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Hvac System Energy Audit For Leverett Elementary School, Connor Smalling Dec 2019

Hvac System Energy Audit For Leverett Elementary School, Connor Smalling

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Leverett Elementary School is located in Fayetteville, AR. The school needs significant upgrades to its infrastructure. The Fayetteville Public School District has voted to pursue an Energy Services Performance Contract (ESPC) in order to finance the desired upgrades to Leverett Elementary, among other schools in the district.

The scope of this thesis was to perform an energy audit on the existing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. By using an energy modeling software, eQuest, the building and the existing base system were modeled to determine utility consumption. Three different HVAC system alternatives were analyzed against the base system by ...


Swarm Behavior To Mitigate Rebound In Air Conditioning Demand Response Events, Jason Yasuto Kuwada Aug 2019

Swarm Behavior To Mitigate Rebound In Air Conditioning Demand Response Events, Jason Yasuto Kuwada

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) have shown great potential for Demand Response (DR) events. However, it has been commonly seen that DR events using TCLs may cause demand rebound, especially in homogeneous populations. To further explore the potential for DR events, as well as the negative effects, a stability and resilience analysis were performed on multiple populations and verified with agent based modeling simulations.

At the core of this study is an added thermostat criterion created from the combination of a proportional gain and the average compressor operating state of neighboring TCLs. Where DR events in TCLs are commonly controlled by ...


Isentropic Efficiency And Theoretical Analysis Of The Planetary Rotor Expander, Joseph L. James Aug 2019

Isentropic Efficiency And Theoretical Analysis Of The Planetary Rotor Expander, Joseph L. James

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Expanders allow pressurized fluids to undergo a pressure decrease in a controlled environment via volumetric growth to extract fluid energy. There are many types of expanders, and the objective of this thesis is to model the efficiencies of the planetary rotor expander (PRE), a century-old design undeveloped due to insufficient manufacturing capabilities (until recently). Geometric relationships are derived and mathematical models are generated to determine the efficiency of the PRE as a function of design variables. Two industrially relevant case studies show that, to maximize isentropic efficiency, the planetary rotor expander (PRE) rotational frequency is maximized and rotor geometry optimized.


Energy Monitoring And Management System, Trieu Luu May 2019

Energy Monitoring And Management System, Trieu Luu

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

The purpose of this document is to provide detailed information regarding the inner workings and functionality of the EMMS meter. Along with referenced documentation, the Theory of Operation should, in theory, allow the reader to understand all finalized aspects of the EMMS meter design. To begin, an overview of the meter will be described, then this document will identify major sections of the project, each including design specifications and a top-down overview of the design.


Numerical Investigation Of Coalescence-Induced Self-Propelled Behavior Of Droplets On Non-Wetting Surfaces And Wedged Surfaces., Yan Chen May 2019

Numerical Investigation Of Coalescence-Induced Self-Propelled Behavior Of Droplets On Non-Wetting Surfaces And Wedged Surfaces., Yan Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

When small drops coalesce on a superhydrophobic surface, the merged drop can jump away from the surface due to the surface energy released during the coalescence. This self-propelled behavior has been observed on various superhydrophobic surfaces and has potential applications in areas related to the heat and mass transfer, such as heat exchangers, anti-icing and anti-frost devices, thermal management and water harvesting. The jumping velocity model was obtained based on published experimental data and the balance of various energy terms described in previous studies. However, the self-propelled mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, the self-propelled droplet phenomenon ...


Microgrid Renewable Energy Integration, Do Quang Thanh Vo Mar 2019

Microgrid Renewable Energy Integration, Do Quang Thanh Vo

Electrical Engineering

The Microgrid is a small-scale electrical system that is designed to give Cal Poly students hands-on experience on power generation, system protection, distribution, and automation that would otherwise be very difficult to experiment in a large-scale model.

To closely replicate the modern electrical grid, a renewable energy source shall be added to the Microgrid in conjunction with the existing synchronous generators. Electrical engineering student, Virginia Yan initiated this effort, namely Grid-Tied Solar System project [1], by designing and constructing a set of solar panels and microinverter for future connection to the Microgrid. The scope of Virginia’s project was, however ...


