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Theses/Dissertations

University of North Florida

Civil and Environmental Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Operational Effectiveness Of Connected Vehicle Smartphone Technology On A Signalized Corridor, Festo Mjogolo Jan 2019

Operational Effectiveness Of Connected Vehicle Smartphone Technology On A Signalized Corridor, Festo Mjogolo

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the last decade, extensive research efforts have been placed on performance evaluation and the benefits of innovative CV applications. Findings indicate that CV technology can effectively mitigate the safety, mobility, and environmental challenges experienced on transportation networks. Most of research evaluated CV technology through simulation studies. However, a field study provides a more ideal method of assessing CV technology effectiveness. Therefore, a field study to obtain the actual effectiveness of CV technology was warranted, to validate previous findings, and to add to the body of knowledge surrounding this topic. This thesis presents both a field study and simulation evaluation ...


The Operational And Safety Effects Of Heavy Duty Vehicles Platooning, Ahmed Alzahrani Jan 2019

The Operational And Safety Effects Of Heavy Duty Vehicles Platooning, Ahmed Alzahrani

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Although researchers have studied the effects of platooning, most of the work done so far has focused on fuel consumption. There are a few studies that have targeted the impact of platooning on the highway operations and safety. This thesis focuses on the impact of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) platooning on highway characteristics. Specifically, this study aims at evaluating the effects of platooning of HDVs on capacity, safety, and CO2 emissions.

This study is based on a hypothetical model that was created using the VISSIM software. VISSIM is a powerful simulation software designed to mimic the field traffic flow ...


Investigating The Effects Of Rainfall On Traffic Operations On Florida Freeways, Lucia Andrew Jan 2019

Investigating The Effects Of Rainfall On Traffic Operations On Florida Freeways, Lucia Andrew

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rainfall affects the performance of traffic operations and endangers safety. A common and conventional method (rain gauges) for rainfall measurements mostly provide precipitation records in hourly and 15-minute intervals. However, reliability, continuity, and wide area coverage pose challenges with this data collection method. There is also a greater likelihood for data misrepresentation in areas where short duration rainfall is predominant, i.e., reported values may not reflect the actual equivalent rainfall intensity during subintervals over the entire reporting period. With recent weather and climate patterns increasing in severity, there is a need for a more effective and reliable way of ...


Soil Improvement Using Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation And Surfactant Induced Soil Strengthening, Matthew P. Davies Jan 2018

Soil Improvement Using Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation And Surfactant Induced Soil Strengthening, Matthew P. Davies

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) has been used for a number of years as a technique for the improvement of various geological materials. MICP has been used in a limited capacity in organic rich soils with varying degrees of success. Investigators hypothesized that microbially-induced cementation could be improved in organic soils by using a surfactant. Varying amounts of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) were added to soils of varying organic content and a mixing procedure was used to treat these soils via MICP. Treated specimens were tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS). Results appeared to show direct relationships between SDS content ...


A Novel Design To Harness Water-Wave Energy, Abdallah El Safty, Abdallah Walid El Safty Jan 2018

A Novel Design To Harness Water-Wave Energy, Abdallah El Safty, Abdallah Walid El Safty

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Renewable energy sources are essential to our future, not only because they generally minimize harm to our environment but are also a relatively free source of energy that are available for generations to come. Wind and solar energy are proven sources of renewable energy, but both are highly variable. On the other hand, water wave energy is relatively persistent in locations around the world. Many researchers have tried to capture the energy of ocean waves, some were successful, but most were not. Harnessing wave energy is not a simple matter. One must design systems that can withstand the extreme forces ...


A Microscopic Simulation Study Of Applications Of Signal Phasing And Timing Information In A Connected Vehicle Environment, Gwamaka Lameck Njobelo Jan 2018

A Microscopic Simulation Study Of Applications Of Signal Phasing And Timing Information In A Connected Vehicle Environment, Gwamaka Lameck Njobelo

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The connected vehicle technology presents an innovative way of sharing information between vehicles and the transportation infrastructure through wireless communications. The technology can potentially solve safety, mobility, and environmental challenges that face the transportation sector. Signal phasing and timing information is one category of information that can be broadcasted through connected vehicle technology. This thesis presents an in-depth study of possible ways signal phasing and timing information can be beneficial as far as safety and mobility are concerned. In total, three studies describing this research are outlined.

The first study presented herein focuses on data collection and calibration efforts of ...


