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1996

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1222

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Emisja Zanieczyszczeń Ze Spalania Odpadów Ściekowych W Piecu Półkowym, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki Dec 1996

Emisja Zanieczyszczeń Ze Spalania Odpadów Ściekowych W Piecu Półkowym, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The article presents incineration tests of silty-tar sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant for coke industry. Sewage sludges were incinerated in a full-scale multiple hearth incinerator equipped with a wet flue-gas cleaning system (alkaline scrubber). Measurements of air pollutant emissions were carried out both before and after the cleaning system. The obtained results allow to conclude that the thermal utilization of sewage sludge in this type of installation might be just a little cumbersome for the environment, using the appropriate equipment for the purification of exhaust gases. The paper also specifies minimum exhaust gas cleaning performance that guarantees compliance ...


Wdrażanie Monitoringu Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza Atmosferycznego W Kielcach, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki Dec 1996

Wdrażanie Monitoringu Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza Atmosferycznego W Kielcach, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

Assumptions for regional environmental monitoring in the province of Kielce were developed as early as 1992. Since the beginning of particular attention were monitoring the air. The article presents the next step in the implementation of this monitoring, associated with verification of the location and the measuring range of points to measure the concentrations of air pollutants in Kielce. As a result of analysis and calculations, it was found that the original location is not always correct and does not reflect the spatial differentiation of pollutant concentrations. The proposed changes in the position of monitoring points or measurement methods were ...


Zastosowanie Metody Obliczeniowo-Pomiarowej Do Oceny Stanu Zanieczyszczenia Powietrza W Nowym Sączu, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz Dec 1996

Zastosowanie Metody Obliczeniowo-Pomiarowej Do Oceny Stanu Zanieczyszczenia Powietrza W Nowym Sączu, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz

Robert Oleniacz

Assessment of the state of air pollution in the urban area is a difficult and complex task. Depending on the method of assessment the procedure requires a comprehensive research and calculations of air emissions from all sources occurring in the area and the use of atmospheric dispersion models or large-scale implementation of direct measurements of air pollutant concentrations. Both of these methods may also be applied simultaneously to their mutual verification.

The article presents the results of such a comprehensive assessment of air pollution on the example of the city of Nowy Sacz (Poland). This involved determining the emissions of ...


Obliczanie Emisji Par Węglowodorów Z Przemysłu Rafineryjnego, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki Dec 1996

Obliczanie Emisji Par Węglowodorów Z Przemysłu Rafineryjnego, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The negative effects of the refining industry for ambient air quality is mainly related to emissions of hydrocarbon vapors. Calculation methodology and estimates, the level of emissions from several years has been the research subject of many institutions and environmental agencies, including The Oil Companies’ European association for health, safety and environment in refining and distribution (CONCAWE) and American Petroleum Institute (API).

The article describes the main sources of emissions of hydrocarbons occurring in a typical refinery. In summary form also shows how to calculate the volume of a mixture of hydrocarbons emissions from these sources based on empirically validated ...


Two Dimensional Agonistic Control, Daqing Yang Dec 1996

Two Dimensional Agonistic Control, Daqing Yang

Dissertations

The conventional method of precise multiple-axis motion control entails use of a multiple axis positioning system with each axis carrying not only the workpiece but also the positioning system of the remaining axes. The resultant structure is heavy, sluggish, and expensive. An alternative positioning technique is being investigated in which the motion of the workpiece is controlled by pulling it with tendons, each of which has its own actuator. Since the actuators can be mounted on the base of the structure instead of being carried by motion system of the other axes, they can be relatively large and powerful without ...


Non-Linear Evaluation Of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns, Mohammad Hassan Shams Dec 1996

Non-Linear Evaluation Of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns, Mohammad Hassan Shams

Dissertations

Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFT) columns have become increasingly popular in structural applications due to their high strength, high ductility, and large energy absorption capacity. These structural properties are the result of integral behavior of the concrete core and the steel tube. This research provides an analysis of the interaction of the concrete core and the steel tube in CFT columns.

While there have been many experimental studies of CFT columns, there has been no analytical work modeling the confining effect of the steel tube on the concrete core. Furthermore, current design procedures tend to underestimate the ultimate strengths of CFTs ...


