Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1771 - 1800 of 55711

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Electrical Sensor Development For The Dielectric Properties Measurement And Moisture Content Estimation Of Switchgrass And Corn Stover, Augusto Cesar Magalhaes De Souza Jan 2019

Electrical Sensor Development For The Dielectric Properties Measurement And Moisture Content Estimation Of Switchgrass And Corn Stover, Augusto Cesar Magalhaes De Souza

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The dielectric properties of material play a relevant role when developing moisture content sensors of agricultural products. However, little is known about the permittivity of switchgrass and corn stover in a wider frequency band. Thus, this research goal was to determine their dielectric constant and loss factor at different moisture contents and frequency range of 5 Hz to 13 MHz. Also, an electrical sensor system was developed to predict the amount of water in agricultural products with the material static and in movement.

The dielectric properties of switchgrass and corn stover were calculated by measuring their admittance using an impedance ...


Nanostructured Surfaces Fabricated By Modified Interference Lithographic Technique For Modulation Of Interfacial Processes, Russell Mahmood Jan 2019

Nanostructured Surfaces Fabricated By Modified Interference Lithographic Technique For Modulation Of Interfacial Processes, Russell Mahmood

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this dissertation is two-pronged: 1. Extending the capability of laser interference lithographic technique to fabricate novel nanostructured surfaces and 2. Application of the fabricated nanostructured surfaces to modulate interfacial processes, e.g. coupling of light with metallic nanostructures to excite surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and directing self-assembly of colloidal crystals.

The first part of the dissertation focuses on modifying the laser interference lithography (LIL) technique. The traditional LIL is limited to fabrication of only single-pitch linear gratings. We mitigated this drawback by incorporating non-planar Lloyds mirror to the LIL technique. The proposed modified LIL technique has the ...


Investigating The Viability Of Bio-Additives With Rejuvenating Properties In 50% Rap Hma Mix Designs: A Multi-Faceted Approach Of Analyzing Mix Performance, Nicholas Manke Jan 2019

Investigating The Viability Of Bio-Additives With Rejuvenating Properties In 50% Rap Hma Mix Designs: A Multi-Faceted Approach Of Analyzing Mix Performance, Nicholas Manke

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), though the most recycled material by weight in the U.S. and Europe, is not currently most effectively utilized. The material RAP is readily available due to the vast amount of infrastructure surfaced with flexible pavements. Recycled materials are often desired for reduced material costs in construction, reduced environmental costs, and reduced impacts on non-renewable resources. While RAP has been a commonly used material for decades in the U.S. and other nations, it has been used primarily as base aggregate material, construction site fill, and as a partial aggregate and binder replacement in HMA mixes ...


Multiplexed Detection Of Autoantibodies For Type 1 Diabetes Using Nanopore Thin-Film Based Sensors, Subin Mao Jan 2019

Multiplexed Detection Of Autoantibodies For Type 1 Diabetes Using Nanopore Thin-Film Based Sensors, Subin Mao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis reports on using label-free optical sensors for multiplexed detection of autoantibodies for Type 1 Diabetes. An autoimmune disease that occurs when the body either does not produce enough or stops producing insulin, the hormone that controls blood-sugar levels. Autoantibodies working against islet antigens such as insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and insulinoma associated protein-2 (IA-2) have been well-confirmed in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) panels. While clinical diagnosis of T1D can be performed by detecting the level of autoantibodies in a blood sample, sensitive detections are especially crucial for predictive analysis and early screening of potential diabetes victims.

The ...


Experimental Investigations On Bio-Inspired Surface Coatings For Aircraft Icing Mitigation, Liqun Ma Jan 2019

Experimental Investigations On Bio-Inspired Surface Coatings For Aircraft Icing Mitigation, Liqun Ma

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aircraft icing is widely recognized as a significant hazard to aircraft operations in cold weathers. Bio-inspired water- and ice-phobic coatings are currently being investigated for use as viable strategies for aircraft in-flight icing mitigation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-/de-icing performance of a number of bioinspired hydro-/ice-phobic coatings and explore their potentials for aircraft in-flight icing mitigation.