Development Of A One-Way Coupled Diffraction/Trapped Air Model For Predicting Wave Loading On Bridge Superstructure Under Water Wave Attack, Christian Hillary Matemu Jan 2018

Development Of A One-Way Coupled Diffraction/Trapped Air Model For Predicting Wave Loading On Bridge Superstructure Under Water Wave Attack, Christian Hillary Matemu

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, a number of researchers have applied various computational methods to study wind wave and tsunami forcing on bridge superstructure problems. Usually, these computational analyses rely upon application of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. While CFD models may provide reasonable results, their disadvantage is that they tend to be computationally expensive. During this study, an alternative computational method was explored in which a previously-developed diffraction model was combined with a previously-developed trapped air model under worst-case wave loading conditions (i.e. when the water surface was at the same elevation as the bottom bridge chord elevation). The governing ...


Investigation Of Near-Bottom Current Characteristics Along An Open-Ocean Coast, Nikole S. Ward Jan 2018

Investigation Of Near-Bottom Current Characteristics Along An Open-Ocean Coast, Nikole S. Ward

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Near-bottom current data was collected over a period of 8 years at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina. This data set consisted of currents measured up to three elevations above the bottom at deployment depths of 5 meters, 8 meters and 13 meters, as well as continuous real-time wind and wave data collected at the pier. The data was collated, quality checked and analyzed to define a climatology of near bottom currents along the study area using current moments. This data set had previously never been available for analysis due to the ...


The Role Of Wave Self-Similarity In Nearshore Wave Spectra, Morgan M. Smith Mr. Jan 2018

The Role Of Wave Self-Similarity In Nearshore Wave Spectra, Morgan M. Smith Mr.

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nonlinear wave-wave interactions and wave breaking contribute to nearshore wave energy dissipation. These factors can be analyzed by the principles of wave self-similarity. The equilibrium range can be shown in wind-driven wave spectra that exist in the form ( ) and However, the appropriate methods used to determine this loss of energy are controversial. This study examines an approach that reinvestigates the self-similarity principles. Wave spectra with lower peak periods are dominated by nonlinear wave-wave interactions which produce a scaling in shallow water. This thesis investigates the relative role of spectral similarity in different conditions in the nearshore region of the U ...


Evaluation Of Traffic Incident Timeline To Quantify The Performance Of Incident Management Strategies, Henrick Joseph Haule Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Traffic Incident Timeline To Quantify The Performance Of Incident Management Strategies, Henrick Joseph Haule

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Transportation agencies are introducing new strategies and techniques that will improve traffic incident management. Apart from other indicators, agencies measure the performance of the strategies by evaluating the incidents timeline. An effective strategy has to reduce the length of the incident timeline. An incident timeline comprises various stages in the incident management procedure, starting when the incident was detected, and ending when there is the recovery of normal traffic conditions. This thesis addresses three issues that are related to the traffic incident timeline and the incident management strategies.

First, co-location of responding agencies has not been investigated as other incident ...


Particle Filters For State Estimation Of Confined Aquifers, Graeme Field Jan 2018

Particle Filters For State Estimation Of Confined Aquifers, Graeme Field

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mathematical models are used in engineering and the sciences to estimate properties of systems of interest, increasing our understanding of the surrounding world and driving technological innovation. Unfortunately, as the systems of interest grow in complexity, so to do the models necessary to accurately describe them. Analytic solutions for problems with such models are provably intractable, motivating the use of approximate yet still accurate estimation techniques. Particle filtering methods have emerged as a popular tool in the presence of such models, spreading from its origins in signal processing to a diverse set of fields throughout engineering and the sciences including ...


Coupling Radio Frequency Energy Via The Embedded Rebar Cage In A Reinforced Concrete Structure For The Purpose Of Concrete Degradation Sensing, Ryan Campiz Jan 2018

Coupling Radio Frequency Energy Via The Embedded Rebar Cage In A Reinforced Concrete Structure For The Purpose Of Concrete Degradation Sensing, Ryan Campiz

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study focuses on utilizing an energy harvesting system in which a dedicated Radio Frequency (RF) power source transmits RF power via rebar in a reinforced concrete column. The RF power is received and decoupled by a receiver, and is then rectified, boosted, and stored as electrical energy in a supercapacitor, later to be used to make measurements, process data, and communicate to the source via rebar. Two design attempts are presented in this study: (a) one uses single line conduction at 2.4 GHz for RF power transfer; (b) the other uses a more conventional two-line conduction at 8 ...