Dual Axis Solar Tracker: Trends, Influence & Impact, Alazone Smith Jan 2019

Dual Axis Solar Tracker: Trends, Influence & Impact, Alazone Smith

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This supplementary document examines the international relevance and impact of the device in the Central Washington University, M.E.T. Senior Project entitled, “Dual-Axis Solar Tracker”. This is done so by analyzing the data collected from the device, as well as related trends in society, and establishing connections between the device’s viability and its impact within the society. Climate change, the solar industry, technology, policy, and market are the main topics of research within this document to provide background and context for the methods of analysis. Following intensive research, two major research strategies were implemented: (1) the data collected ...


Sustainable Travel Incentives Optimization In Multimodal Networks, Hossein Ghafourian Jan 2019

Sustainable Travel Incentives Optimization In Multimodal Networks, Hossein Ghafourian

Masters Theses

Tripod, an integrated bi-level transportation management system, is a smartphone application from the potential user’s point of view which would be instantly accessed prior to performing the trip. Since there are constantly several alternatives for any trip, Tripod considers a series and combination of various parameters, including departure time, mode and route, and rewards for each alternative with a number of redeemable points for goods and services called “Tokens”. The framework responsible for computing the optimized number of tokens awarded to the set of available alternatives in order to minimize the system-wide energy consumption under a constrained Token budget ...


Analyzing Energy Savings In An Fpga Video Processing System Using Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration, Robert Cole Wernsman Jan 2019

Analyzing Energy Savings In An Fpga Video Processing System Using Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration, Robert Cole Wernsman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR) can be a useful tool for maximizing FPGA performance while minimizing power consumption and FPGA size requirements. This work explores the application of the DPR technique in a computer vision application that implements two different edge detection algorithms (FASTX and Sobel). This technique could allow for a similar computer vision system to be realized on a smaller, low-power chipset. Different algorithms can have unique characteristics that yield better performance in certain scenarios; the best algorithm for the current scenario may change during runtime. However, implementing all available algorithms in hardware increases the space and power requirements ...


Software-Defined Infrastructure For Iot-Based Energy Systems, Stephen Lee Jan 2019

Software-Defined Infrastructure For Iot-Based Energy Systems, Stephen Lee

Doctoral Dissertations

Internet of Things (IoT) devices are becoming an essential part of our everyday lives. These physical devices are connected to the internet and can measure or control the environment around us. Further, IoT devices are increasingly being used to monitor buildings, farms, health, and transportation. As these connected devices become more pervasive, these devices will generate vast amounts of data that can be used to gain insights and build intelligence into the system. At the same time, large-scale deployment of these devices will raise new challenges in efficiently managing and controlling them.

In this thesis, I argue that the IoT ...


Solar Parking Lot Analysis: Smart Investment Or Waste Of Capital, Jared J. Davis Dec 2018

Solar Parking Lot Analysis: Smart Investment Or Waste Of Capital, Jared J. Davis

Construction Management

In the last couple decades solar panels have been developed into a sustainable and effective method for harnessing clean energy. Today, solar panels have been engineered into solar roadways. Solar roadways are structurally engineered solar panels which can be installed in the Earth, driven on, and can replace the need for traditional asphalt roads. These solar roadways also include built in LEDs which mimic road lines and light up wildlife crossing the road, making these road panels a very safe alternative to traditional asphalt roads. This senior project is an analysis of solar roadways and their capabilities when applied to ...


Design Of Wind Turbine Tower Height And Blade Length: An Optimization Approach, Ryan Wass Sep 2018

Design Of Wind Turbine Tower Height And Blade Length: An Optimization Approach, Ryan Wass

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The wind industry is a fast growing market and is quickly becoming competitive with traditional non-renewable energy resources. As with any developing industry, research must continually be redefined as more complex understandings of design variables are learned. Optimization studies are common ways to quickly refine design variable selections. Historical wind turbine data shows that the tower hub height to rotor diameter ratio scales almost linearly. However there is no specific rule that dictates the optimum hub height for a given diameter. This study addresses this question by using an Excel based optimization program to determine the height to diameter ratio ...


Applications Of Latent Heat Storage Using Phase Change Materials, Daniel Giroux Jun 2018

Applications Of Latent Heat Storage Using Phase Change Materials, Daniel Giroux

Honors Theses

Thermal Storage Systems are gaining more attention in recent years with the increased emphasis on more renewable energy sources. Energy storage is necessary whenever there is greater amounts of energy being produced than is required. Various improvements to the conventional heat storage system can be made by integrating latent heat storage into the conventional heat storage system. Latent heat storage can be utilized for thermal storage applications by using phase change materials, materials that will undergo a change in their physical state in the temperature range desired for heat storage.