In the present study, the bioinspired hydro-/ice-phobic coatings examined include the lotus-leaf-inspired super-hydrophobic surface (SHS), the pitcher-plant-inspired slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) and the goose-feather-inspired textured surface. Firstly, a comprehensive experimental study was conducted to investigate ...


Evaluating Boom Height Control Performance With Variable Boom Roll Damping In A Suspended Boom System On Self-Propelled Sprayers, Evan Mellott Jan 2019

Evaluating Boom Height Control Performance With Variable Boom Roll Damping In A Suspended Boom System On Self-Propelled Sprayers, Evan Mellott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this research, a method for improving spray boom height stability was developed and tested. Self-propelled sprayers played a critical role in agriculture by applying chemicals to crops to control the presence of weeds and pests. The spraying process needed to be controlled in a manner such that the spray boom maintained the necessary target height for uniform coverage. Deviation from target height allowed outside factors such as wind to become more prevalent during chemical application which generated opportunities for spray drift to occur and potentially harm neighboring crops and environment.

On a suspended spray boom system, terrain influences on ...


Overcoming The Limitations Of Commodity Augmented Reality Head Mounted Displays For Use In Product Assembly, Jack Miller Jan 2019

Overcoming The Limitations Of Commodity Augmented Reality Head Mounted Displays For Use In Product Assembly, Jack Miller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Numerous studies have shown the effectiveness of utilizing Augmented Reality (AR) to deliver work instructions for complex assemblies. Traditionally, this research has been performed using hand-held displays, such as smartphones and tablets, or custom-built Head Mounted Displays (HMDs). AR HMDs have been shown to be especially effective for assembly tasks as they allow the user to remain hands-free while receiving work instructions. Furthermore, in recent years a wave of commodity AR HMDs have come to market including the Microsoft HoloLens, Magic Leap One, Meta 2, and DAQRI Smart Glasses. These devices present a unique opportunity for delivering assembly instructions due ...


Innovative Studies On Reinforced Concrete Panel Structures Through Experimental Testing And Finite Element Modeling; And Teaching Structural Engineering Courses Using Augmented Reality, Elizabeth Miller Jan 2019

Innovative Studies On Reinforced Concrete Panel Structures Through Experimental Testing And Finite Element Modeling; And Teaching Structural Engineering Courses Using Augmented Reality, Elizabeth Miller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents the results of three studies conducted within the field of structural engineering during completion of a master’s thesis. The first two studies report on the results of experimental testing and finite element modeling in reinforced concrete structures. Both structures can be thought to be composed of concrete panels. The third study, while not related to experimental work, details results of an in-classroom experiment utilizing an application developed to transform typical teaching pedagogy utilizing augmented reality.

The first study focuses on a particular detail utilized within the connection of an approach slab to bridge deck. Known as ...


Low Temperature Coefficient Bandgap Voltage Reference Generator, Vijayalakshmi Naganadhan Jan 2019

Low Temperature Coefficient Bandgap Voltage Reference Generator, Vijayalakshmi Naganadhan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The maximum achievable performance of almost all mixed-signal and radio frequency systems is dependent on the accuracy of voltage references. The bandgap voltage of silicon at zero Kelvin, VGO is a physical constant with unit Volts. It is independent of process, supply voltage and temperature variations.

This work proposes a strategy for extracting VGO and expressing it at the output of a voltage reference circuit. The concept is implemented in UMC 65nm process and the simulation results indicate that the circuit design can achieve very low temperature coefficients (<1ppm/°C). The proposed concept is validated using measurements and the associated constraints are carefully investigated. The measured output voltage reference of the two tested units record a temperature coefficient of 3.4ppm/°C and 4.57ppm/°C across the industrial temperature range (-40°C to 85°C).