Potential Replacement Of The Us Navy's Rapid Penetration Test With The Method Of Multichannel Analysis Of Surface Waves, William Fletcher Jan 2018

Potential Replacement Of The Us Navy's Rapid Penetration Test With The Method Of Multichannel Analysis Of Surface Waves, William Fletcher

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The United States Navy (USN) currently utilizes a Rapid Penetration Test (RPT) on both land and in water as the means to determine whether sufficient soil bearing capacity exists for piles in axial compression, prior to construction of the Elevated Causeway System (Modular) [ELCAS(M)] pile-supported pier system. The USN desires a replacement for the RPT because of issues with the method incorrectly classifying soils as well as the need to have a less labor-and-equipment-intensive method for geotechnical investigation.

The Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method is selected herein as the potential replacement for the RPT. The MASW method ...


Development Of Forward And Inversion Schemes For Cross-Borehole Ground Penetrating Radar, Donald Jones Jan 2018

Development Of Forward And Inversion Schemes For Cross-Borehole Ground Penetrating Radar, Donald Jones

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tomography is an imaging technique to develop a representation of the internal features of material using a penetrating wave, such as an electromagnetic wave. The calculation method used is an example of an inverse problem, which is a system where the input and the output are known but the internal parameters are not. These parameters can be estimated by understanding the responses of a penetrating wave as it passes through the unknown media. A forward problem is just the opposite; the internal structure and input penetrating wave is known and the output is determined. For both forward and inverse problems ...


Bayesian Approach On Quantifying The Safety Effects Of Pedestrian Countdown Signals To Drivers, Angela E. Kitali Jan 2017

Bayesian Approach On Quantifying The Safety Effects Of Pedestrian Countdown Signals To Drivers, Angela E. Kitali

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pedestrian countdown signals (PCSs) are viable traffic control devices that assist pedestrians in crossing intersections safely. Despite the fact that PCSs are meant for pedestrians, they also have an impact on drivers’ behavior at intersections. This study focuses on the evaluation of the safety effectiveness of PCSs to drivers in the cities of Jacksonville and Gainesville, Florida. The study employs two Bayesian approaches, before-and-after empirical Bayes (EB) and full Bayes (FB) with a comparison group, to quantify the safety impacts of PCSs to drivers. Specifically, crash modification factors (CMFs), which are estimated using the aforementioned two methods, were used to ...


Strength Property Variability In Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation Soils, Jacob Fuller Jan 2017

Strength Property Variability In Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation Soils, Jacob Fuller

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) is an attractive alternative for a variety geotechnical ground improvement practices commonly used today and has a variety of potential applications. This research focuses primarily on its use as a soil stabilization technique using the bacteria Sporosarcina Pasteurii and a single injection point percolation method adapted from previous research in granular soils. This method, and most published data, show an inherent variability in both physical and engineering properties due to the distribution of precipitated calcite within the specimen. The focus of this research is on the quantification of the variability in shear strength parameters induced ...


Enhancing The Existing Microscopic Simulation Modeling Practice For Express Lane Facilities, Kelvin S. Machumu Jan 2017

Enhancing The Existing Microscopic Simulation Modeling Practice For Express Lane Facilities, Kelvin S. Machumu

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The implementation of managed lanes (MLs), also known as dynamically priced express lanes, to improve freeway traffic flow and personal throughput is on the rise. Congestion pricing is increasingly becoming a common strategy for congestion management, often requiring microscopic simulation during both planning and operational stages. VISSIM is a recognized microscopic simulation software used for analyzing the performance of managed lanes (MLs). This thesis addressed two important microscopic simulation issues that affect the evaluation results of MLs.

One of the microscopic simulation issues that has not yet been addressed by previous studies is the required minimum managed lane routing decision ...


Safety Implications Of Transit Operator Schedule Policies, Hung Hoang Jan 2016

Safety Implications Of Transit Operator Schedule Policies, Hung Hoang

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the bus transit community, driving long hours or spending extra hours at work are very common. This is true in the State of Florida, where bus transit is a very popular mode of public transportation. Although the correlation between a bus driver’s schedule and a crash event appears intuitive, further study regarding the effects of operator driving schedules on accident rates is needed to evaluate safety measures. The focus of this research is on the examination of bus driver schedules, and the effects of scheduling on accident rates in Florida. Data were collected at five bus transit agencies ...


