered Sensor Devices With Field Emission Electron Sources, Chao Sun Dec 1997

Microengineered Sensor Devices With Field Emission Electron Sources, Chao Sun

Dissertations

This dissertation describes the design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of a microengineered pressure sensor device and a microengineered mass spectrometer device, both of which use field emission cathode tip arrays as electron sources. VLSI and MEMS process techniques are used to scale down the dimensions from existing vacuum pressure sensors and mass spectrometers.

The microengineered pressure sensor device is fabricated on a silicon substrate approximately 1cm by 1cm. It consists of an electron source in the form of cathode tip array structure, an electron accelerating space which includes a gas ionization volume, and an ion collection electrode. The electrons emitted ...


Performance Analysis Of The Interference Adaptation Dynamic Channel Allocation Technique In Wireless Communication Networks, Ziqiang Xu Dec 1997

Performance Analysis Of The Interference Adaptation Dynamic Channel Allocation Technique In Wireless Communication Networks, Ziqiang Xu

Dissertations

Dynamic channel allocation (DCA) problem is one of the major research topics in the wireless networking area. The purpose of this technique is to relieve the contradiction between the increasing traffic load in wireless networks and the limited bandwidth resource across the air interface. The challenge of this problem comes from the following facts: a) even the basic DCA problem is shown to be NP-complete (none polynomial complete); b) the size of the state space of the problem is very large; and c) any practical DCA algorithm should run in real-time.

Many heuristic DCA schemes have been proposed in the ...


Design And Characterization Of Ultra High Frame Rate Burst Image Sensors, Rakesh K. Kabra Dec 1997

Design And Characterization Of Ultra High Frame Rate Burst Image Sensors, Rakesh K. Kabra

Dissertations

This thesis research was aimed at investigating and designing novel architectures required for ultra high frame rate (UHFR) imagers capable of operating at frame rates in excess of 106 frames/sec. To demonstrate the feasibility of these architectures, a 180 x 180 element UHFR-I imager was designed and fabricated. The imager chip stored the latest 32 frames at its on-chip memory locations rather than performing a continuous readout. It was demonstrated that this architecture approach could achieve a frame acquisition rate of 2 x 106 frames/sec. Additionally, other novel design features were incorporated to minimize optical cross ...


Numerical Study Of Three-Dimensional Free Convection From Semi-Enclosed Geometry And Discontinuous Heat Sources, Aklilu T.G. Giorges Dec 1997

Numerical Study Of Three-Dimensional Free Convection From Semi-Enclosed Geometry And Discontinuous Heat Sources, Aklilu T.G. Giorges

Dissertations

Three-dimensional natural convection from three-by-three array of isoflux heat sources mounted on one vertical wall of semi-enclosed region has been numerically investigated. Detailed thermal information of this important engineering configuration is currently not available. The major objective of this study was to obtain this needed thermal and velocity information.

The semi-enclosed geometry can be viewed as a thin rectangular region with four closed and two open sides. The open surfaces are located at the top and adjacent side. For the fluid air, Pr = 0.71, the study covered a heat flux based Rayleigh number (Ra) range of (102 ≤ R ...


Cantilever Beam Microactuators With Electrothermal And Electrostatic Drive, Murat M. Okyar Dec 1997

Cantilever Beam Microactuators With Electrothermal And Electrostatic Drive, Murat M. Okyar

Dissertations

Microfabrication provides a powerful tool for batch processing and minia­turization of mechanical systems into dimensional domain not accessible easily by conventional machining. CMOS IC process compatible design is definitely a big plus because of tremendous know-how in IC technologies, commercially available standard IC processes for a reasonable price, and future integration of microma-chined mechanical systems and integrated circuits. Magnetically, electrostatically and thermally driven microactuators have been reported previously. These actuators have applications in many fields from optics to robotics and biomedical engineering.

At NJIT cleanroom, mono or multimorph microactuators have been fabricated using CMOS compatible process. In design and ...


A Study To Analyze And Improve Mechanical And Electro-Mechanical Designs Using Design For Quality Manufacturability (Dfqm) Technique, Bhavani P. Veerapaneni Dec 1997

A Study To Analyze And Improve Mechanical And Electro-Mechanical Designs Using Design For Quality Manufacturability (Dfqm) Technique, Bhavani P. Veerapaneni

Theses

The competitive nature of modern manufacturing demands that an innovative approach be used to build advanced and robust designs. Shortening the product development time, which is the period from initial design to full production, is a priority to most manufacturers today. Design for Quality Manufacturability (DFQM) is a methodology to address manufacturing / assembly quality issues during product design. As a consequence DFQM helps shorten the product development time.

The DFQM methodology addresses the issue of quality manufacturability (QM) - the likely hood that defects will occur during the manufacture of a product in a standard plant. The DFQM architecture identifies a ...