Arrival Management For Evtol Aircraft In On-Demand Urban Air Mobility, Priyank Pradeep Jan 2019

Arrival Management For Evtol Aircraft In On-Demand Urban Air Mobility, Priyank Pradeep

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft can alleviate transportation congestion on the ground by utilizing three-dimensional airspace efficiently. However, the endurance (specific energy) of Lithium-ion Polymer (Li-Po) batteries imposes severe constraints on the operational time-span of an eVTOL on urban air mobility (UAM) passenger transportation mission.

The first part of the research focuses on the generation of energy efficient trajectories for eVTOLs with the assigned required times of arrival (RTA)s. The problem formulations are performed in multiphase optimal control framework with energy as the performance index for the following eVTOL aircraft types: (i) multirotor and (ii) tandem ...


Collaborative Product Review Using Virtual Reality Interface Devices Performance Studying, Mihir Radia Jan 2019

Collaborative Product Review Using Virtual Reality Interface Devices Performance Studying, Mihir Radia

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The study presents two research questions: 1) Can stereoscopic 3-D visualization (like Virtual Reality) improve a design reviewer’s ability to detect errors when reviewing a product model over a traditional CAD system in which 3D product models are viewed on a flat 2D computer screen? 2) Can two collaborating individuals be more effective (faster time or detect more errors) during a product design review than one individual operating alone? The answer to the first question will help provide product design reviewers, managers, and software designers in product design firms decide what features to include, and whether it is worthwhile ...


An Efficient Framework For Privacy-Preserving Computations On Encrypted Iot Data, Shruthi Ramesh Jan 2019

An Efficient Framework For Privacy-Preserving Computations On Encrypted Iot Data, Shruthi Ramesh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are two fundamental expectations from Cloud-IoT applications using sensitive and personal data: data utility and user privacy. With the complex nature of cloud-IoT ecosystem, there is a growing concern about data utility at the cost of privacy. While the current state-of-the-art encryption schemes protect users’ privacy, they preclude meaningful computations on encrypted data. Thus, the question remains “how to help IoT device users benefit from cloud computing without compromising data confidentiality and user privacy”? Cloud service providers (CSP) can leverage Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes to deliver privacy-preserving services. However, there are limitations in directly adopting FHE-based solutions for ...


Performance Archery Shooting, Hunter Sabers Jan 2019

Performance Archery Shooting, Hunter Sabers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bows and arrows can be traced all the way back to 65,000 BC and have evolved from a tool used for hunting, to a tool for war, and today used by hobbyists in competition. The evolution of this technology has progressed for the most part without an understanding of the effect it has on humans. The present study aims to connect how technology effects humans specifically looking at archery. The study measured the muscle activity in the bow arm of the archer and the vibration experienced on the bow arm of the archer during the shooting process. From those ...


Data-Driven Approaches For Improving Failure Resilience Of Engineered Systems, Mohammadkazem Sadoughi Jan 2019

Data-Driven Approaches For Improving Failure Resilience Of Engineered Systems, Mohammadkazem Sadoughi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since the 1980s, major industries and government agencies worldwide have faced increasing challenges in ensuring the reliability and resilience of engineered systems. The goal of this dissertation is to create novel probabilistic analysis and design methodologies that enable engineered systems to achieve and sustain near-zero breakdown performance. Specifically, this dissertation is focused on developing new methods for simulation-based design and sensor-based diagnostics and prognostics that can be used to design engineered systems for failure resilience. The research contributions are in the areas of engineering design under uncertainty and post-design fault diagnostics which focuses on applications within wind turbines (energy generation ...


Co2 Sequestration In A Capillary Tube Via An Interfacial Chemical Reaction Between Pressurized Co2 Gas And Aqueous Glycerol Ca(Oh)2 Solution., Sravya Sasetty Jan 2019

Co2 Sequestration In A Capillary Tube Via An Interfacial Chemical Reaction Between Pressurized Co2 Gas And Aqueous Glycerol Ca(Oh)2 Solution., Sravya Sasetty

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to current global climate conditions, it has become imperative to reduce CO2 emissions all around the world. The capture of CO2 gas from the environment and storing it into carbon sinks (underground or oceanic storage) is well known as carbon sequestration. In this project, we seek to understand the feasibility of carbon sequestration through chemical reaction of CO2 gas and aqueous Ca(OH)2 which is known to generate CaCO3 precipitates. The experiments on displacement of aqueous glycerol Ca(OH)2 solution with different molar concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mM) and viscosity (0.186 and 0 ...