Modeling Older Driver Behavior On Freeway Merging Ramps, Lina Lwambagaza Jan 2016

Modeling Older Driver Behavior On Freeway Merging Ramps, Lina Lwambagaza

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Merging from on-ramps to mainline traffic is one of the most challenging driving maneuvers on freeways. The challenges are further heightened for older drivers, as they are known to have longer perception-reaction times, larger acceptance gaps, and slower acceleration rates. In this research, VISSIM, a microscopic traffic simulation software, was used to evaluate the influence of the aging drivers on the operations of a typical diamond interchange. First, drivers were recorded on video cameras as they negotiated joining the mainline traffic from an on-ramp acceleration lane at two sites along I-75 in Southwest Florida. Several measures of effectiveness were collected ...


Analysis Of A Long-Term Record Of Nearshore Currents And Implications In Littoral Transport Processes, Carolina Burnette Jan 2016

Analysis Of A Long-Term Record Of Nearshore Currents And Implications In Littoral Transport Processes, Carolina Burnette

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A seasonal and long-term analysis of the vertical structure of currents in the nearshore is conducted to determine the role of the wind in driving currents and consequently affecting littoral transport processes. Approximately ten years (January, 2002 – October, 2011) of nearshore current profiles are examined using the data collected with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) installed off of Spessard Holland North Beach Park located in Melbourne Beach, Florida. Additionally, wind data collected with a directional anemometer from September, 2002, until October, 2008, are used to further characterize the long-term hydrodynamic forcing. With the shoreline oriented nominally 17o west ...


Bottom Friction Assessment For Hydrodynamic Currents In The Lower St. Johns River, Henok Kefelegn Demissie Jan 2015

Bottom Friction Assessment For Hydrodynamic Currents In The Lower St. Johns River, Henok Kefelegn Demissie

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A preexisting version of the 2D finite-element hydrodynamic model (code) ADCIRC was modified to enable assimilation of velocity data for calculation of longwave hydrodynamics of the lower St. Johns River. The data assimilation also enables model calibration and parameter estimation of directionally variant Manning’s n value using an anisotropic formulation of bottom roughness. This modified version of the ADCIRC code differs from the original ADCIRC model, as it introduces a module to provide evaluation of directional Manning’s roughness coefficient using observed velocity data for ebb and flood flow durations. The vector-based directional Manning’s n value is found ...


The Simulation & Evaluation Of Surge Hazard Using A Response Surface Method In The New York Bight, Michael H. Bredesen Jan 2015

The Simulation & Evaluation Of Surge Hazard Using A Response Surface Method In The New York Bight, Michael H. Bredesen

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Atmospheric features, such as tropical cyclones, act as a driving mechanism for many of the major hazards affecting coastal areas around the world. Accurate and efficient quantification of tropical cyclone surge hazard is essential to the development of resilient coastal communities, particularly given continued sea level trend concerns. Recent major tropical cyclones that have impacted the northeastern portion of the United States have resulted in devastating flooding in New York City, the most densely populated city in the US. As a part of national effort to re-evaluate coastal inundation hazards, the Federal Emergency Management Agency used the Joint Probability Method ...


Numerical Modeling And Analysis Of Tidal Variance And Marsh Productivity In The Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve, Florida, Amanda S. Tritinger Jan 2015

Numerical Modeling And Analysis Of Tidal Variance And Marsh Productivity In The Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve, Florida, Amanda S. Tritinger

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Long term sustainability in salt marsh and mangroves is dependent on dominant species, such as Spartina alterniflora, to capture organic and inorganic sediment. The research analyzes that sustainability. This work demonstrates the prediction of hydrodynamics and biomass density of salt marsh to provide useful information for the planning and mitigation of sea-level rise impacts on marsh sustainability in the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve (GTMNERR), Florida. An advanced circulation code was applied to simulate hydrodynamics (i.e., shallow water equations) in the GTMNERR. The model used a set of parameters and conditions based on the GTMNERR domain to ...


Comparison Of Hydrologic Model Performance Statistics Using Thiessen Polygon Rain Gauge And Nexrad Precipitation Input Methods At Different Watershed Spatial Scales And Rainfall Return Frequencies, Amanda E. Tancreto Jan 2015

Comparison Of Hydrologic Model Performance Statistics Using Thiessen Polygon Rain Gauge And Nexrad Precipitation Input Methods At Different Watershed Spatial Scales And Rainfall Return Frequencies, Amanda E. Tancreto

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As hydrological computer modeling software continues to increase in complexity, the need for further understanding of the value of different model input datasets becomes apparent. Frequently used precipitation model input include rain gauge data and next-generation radar–based (NEXRAD) rainfall data. Rain gauge data are usually interpolated across a model domain using various methods including the Thiessen Polygon methodology, which may be data-sparse in some areas and overly data-dense in others. However, rain gauge data are generally very easy to use in hydrologic model development, often requiring little to no data processing. NEXRAD data have the potential to improve hydrologic ...