Melt Hydroperoxidation Polypropylene With Potential Application In Pollution Control, Zeena Cherian Dec 1997

Melt Hydroperoxidation Polypropylene With Potential Application In Pollution Control, Zeena Cherian

Theses

The primary objective of this study is to introduce tertiary hydroperoxide functional groups into polypropylene (PP) melt by injecting air. This was done first by mixing additive free polypropylene powder with air in a batch mixer. The influence of air flow rate, temperature, mixing time and rotor RPM on the concentration of hydroperoxide groups were studied. Iodometric analysis and fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis were the techniques used to detect and quantify the concentration of hydroperoxide groups. In the second phase of the study, hydroperoxide groups were introduced in polypropylene through reactive processing in a single screw extruder. It was ...


Impact Of Access Points On Multilane Highway Accidents, Tao Qu Dec 1997

Impact Of Access Points On Multilane Highway Accidents, Tao Qu

Theses

This thesis presents an analysis of reported accidents on multilane highways and regression models that identify the primary explanatory variables that have a significant effect on accident rates midblock to signalized intersections. The analysis was based on traffic and reported accident data provided by New Jersey DOT. The access points per mile and the accident rates per million-vehicle-miles-traveled were analyzed based on a large number of roadway sections which were selected from five NJ State routes. Comparative accident analysis related with traffic and roadway geometric characteristics were performed. The analysis showed that approximately 30% of accidents occurred between intersections, which ...


Kinematic Analysis Of A Swash-Plate Mechanism Using Transformation Matrices, David Edgar Evans Dec 1997

Kinematic Analysis Of A Swash-Plate Mechanism Using Transformation Matrices, David Edgar Evans

Theses

The swash-plate mechanism is used to transfer rotational motion into translational motion and vice versa. Using transformation matrices to describe each joint, the displacements of the swash-plate mechanism were analyzed. The general transformation matrix model for the plane joint, not previously developed using transformation matrices, was presented. The solution was tested using a computer program. Examples of three different swash-plate angles; 10, 45, and 25' were considered. The solution was found to agree with previous solutions while offering a more complete description of the mechanism. Future work in this area could include a complete static, velocity, and/or dynamic analysis ...


Optimal Synthesis Of A Planar Four-Bar Function Generator Based On Imderect Measure Of Structural Error, Robert Ellis Dec 1997

Optimal Synthesis Of A Planar Four-Bar Function Generator Based On Imderect Measure Of Structural Error, Robert Ellis

Theses

A novel technique for optimal synthesis of a planar four-bar function generator is presented. An indirect measure of structural error is used to formulate an objective function which, along with its derivatives, is straightforward to evaluate and results in an elegant and robust algorithm. Lagrange multipliers are used to incorporate the loop closure constraint into the objective function.

In this thesis, the formulation of the objective function and the minimization algorithm are described, examples are presented, and the virtues and shortcomings of the algorithm are discussed.


Parameter Optimization For Curl Distortion In Building Parts Using 3-D Laser Stereolithography, Laurel A. Hanesian Dec 1997

Parameter Optimization For Curl Distortion In Building Parts Using 3-D Laser Stereolithography, Laurel A. Hanesian

Theses

The curl distortions in rapid prototyping using 3-D laser stereo lithography occur as the top layers shrink after being drawn and attaching to the bottom layers. The amount of curl is dependent upon the how much shrinkage the layer has finished prior to adhesion. It is also dependent on how deep the cure of the top layer amounts to as it adheres into the bottom layer. This thesis investigated the effect of build parameters on the distortions associated with the diagnostic 'Letter-H' shaped test part. The same parameters were also considered in a time optimization study, using calculated, predicted results ...


Evaluating The Communications Capabilities Of The Generalized Hypercube Interconnection Network, Sanjay Krishnamurthy Dec 1997

Evaluating The Communications Capabilities Of The Generalized Hypercube Interconnection Network, Sanjay Krishnamurthy

Theses

This thesis presents results of evaluating the communications capabilities of the generalized hypercube interconnection network. The generalized hypercube has outstanding topological properties, but it has not been implemented in a large scale because of its very high wiring complexity. For this reason, this network has not been studied extensively in the past. However, recent and expected technological advancements will soon render this network viable for massively parallel systems.

We first present implementations of randomized many-to-all broadcasting and multicasting on generalized hypercubes, using as the basis the one-to-all broadcast algorithm presented in [3]. We test the proposed implementations under realistic communication ...