Adaptive Distributed Detection With Applications To Cellular Cdma, Jian-Guo Chen Dec 1996

Adaptive Distributed Detection With Applications To Cellular Cdma, Jian-Guo Chen

Dissertations

Chair and Varshney have derived an optimal rule for fusing decisions based on the Bayesian criterion. To implement the rule, probabilities of detection PD and false alarm PF for each detector must be known, which is not readily available in practice. This dissertation presents an adaptive fusion model which estimates the PD and PF adaptively by a simple counting process. Since reference signals are not given, the decision of a local detector is arbitrated by the fused decision of all the other local detectors. Adaptive algorithms for both equal probable and unequal probable sources, for independent ...


Analytical Solutions Of Openings Formed By Intersection Of A Cylindrical Shell And An Oblique Nozzle Under Internal Pressure, Hengming Cai Dec 1996

Analytical Solutions Of Openings Formed By Intersection Of A Cylindrical Shell And An Oblique Nozzle Under Internal Pressure, Hengming Cai

Dissertations

Since several decades ago, many authors have published their research results about local stress distributions of shells and shell-nozzles both analytically and numerically. However, there has not been a published paper, which deals with analytical solutions of cylindrical shell and oblique nozzle, even though in the case of openings formed by intersection of a cylindrical shell and an oblique nozzle.

A comprehensive analytical study of local stress factors at the area of openings formed by intersection of a cylindrical shell and an oblique nozzle under internal pressure is presented in this dissertation.

By means of traditional approach in theory of ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Lpcvd Sic Films Using Novel Precursors, Mahalingam Bhaskaran Dec 1996

Synthesis And Characterization Of Lpcvd Sic Films Using Novel Precursors, Mahalingam Bhaskaran

Dissertations

A unique low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process has been developed to synthesize amorphous and crystalline SiC films using environmentally benign chemicals. The interrelationships governing the process variables, compositions and select properties of the resulting films were established. Such films can be used to produce high quality mask membrane for x-ray lithography. These films can also be used in fabricating high power electrical devices, and hetrojunction devices in conjunction with silicon.

Amorphous SiC films were synthesized using a single precursor, ditertiarybutylsilane, at temperatures below 850°C. Compositional analysis performed on these deposits revealed that, in the deposition temperature range ...


Bilinear Time-Frequency Representations Of Heart Rate Variability And Respiration During Stress, Rindala Saliba Dec 1996

Bilinear Time-Frequency Representations Of Heart Rate Variability And Respiration During Stress, Rindala Saliba

Dissertations

Recently, joint time-frequency signal representation has received considerable attention as a powerful tool for analyzing a variety of signals and systems. In particular, if the frequency content is time varying as in signals of biological origin which often do not comply with the stationarity assumptions, then this approach is quite attractive. In this dissertation, we explore the possibility of better representation of two particular biological signals, namely heart rate variability (HRV) and respiration. We propose the use of time-frequency analysis as a new and innovative approach to examine the physical and mental exertion attributed to exercise. Two studies are used ...


Evaluation Of Environmental Characteristics Of Wtp Residuals For Disposal In Monofills, Ping Tian Dec 1996

Evaluation Of Environmental Characteristics Of Wtp Residuals For Disposal In Monofills, Ping Tian

Dissertations

Disposal of water treatment plant (WTP) have raised great concerns due to the stringent water quality standards and environmental regulations, and limited availability of land for ultimate disposal. The ultimate disposal of water treatment plant residuals by using monofill may be one of the most economical, and feasible options. Design and operation of such a monofill will be simple because of the uniformity of the characteristics of WTP residuals.


Counterpulsation Cardiac Assist Device Controller Defection Filter Simulation And Canine Experiments, Carl Edward Werner Dec 1996

Counterpulsation Cardiac Assist Device Controller Defection Filter Simulation And Canine Experiments, Carl Edward Werner

Dissertations

Electronic control systems for counterpulsation Cardiac Assist Devices (CADs) are an essential part of cardiac assistance. Synchronization of the counterpulsation CAD controller with the cardiac cycle is critical to the efficacy of the CAD. The robustness of counterpulsation CAD controllers varies with the ability of the CAD controller to properly trigger on aortic pressure (Pa) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals for sinusoid rhythms, non-sinusoid rhythms and non-ideal signals resulting from surgical intervention. An analog-to-digital converter and digital-to-analog converter based CAD controller development platform was devised on a 33Mhz PC-AT.

Counterpulsation Pa systolic rise and dicrotic notch detectors were demonstrated with a ...