Effect Of Lateral Stiffness On Bridge Deck Performance, Andrea Del Pilar Toro Jan 2015

Effect Of Lateral Stiffness On Bridge Deck Performance, Andrea Del Pilar Toro

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The use of the empirical deck design method has increased its acceptance due to the economic advantages that it presents when compared to its counterpart, the traditional method. This can be attributed to the fact that the empirical method provides an appropriate design where the deck withstands stress not only due to the steel reinforcement but to an implicit arching membrane stress set-up as an effect of the lateral restraint surrounding the deck slab known as Compressive Membrane Action (CMA).

It has been proved through research that most design codes underestimate the strength of laterally restrained slabs. However, there is ...


Evaluation Of The Empirical Deck Design For Vehicular Bridges, Georges El-Gharib Jan 2014

Evaluation Of The Empirical Deck Design For Vehicular Bridges, Georges El-Gharib

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research evaluated the feasibility of the empirical design method for reinforced concrete bridge decks for the Florida Department of Transportation [FDOT]. There are currently three methods used for deck design: empirical method, traditional method and finite element method. This research investigated and compared the steel reinforcement ratios and the stress developed in the reinforcing steel for the three different methods of deck design. This study included analysis of 15 bridge models that met the FDOT standards. The main beams were designed and load rated using commercial software to obtain live load deflections. The bridges were checked to verify that ...


Factors Affecting Storm Characteristics In The Battery And Vicinity, Shannon A. Kay Jan 2014

Factors Affecting Storm Characteristics In The Battery And Vicinity, Shannon A. Kay

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Tropical cyclones (TCs) Irene and Sandy caused major damages in back to back years to the most densely populated city in the United States stunning the residents with storms linked to seemingly impossible probabilities. Such activity has raised questions about the effect of non-stationary aspects within atmospheric circulation on storm behavior and some assumptions inherent in previous hazard studies of the New York City (NYC) area. This study analyzes statistical aspects of hazard quantification for this area related to this non-stationarity and statistical characterization. In particular this study investigates the presence of multiple populations of storms, it also tests current ...


The Effects Of Rain On Traffic Safety And Operations On Florida Freeways, Michelle L. Angel Jan 2014

The Effects Of Rain On Traffic Safety And Operations On Florida Freeways, Michelle L. Angel

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although the association between weather and traffic variables or crash events appear intuitive to motorists, quantifying the effects that weather, especially rain, has on driver response in travel speeds, traffic demands, and susceptibility of accident occurrence is needed to evaluate practical aspects of traffic operations and safety measures. Previous studies have researched driver responses to inclement weather on roadways located primarily in northern and western regions of the United States (U.S.), Canada, and Europe. However, driver familiarity to local weather conditions is a factor that should be considered in determining inclement weather effects on traffic variables and crash occurrence ...


Shear Strength Parameters Of Sand Fly Ash Cement Mixtures, Oksana Nikolayevna Spears Jan 2014

Shear Strength Parameters Of Sand Fly Ash Cement Mixtures, Oksana Nikolayevna Spears

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

According to a 2012 American Coal Ash Association Coal production Survey Report, US coal fired power plants produced more than 109 million tons of waste that year. Approximately half of this waste is the valuable by-product fly ash. There are three classes of fly ash: cementitious class C and non-cementitious classes F and N. Over half of the fly ash produced is used in the geotechnical/construction industries. Most geotechnical soil stabilization studies using fly ash are focused on controlling shrink-swell potential of clays. This study utilized the less desirable class F fly ash to assess the improvement of shear ...


Examining Optimal Form Of Two Scale Approximation (Tsa) For Calculating Snl Source Term, Dorukhan Ardag Jan 2014

Examining Optimal Form Of Two Scale Approximation (Tsa) For Calculating Snl Source Term, Dorukhan Ardag

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nonlinear four-wave interactions (Snl) are critical for acquiring realistic spectra needed by operational wave models. High computational demand to calculate these interactions led to an approximation method named the Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA) to be used broadly in the major operational wave models for a long time. However, the accuracy of the DIA has been controversial since it was first introduced and more precise approximations such as the Two Scale Approximation (TSA in short) are now available. The only issue with the initial TSA`s efficiency is performing an order of a magnitude slower than the DIA in speed ...