The In0.75ga0.25as/In0.52al0.48as/Inp Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensor, Oleg Mitrofanov Dec 1997

The In0.75ga0.25as/In0.52al0.48as/Inp Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensor, Oleg Mitrofanov

Theses

The magnetic field sensor is produced from III-V group semiconductor materials. The structure is designed for molecular beam epitaxy growth technique (MBE) on the semiinsulating InP substrate. The sensitive element is the In0.75Ga0.25As/In0.52Al0.48As heterostructure. The sensor uses the classic Hall effect in two-dimension electron gas (2DEG) formed at pseudomorphic strained epilayer of In0.75Ga0.25As. Properties of the 2DEG are preferential for the Hall effect sensor performance. Comparatively to bulk, electron mobility is higher. The device combines high magnetic field sensitivity and temperature ...


Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Boron Nitride Thin Films From Triethylamine Borane Complex And Ammonia, Narahari Ramanuja Dec 1997

Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Boron Nitride Thin Films From Triethylamine Borane Complex And Ammonia, Narahari Ramanuja

Theses

Boron nitride thin films were synthesized on Silicon and quartz substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using triethylamine-borane complex and ammonia as precursors. The films were processed at 550°C, 575°C and 600°C at a constant pressure of 0.05 Torr at different precursor flow rates and flow ratios.

Several analytical methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x- ray photo-electron spectroscopy, ultra-violet/visible spectrophotornetry, ellipsometry, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the deposited films. The films deposited were uniform, amorphous and the composition of the films varied with deposition temperature and precursor ...


Voc Removal From Nitrogen By A Membrane-Based Combined Absorption-Stripping Process, Boya Xia Dec 1997

Voc Removal From Nitrogen By A Membrane-Based Combined Absorption-Stripping Process, Boya Xia

Theses

A regenerative membrane-based absorption process has been extensively studied to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air/N2 using silicone oil as absorbent. The absorbent liquid is regenerated by applying vacuum in a membrane-based stripper. In this process, there are no flooding, loading and entrainment, which limit the gas/liquid flow rate in the traditional absorption process. In the present study, attention has been focused on the removal of volatile component(s) from binary gas mixtures such as methanol-N2, and toluene-N2, and from a model multicomponent mixture of gasoline vapor constituents and nitrogen. The process performance was ...


Modeling And Numerical Analysis Of Beam Matrix Plasma Display System, Jingwu Zhang Dec 1997

Modeling And Numerical Analysis Of Beam Matrix Plasma Display System, Jingwu Zhang

Theses

This research investigates a new display device - Beam Matrix Plasma Display Panel (BM PDP). The scan of a PDP in such a system is accomplished through two electrical-beam guns instead of semiconductor switches.

The BM-PDP eliminates the expensive semiconductor switches in the current plasma display device systems. Its drive circuit has only three parts: electron beam guns, resistors and capacitors. During the operation of BM PDP, first a switch cell is turned on by a selection gun (X gun). Then another electron gun (Y gun) emits electrons onto column electrodes and capacitors. When the voltage over the corresponding luminous cell ...


Dynamic Friction Measurement, Modeling, And Compensation For Precise Motion Control, Simon Cohn Dec 1997

Dynamic Friction Measurement, Modeling, And Compensation For Precise Motion Control, Simon Cohn

Theses

In this thesis, measurements of dynamic friction in a hydrodynamic journal bearing were performed for varying sinusoidal velocity excitations, loads, and lubricants. The results indicate that the friction data displays a negative slope in the mixed region of friction vs. velocity (f-v) curves, and also shows that the dynamic friction is not just a function of current velocity, but also a function of velocity history (hysteresis). These results are in agreement with previous experimental investigations by other investigators in lubricated friction.

Secondly, a dynamic friction model is fully explored and partially extended to provide quantitative agreement to measured friction values ...


Investigation Of Optical Properties Of Inp, Ain And Sapphire For Applications In Non-Contact Semiconductor Process Monitoring, Rajasekhar Velagapudi Dec 1997

Investigation Of Optical Properties Of Inp, Ain And Sapphire For Applications In Non-Contact Semiconductor Process Monitoring, Rajasekhar Velagapudi

Theses

The objective of this thesis was to develop a reliable multi-wavelength pyrometer for simultaneous measurement of the wafer temperature and its optical properties in the wavelength range of 1 to 20 microns and temperature range of 30 to 1500° C. The spectral emissometer has been utilized for measurement of the temperature dependent optical properties of InP, AlN and Sapphire. The experimental results presented in this thesis showed that the measurement of high temperature optical properties could be performed reliably with a novel approach using the spectral ernissometer. The temperature determination capability of the emissometer was tested and verified using a ...


Design, Fabrication And Characterization Of The Infrastructure For A Two Part Non Volatile Ram, Suma Madapur Dec 1997

Design, Fabrication And Characterization Of The Infrastructure For A Two Part Non Volatile Ram, Suma Madapur

Theses

The present trend is to be able to develop cheaper and more convenient methods to design and fabricate non volatile RAM that will lead to an alteration of the computer architecture itself This will help replace the DRAM, which the computers currently have in their memory. The proposed NVRAM is designed to overcome the common difficulties faced with the use of ferroelectric materials used in the fabrication of NVRAM. The new idea essentially consists of fabricating the circuitry component separately and the substrate component separately and binding the two with the help of a conducting material. Electrical properties such as ...