Expression Of Human Protein C In Mammary Tissue Of Transgenic Mammals , William H. Velander Dec 1996

Expression Of Human Protein C In Mammary Tissue Of Transgenic Mammals , William H. Velander

Patents Held by Members of the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

Recombinant protein C characterized by a high percentage of active protein can be obtained in the milk of transgenic mammals that incorporate DNAs according to the present invention. Transgenic mammals of the present invention are produced by introducing into developing embryos DNA that encodes protein C, such that the DNA is stably incorporated in the DNA of germ line cells of the mature mammals and inherited in normal, mendelian fashion.


Trifluoroiodomethane As An Environmentally Friendly Gas For Water Patterning By Plasma Etching Process, Krit Aryusook Dec 1996

Trifluoroiodomethane As An Environmentally Friendly Gas For Water Patterning By Plasma Etching Process, Krit Aryusook

Theses

Trifluoroiodomethane (CF3I), a non-global warming gas, has been investigated with study as a substitute for typical CFC etchants, such as CF4 and C2F6, used in wafer pattering technology. This investigation was carried out by exposing dielectric films of silicon oxide (SiO2) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) in CF3I and C2F6/O2 (used as a reference) plasma environments. The etch rate of these films was ascertained as function of applied rf power, etchant gas flow rate, reaction chamber operating pressure, and O2 to CF3 ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Silicon Dioxide Thin Films By Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition, Sutham Niyomwas Dec 1996

Synthesis And Characterization Of Silicon Dioxide Thin Films By Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition, Sutham Niyomwas

Theses

Ditertiarybutylsilane ( DTBS ) and oxygen have been used as precursors to produce silicon dioxide films by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. These films were synthesized in the temperature range of 600°C to 800°C at constant pressure, and at different gas flow composition. The films were found to be uniform with a composition that varied with deposition temperature and gas flow ratio. The growth rate was found to follow an Arrhenius behavior with an apparent activation energy of 2.62 kcal/mol. The growth rate was seen to increase with higher distance between wafers and to vary as a function ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Hafnium Carbide Thin Films, Wiriya Thongruang Dec 1996

Synthesis And Characterization Of Hafnium Carbide Thin Films, Wiriya Thongruang

Theses

Hafnium carbide thin films of various characteristics were deposited on silicon substrates using dc magnetron sputtering. A HfC target was used as a sputtering source and Ar was used as a sputtering gas during deposition. The variables investigated were total sputtering gas pressure and power. Optimum characteristics were achieved with a total sputtering gas pressure of 5 mTorr and power of 200 W. No evidence for oxidation of the film was found at a depth below 400A for deposited and annealed films. Binding characteristics were obtained from ESCA data. The compressive film stress increased when sputtering gas pressure decreased. The ...


Design Of A Mode Of Delivery For Macrobead Transplantation, Jagdip Desai Dec 1996

Design Of A Mode Of Delivery For Macrobead Transplantation, Jagdip Desai

Theses

The macrobead is a form of a biohybrid artificial pancreas (BAP), which is being developed to treat type 1 diabetes. A hypothetical human transplant would require 125 rat equivalent macrobeads. For intraperitoneal transplantation a mode of delivery that allows the placement of several hundred macrobeads into a basket or pouch type device is required.

In this study, four commercially available materials were studied as possible candidates for creating a pouch. These materials are polyvinyl chloride acrylic copolymer (PVC), polyethersulfone (PES), polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF), and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). Tubular pouches of each material were designed. They then underwent in vivo biocompatibility and in-vitro ...


Measuring The Need For Manufacturing Flexibility And Evaluating Its Economic Benefits, Navin Karwande Dec 1996

Measuring The Need For Manufacturing Flexibility And Evaluating Its Economic Benefits, Navin Karwande

Theses

Flexible systems are known of enabling organizations to take advantage of diversified products, low volume production items with short life-cycles. They also improve the ability to respond to market changes. Flexibility has thus become a strategic manufacturing need in recent years.

Because of the high initial capital outlay involved, the selection of the appropriate flexible solution has become a critical issue. This thesis proposes a methodology to determine the most cost effective and feasible flexibility strategy. A flexibility audit is developed to analyze and evaluate the changes taking place in a facility's environment. These changes and a measurement scheme ...