Volt/Var Control With High Solar Pv Penetration In Distribution Systems And Its Impact On The Transmision Grid, Ankit Singhal Jan 2019

Volt/Var Control With High Solar Pv Penetration In Distribution Systems And Its Impact On The Transmision Grid, Ankit Singhal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With increasing distributed energy resources (DERs), both the distribution and transmission power systems are witnessing new challenges and opportunities. Voltage rise and voltage fluctuations are becoming major issues in the distribution network due to high solar PV penetration. Nevertheless, the volt/var control (VCC) capability of solar PV devices (inverter based DERs, in general) opens up various opportunities for both the distribution and transmission systems. In this work, we address the challenges in the distribution network and also explore the potential opportunities for the transmission system that can be provided by VCC capability of DERs in high PV penetration environment ...


Provable Algorithms For Nonlinear Models In Machine Learning And Signal Processing, Mohammadreza Soltani Jan 2019

Provable Algorithms For Nonlinear Models In Machine Learning And Signal Processing, Mohammadreza Soltani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In numerous signal processing and machine learning applications, the problem of signal recovery from a limited number of nonlinear observations is of special interest.

These problems also called inverse problem have recently received attention in signal processing, machine learning, and high-dimensional statistics. In high-dimensional setting, the inverse problems are inherently ill-posed as the number of measurements is typically less than the number of dimensions. As a result, one needs to assume some structures on the underlying signal such as sparsity, structured sparsity, low-rank and so on. In addition, having a nonlinear map from the signal space to the measurement space ...


Engineering The Effects Of Lateral Interactions Among Adsorbates On Nano-Catalytic Surfaces, Kartik Srivastava Jan 2019

Engineering The Effects Of Lateral Interactions Among Adsorbates On Nano-Catalytic Surfaces, Kartik Srivastava

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Adsorbate-adsorbate lateral interactions have been known to significantly affect

the binding energies of adsorbates in most of the reaction networks on any given

nano-catalytic surface. In events of multiple adsorptions which is almost the case in any

reaction network on a nano-catalytic surface, interactions between adsorbed species are

termed as adsorbate-adsorbate lateral interactions. Such, interactions have been known to

weaken the binding energy, thereby affecting the reaction energetics and hence affects

the suitability of a catalytic system for a given reaction scheme. Hence, it is very

important to quantify such interactions appropriately. Since, experiments at very small

length scales are ...


Calibration Of Structured Light System Using Unidirectional Fringe Patterns, Vignesh Suresh Jan 2019

Calibration Of Structured Light System Using Unidirectional Fringe Patterns, Vignesh Suresh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

3D shape measurement has a variety of applications in many areas, such as manufacturing, design, medicine and entertainment. There are many technologies that were successfully implemented in the past decades to measure three dimensional information of an object. The measurement techniques can be broadly classified into contact and non-contact measurement methods. One of the most widely used contact method is Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) which dates back to late 1950s. The method by far is one of the most accurate method as it can have sub-micrometer accuracy. But it becomes difficult to use this technique for soft objects as the ...


Probe Vehicle Performance Measures For Assessing Travel Time Reliability, Kyle Robert Thompson Jan 2019

Probe Vehicle Performance Measures For Assessing Travel Time Reliability, Kyle Robert Thompson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Travel time reliability reflects the degree to which the amount of time needed for a trip is predictable. Metrics that quantify travel time reliability are emerging as a fundamental part of assessing the performance of transportation networks. Many states and municipalities are starting to incorporate travel time reliability into their transportation assessments and planning processes. Probe vehicle data is a prevalent data source which can be utilized to compute many of these travel time reliability metrics. This study used probe vehicle data from INRIX to compute, compare, and apply travel time reliability metrics on interstate segments in Iowa. It also ...