Introduction To Pollution Prevention Concepts In Freshman Chemistry Through Simulations And Hypermidia, Aniraban Bhaumik Dec 1997

Introduction To Pollution Prevention Concepts In Freshman Chemistry Through Simulations And Hypermidia, Aniraban Bhaumik

Theses

As citizens of the 20th century, a key issue we all are aware of is degradation of the environment. In the interest of teaching the environmental issues to freshmen engineers, this study develops a computer aided learning/teaching (CAL/T) tool.

This CAL/T tool consists of Internet based multimedia courseware and intelligent simulations. The courseware assembles the fundamentals of chemistry associated with current environmental issues such as air pollution, stratospheric ozone layer depletion and environmentally sensitive or 'clean' manufacturing. The courseware targets early and comprehensive understanding of pollution prevention concepts with a focus on environmentally friendly manufacturing. The courseware ...


Removal Of Vocs From Superfactant-Flushed Wastewater By Membrane Based Modified Pervaporation Process, Anirban Das Dec 1997

Removal Of Vocs From Superfactant-Flushed Wastewater By Membrane Based Modified Pervaporation Process, Anirban Das

Theses

An aqueous solution of a volatile organic compound (VOC) e.g. trichloroethylene (TCE) is passed through the bores of hydrophobic microporous polypropylene hollow fibers having a plasma polymerized silicone coating on the fiber outside diameter; a vacuum is maintained on the shell side of the fiber to remove the VOC and recover it by condensation. Process performance has been obtained over a range of feed flow rates, concentrations of VOC and the surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)). In solutions without surfactant or low surfactant concentrations, the pores are not wetted and remain gas-filled. The VOC is stripped from the solution ...


Performance Enhancement Of Linear Robotic Workcell Using Dsp Based Control, Kedar Arvind Godbole Dec 1997

Performance Enhancement Of Linear Robotic Workcell Using Dsp Based Control, Kedar Arvind Godbole

Theses

Robotic Controllers have for the major part been computer implementations of PID or similar controllers. In this thesis DSP based control of a Robotic Workcell is presented. The control algorithms used with the DSP based controller are Input Shaping and also State Feedback. Input Shaping is a Feed Forward strategy for eliminating vibration under certain conditions. In this thesis Input Shaping is applied to the performance enhancement of a linear robot system. Although feedback control strategies offer higher accuracy and are much more robust, feedforward strategies offer possibilities for improving the response time. Input Shaping is successfully applied to the ...


A Design-For Retirement Rating Model For Environmentally Conscious Products, Xin He Dec 1997

A Design-For Retirement Rating Model For Environmentally Conscious Products, Xin He

Theses

Design-For-Retirement is a concept that allows one to design a product such that its retirement time and post-life treatment are optimized to lead to the minimum environmental impact and maximum financial gain. Retired product parts or subassemblies face three primary multi-lifecycle engineering treatments. The first one is to recondition them for reuse in the next lifecycle. The second one is to convert their post life parts into a material form for recycling back into new parts. The last is to dump or landfill them. Each option has a significantly different environmental cost-benefit ratio. Another important concern is the dismantling process ...


Development And Characteristics Of Carbon Nitride Thin Solid Films For Advanced Coating Applications, Muhammad A. Hussain Dec 1997

Development And Characteristics Of Carbon Nitride Thin Solid Films For Advanced Coating Applications, Muhammad A. Hussain

Theses

Carbon nitride films were synthesized on silicon substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering of graphite target in an environment of Ar and nitrogen gas. The performance of a negative carbon ion source was also investigated to use the source in negative ion-beam-assisted deposition. These films were synthesized at room temperature at a constant pressure of 5 mtorr and at 300 Watts R.17 power, but at different composition of nitrogen in Ar-N2 gas mixture ranging from 0-53 percent. The films deposited were microscopically smooth, amorphous and their properties found to be varied with nitrogen composition in plasma. The deposition rate ...


Design And Implementation Of Generalized Adaptive Neural Filters, Chun Yip Tam Dec 1997

Design And Implementation Of Generalized Adaptive Neural Filters, Chun Yip Tam

Theses

Generalized Adaptive Neural Filters (GANF) are a class of adaptive non-linear filters. This thesis presents a hardware implementation of GANF. Two designs are considered: the single neuron implementation and the multi-neuron implementation. The GANF design includes the window generator, threshold decomposer, training and filtering unit. The designs are verified through a logic design/simulation tool, Logic Works.