Tcp/Ip Traffic Over Atm Network With Abr Flow And Congestion Control, Liping An Dec 1996

Tcp/Ip Traffic Over Atm Network With Abr Flow And Congestion Control, Liping An

Theses

Most traffics over the existing ATM network are generated by applications running over TCP/IP protocol stack. In the near future, the success of ATM technology will depend largely on how well it supports the huge legacy of existing TCP/IP applications.

In this thesis, we study and compare the performance of TCP/IP traffic running on different rate based ABR flow control algorithms such as EFCI, ERICA and FMMRA by extensive simulations. Infinite source-end traffic behavior is chosen to represent, FTP application running on TCP/IP. Background VBR traffic with different ON-OFF frequency is introduced to produce transient network ...


Potential Effects Of Pneumatic Fracturing On Existing Structures And Utilities, Michael C. Canino Dec 1996

Potential Effects Of Pneumatic Fracturing On Existing Structures And Utilities, Michael C. Canino

Theses

This thesis develops a mathematical design model for predicting ground deformations resulting from pneumatic fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing is a patented process developed for the purpose of enhancing the in situ treatment and removal of hazardous contaminants from geologic formations. During pneumatic injections, measurable ground deformations are experienced both during and after the process. Safe application of pneumatic fracturing to contaminated plumes occurring beneath existing structures and utilities requires that the elastic deformation behavior of the geologic formation and overlying structures be quantified.

Data from five pneumatic fracturing sites were regressed to establish the characteristic polynomial describing the curvature of ground ...


Vibration Control Of Robotic Modules Using Input Shaping Algorithm, Murat Eren Dec 1996

Vibration Control Of Robotic Modules Using Input Shaping Algorithm, Murat Eren

Theses

In this thesis, vibration control using input shaping algorithm is studied. Vibration Control of flexible structures is an important problem and has been an active research area. Different approaches have been developed for vibration control which can be divided roughly into feedback and feedforward methods. Feedback methods need measurements and on-line calculation of the controller outputs. Although feedback methods are generally more robust and have a number of well known performance advantages, proper use of feedforward control can also significantly improve the speed of response of the system.

Input shaping is one of these feedforward methods. It has been successfully ...


Experimental Investigation Of Collisional Properties Of Spheres, Laurent Labous Dec 1996

Experimental Investigation Of Collisional Properties Of Spheres, Laurent Labous

Theses

We present experimental results on the collisional properties of spheres obtained through high-speed video analysis. An apparatus is built that produces collisions of spheres of various sizes with a wide range of impact, velocities and incidence angles.

Edge detection techniques are implemented to track the position of the spheres from frame to frame whereby the translational velocities may be computed. In order to determine the rotational velocities, small markers are imprinted on the surfaces of the spheres and also tracked and matched from one frame to the next.. From the pre and post collision kinematic data, three collisional properties are ...


Optimization Of Ion-Exchange Chromotography With Multiple Gradient Inputs For Protein Separations, Tariq Mahmood Dec 1996

Optimization Of Ion-Exchange Chromotography With Multiple Gradient Inputs For Protein Separations, Tariq Mahmood

Theses

Gradient elution chromatography is an efficient technique for adjusting the retention of sample components during liquid chromatographic separations. However, the optimization of gradient elution is usually done by trial and error. Thus, for large scale processes this results in expensive and time consuming design and operations. Peak resolution that describes the degree of separation is a commonly used parameter for chromatographic processes. However, in processes where operating time and product dilution are of great importance, resolution alone is not adequate for describing the separation efficiency.

A new parameter "resolution optimization factor" is used for the optimization of gradient elution processes ...


Modeling Of Objects Using Planar Facets In Noisy Range Images, Girish Phansalkar Dec 1996

Modeling Of Objects Using Planar Facets In Noisy Range Images, Girish Phansalkar

Theses

Products designed and manufactured before the advent of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology have not been documented electronically. To avoid the laborious procedure of redesigning the parts, a reverse engineering approach can be adopted. This approach involves, taking a picture of the object and constructing a solid model from the image data.

Range image is a three dimensional image of an object or a scene. This image can be obtained from special cameras, called range image cameras, or can be constructed from the Coordinate Measuring Machine's (CMM) output data. Adaptive Fuzzy c-Elliptotype (AFC) clustering ...