Design And Development Of Cellulose Based Composites For The Built Environment, Melvin Glenn Veigas Jan 2019

Design And Development Of Cellulose Based Composites For The Built Environment, Melvin Glenn Veigas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cellulose is a versatile material with numerous contemporary applications in textiles, food, and biomaterials. Contemporary research is focused on modifying the structural and thermal properties of cellulose to create novel composites with cellulose nano-crystals, lignocellulosic pulp, and foamed cellulose to name a few. Significant advances have been made in improving the properties of cellulose. Adding aligned cellulose nano-fibers to concrete to improve its mechanical properties or combining with polymers for better durability can lead to new applications specifically in design and construction. These new forms of cellulose through optimization and combination with other materials provide opportunities for reducing material usage ...


Process Generalizations And Rules Of Thumb For Scaling Up Biobased Processes, Mothi Bharath Viswanathan Jan 2019

Process Generalizations And Rules Of Thumb For Scaling Up Biobased Processes, Mothi Bharath Viswanathan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The premise of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Biorenewable Chemicals (CBiRC) is that a joint fermentative-catalytic process can be exercised to manufacture commodity chemicals from bio-based carbon (e.g., five and six carbon sugar) at prices that are competitive with existing petro-derived chemicals, and with development costs that are far low. Strong technoeconomic analysis (TEA) capabilities exist commercially in tools such as SuperPro Designer® and Aspen Plus®, both of which provide estimations of capital and operating costs. These tools also require a level of detail that is typically unavailable at early stages of process evaluation. To address early – stage ...


Portable Water Filled Barrier With Internal Honeycomb Cells, Zhe Wang Jan 2019

Portable Water Filled Barrier With Internal Honeycomb Cells, Zhe Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Longitudinal traffic barriers are widely used as road safety features in the

United States to keep vehicles within the roadway and prevent them from colliding

with dangerous obstacles. Portable water-filled barriers (PWFBs) are one type of

temporary longitudinal traffic barriers, commonly used in speed limit zones and,

roadside working zones. Current market PWFBs are cost-effective and exhibiting

high efficiency while resisting vehicle impact at low speed. However, high-level

impact severity results in structural failure and extensive lateral deflection. Based on

evaluation criteria from Manual of Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH), some

PWFBs are inefficient to meet the requirements from newly published ...


Solid-State Synthesis Of Germanium Nanocrystals From A Chloride-Derived Germania Glass And Colloidal Synthesis Of Germanium Nanocrystals From Germanium Halides With Trisilane, Yujie Wang Jan 2019

Solid-State Synthesis Of Germanium Nanocrystals From A Chloride-Derived Germania Glass And Colloidal Synthesis Of Germanium Nanocrystals From Germanium Halides With Trisilane, Yujie Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to the size-tunable properties and their potential application in many areas, nanocrystals (NCs) have been the focus of research over the past several decades. Among them, germanium (Ge) NCs are promising candidates for many optical applications such as LEDs and integrated photonics. In this thesis, we report the solid-state synthesis of Ge NCs at the temperature of 325 °C of higher as well as colloidal synthesis of Ge NCs at room temperature. For the solid-state synthesis, we use GeCl2 · dioxane as the precursor and performed hydrolysis to get germania (GeOX) glass, which was then thermally annealed at elevated temperatures ...


Analyzing Energy Savings In An Fpga Video Processing System Using Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration, Robert Cole Wernsman Jan 2019

Analyzing Energy Savings In An Fpga Video Processing System Using Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration, Robert Cole Wernsman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR) can be a useful tool for maximizing FPGA performance while minimizing power consumption and FPGA size requirements. This work explores the application of the DPR technique in a computer vision application that implements two different edge detection algorithms (FASTX and Sobel). This technique could allow for a similar computer vision system to be realized on a smaller, low-power chipset. Different algorithms can have unique characteristics that yield better performance in certain scenarios; the best algorithm for the current scenario may change during runtime. However, implementing all available algorithms in hardware increases the space and power requirements ...