A Methodology For The Design Of An Integrated Air Stripping/Biofiltration Process To Clean Contaminated Aquifers, Pothitos Ioannis Stamatiadis Dec 1996

A Methodology For The Design Of An Integrated Air Stripping/Biofiltration Process To Clean Contaminated Aquifers, Pothitos Ioannis Stamatiadis

Theses

This thesis deals with the conceptual design of an integrated air stripping/biofiltration process for cleaning aquifers contaminated with volatile organic pollutants. In this technology, the pollutant is transferred from the aquifer to an air stream which is subsequently treated in a biofilter. The work presented here is an effort to develop a design methodology for the integrated process and suggests a general, quantitative approach which can be used in preliminary technology evaluation. This methodology involves relatively simple equations for the stripping process and detailed (oftentimes complex) models for biofiltration under conditions of continuous variation of the properties of the ...


Design, Simulation And Fabrication Of A Mems In-Situ Contactless Sensor To Detect Plasma Induced Damage During Reactive Ion Etching, Subramanian Ganesh Dec 1996

Design, Simulation And Fabrication Of A Mems In-Situ Contactless Sensor To Detect Plasma Induced Damage During Reactive Ion Etching, Subramanian Ganesh

Theses

The present trend in the semiconductor industry is towards submicron devices. An inevitable process technique in achieving this is by reactive ion etching of the polysilicon gate. During RIE, the gate oxide may get damaged due to several causes. One of the main causes of the damage is the non-uniformity of the plasma. It is reported that these plasma inconsistencies are mainly due to electrode design and that they create spatial plasma potential fluctuation. These fluctuations are reported to be in the range of 10-20 Volts. By providing an in-situ monitoring of the wafers, the reliability of the device could ...


A Cost Model For Multi-Lifecycle Engineering Design, Bin Zhang Dec 1996

A Cost Model For Multi-Lifecycle Engineering Design, Bin Zhang

Theses

Design for Environment aims to yield a product whose aggregate environmental impact is as small as possible. This thesis characterizes a product recovery system and defines the concepts of product lifetime and part lifetime. A multi-lifecycle product recovery model is developed based on the concepts of product tree and disassembly path representation, four product recovery choices, time varying costs, cost comparison. The four product recovery choices of a part in the product tree are: Reconditioning, Part Remanufacturing, Material Recycling, and Landfill. This thesis focuses on how to improve the product design while minimizing environmental impact of the product and introduces ...


Experimental Study Of The Rise Of A Large Sphere In A Vibrated Bed Of Monodisperse Spheres, Loic Vanel Dec 1996

Experimental Study Of The Rise Of A Large Sphere In A Vibrated Bed Of Monodisperse Spheres, Loic Vanel

Theses

As a simplified way to study size segregation mechanisms, the rise of a single large sphere in a vibrated bed of smaller monodisperse spheres is investigated. The time it takes for the ball to rise from the bottom of the bed to the surface is measured in a very wide range of vibration amplitude, frequency and acceleration. Rise regimes are identified and are classified according to the macroscopic behaviors displayed by the granular bed: heaping, convection without heaping and crystallization. The influence of the large sphere's size on the rise velocity is described. The scaling features of the vibration ...


Relaxation And The Nature Of Electrical Stress Related Defects In Ultra-Thin Dioxide On Silicon, Lihui Xie Dec 1996

Relaxation And The Nature Of Electrical Stress Related Defects In Ultra-Thin Dioxide On Silicon, Lihui Xie

Theses

The instability of defects created in ultra-thin insulator, metal-oxide-silicon devices biased in the direct tunnel regime is investigated. For the case of electron injection from the silicon substrate, nearly complete defect relaxation is observed after the bias is removed, allowing the possibility of re-generating the defects. Modeling the defect generation process and examining differences between initial and subsequent degradation periods lead to an improved picture of both the relaxation process and the nature of the involved defects.


Performance Evaluation Of Cebus Power Line Communication In The Presence Of X-10 Module Signaling, Nashwa F. Kamel Dec 1996

Performance Evaluation Of Cebus Power Line Communication In The Presence Of X-10 Module Signaling, Nashwa F. Kamel

Theses

A power line of CEBus has great potential towards inexpensive home automation. Both PLBus and X-10 uses [sic] burst of 120KHz signals to transmit bits of information on the power line. However, these two systems are completely incompatible and can conflict with each other. This thesis presents the first performance evaluation of Power Line CEBus communication in the presence of X-10 module signaling. The evaluation included simulation experiments measuring packet delays, message delays, message throughput, channel throughput and the percentage of messages received in error verses [sic] different loads. Network performance has been confirmed to function well in terms of ...