Cross Asset Resource Allocation Framework For Pavement And Bridges In Iowa, Yazan Basem Abukhalil Jan 2019

Cross Asset Resource Allocation Framework For Pavement And Bridges In Iowa, Yazan Basem Abukhalil

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With all the challenges facing U.S departments of transportation (US DOTs), especially the scarcity of resources and the deteriorating infrastructure systems, DOTs started to divert from separate assets decision making strategies to a more comprehensive resource allocation approach. This also resulted from the fact that the optimal allocation for each asset type separately is not the optimal allocation for all assets in the network. Specifically speaking about Iowa, about one quarter of Iowa’s primary roadways fail to meet a sufficiency rating considered minimally acceptable, furthermore the rural Interstate system in Iowa was ranked 38th in the nation in ...


Applications Of Fixed Point Theory To Distributed Optimization, Robust Convex Optimization, And Stability Of Stochastic Systems, Seyyed Shaho Alaviani Jan 2019

Applications Of Fixed Point Theory To Distributed Optimization, Robust Convex Optimization, And Stability Of Stochastic Systems, Seyyed Shaho Alaviani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Large-scale multi-agent networked systems are becoming more and more popular due to applications in robotics, machine learning, and signal processing. Although distributed algorithms have been proposed for efficient computations rather than centralized computations for large data optimization, existing algorithms are still suffering from some disadvantages such as distribution dependency or B-connectivity assumption of switching communication graphs. This study applies fixed point theory to analyze distributed optimization problems and to overcome existing difficulties such as distribution dependency or B-connectivity assumption of switching communication graphs. In this study, a new mathematical terminology and a new mathematical optimization problem are defined. It is ...


Comparison Of Urans And Des Models For Dynamic Stall Of Naca 0012 At Low Reynolds Number, Anshul Chandel Jan 2019

Comparison Of Urans And Des Models For Dynamic Stall Of Naca 0012 At Low Reynolds Number, Anshul Chandel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Designing wings and rotor blades to mitigate the adverse effects of dynamic stall is of current interest. For example, unmanned air vehicles with vertical take-off and landing capability are particularly susceptible to dynamic stall as they operate entirely in the highly unsteady planetary boundary layer. The intense unsteady loads generated as the vehicle undergoes dynamic stall can lead to catastrophic failure as well as fatigue failure. A passive mechanism to mitigate dynamic stall is a desirable alternative to active control as it is simpler, robust, and economical. Innovative wing and rotor blade designs can be developed using numerical simulations and ...


Controlling The Deterioration Of Harvested Grain/Seed To Improve Food Security, Bernard Darfour Jan 2019

Controlling The Deterioration Of Harvested Grain/Seed To Improve Food Security, Bernard Darfour

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The agriculture sector is the largest source of employment for Ghanaians and it is dominated by smallholder farmers. The challenges in the agriculture sector are many which include food insecurity. Maize offers a significant source of calories, and accounts for 50% of the total cereal production in Ghana, with the reported postharvest loss (PHL) between 5% and 70%. Improving food security through a reduction of PHL is imperative for meeting current development objectives. Sitophilus zeamais can inflict serious damage to maize in storage leading to about 20% to 50% or more losses within 3 to 6 months. The lack of ...


Adaptive Hybrid Structures To Enhance Graphene-Based Sensors For Detecting Moisture In Corn Plants, Matthew Davis Jan 2019

Adaptive Hybrid Structures To Enhance Graphene-Based Sensors For Detecting Moisture In Corn Plants, Matthew Davis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The utilization of graphene, a two-dimensional structure of carbon atoms, to measure water content in corn plants is presented. Discussed are the structural properties of graphene, fabrication methods, and previous designs by other research groups. This work attempts to design and test a new style of graphene sensor that maintains signal stability while not inhibiting plant growth or health. Specifically, the use of inkjet printing and molds to manufacture the graphene sensor component and the use of a soft polymer for a flexible attachment is examined. Simulations for determining the efficacy of mechanical structures are also analyzed.