Analysis was conducted on four different waxes considering the waxes ...


Morphological And Energy Transport Optimization Of Spectrally-Selective Solar Absorber Coatings At Mesoscale, Dale Karas May 2018

Morphological And Energy Transport Optimization Of Spectrally-Selective Solar Absorber Coatings At Mesoscale, Dale Karas

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

A special class of cuprous-based inorganic oxide materials, synthesized as nanoparticles via hydrothermal and co-precipitation methods, are portable to spectrally-selective absorber coatings with high solar-thermal energy conversion efficiency. Operating reliably at elevated temperatures when used in tandem with solar concentrators, these materials enable cost-competitive solar energy conversion technology that can be incorporated with thermal energy storage systems, supporting the viability of novel renewable power generation; notably, optimizing absorptive performance while mitigating thermal losses through re-radiated waste heat motivates sustainable energy production particular to desert climates, where water conservation and ecological sensitivity needs are paramount.

This work targets the chemical synthesis ...


Resiliency Vs Reality, Ainsley E. Henderson May 2018

Resiliency Vs Reality, Ainsley E. Henderson

Construction Management

This study analyzes the resilient design and construction features desired by Great Northern Services (GNS) for the design and construction of a new housing division in the City of Weed, California. This was compared to what the Cal Poly interdisciplinary student design teams were able to offer, by providing different design options. The study begins by showcasing the Boles fire and the connections that Cal Poly had made to support the City of Weed. The support was made through design and collaboration with Great Northern Services to create affordable housing. The study then discusses the needs that GNS wanted to ...


Lithium And The Foreseeable Future, Paolo Vargas May 2018

Lithium And The Foreseeable Future, Paolo Vargas

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper aims to clarify the uncertainties regarding worldwide lithium resource availability in the years to come. Previous studies made on the subject are presented with some ambiguity and this work intends to fill the gaps. The information and data presented throughout this script with respect to global lithium resources and reserves are mostly based on data released by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Lithium resource availability in the future is a point of paramount significance primarily for the automotive, portable electronics, and the power generation industry. Since, a change of supply would ultimately affect the price of lithium ...


Thermoelectrics And Thermoelectric Devices, Benjamin T. Erck May 2018

Thermoelectrics And Thermoelectric Devices, Benjamin T. Erck

Senior Theses

The field of thermoelectrics has many applications, and more are found in everyday systems. From its current studies, it is apparent that improving the figure of merit zT (which defines a good thermoelectric material) is important in the effectiveness of power generation. Another important part of thermoelectrics is the duality of these devices. They can both move heat and generate power, depending on their role in the system. In this thesis research, a process was made to test these thermoelectric relationships for a few Peltier devices in order to understand their efficiencies and what systems they can be applied to.


Theory Of Operation: The Energy Monitoring And Management System, Joshua Conrady, Matthew Diers, Mike Gray, Trieu Luu, Justin Martin, David Nicolais, Nathan Ressler, Joseph Wambach, David Williams May 2018

Theory Of Operation: The Energy Monitoring And Management System, Joshua Conrady, Matthew Diers, Mike Gray, Trieu Luu, Justin Martin, David Nicolais, Nathan Ressler, Joseph Wambach, David Williams

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

There exists a problem in places where power is provided by a limited source, such as solar energy. There is no way to regulate the power consumption of its users. With no regulation, users can use an excess amount of power from the energy grid causing a depletion, or power outage, for the rest of those connected to the grid. The goal of this project is to design and implement a reliable, manufacturable, and expandable system to measure, display, and limit energy usage of a home or other facility. We are in Phase 4 of our project meaning there is ...


Simulation Of The Inertia Friction Welding Process Using A Subscale Specimen And A Friction Stir Welder, Ty Samual Dansie Apr 2018

Simulation Of The Inertia Friction Welding Process Using A Subscale Specimen And A Friction Stir Welder, Ty Samual Dansie

Theses and Dissertations

This study develops a method to simulate a full-scale inertia friction weld with a sub-scale specimen and modifies a direct drive friction stir welder to perform the welding process. A torque meter is fabricated for the FSW machine to measure weld torque. Machine controls are modified to enable a force control during the IFW process. An equation is created to measure weld upset due to deflection of the FSW machine. Data obtained from a full-scale inertia friction weld are altered to account for the geometrical differences between the sub-scale and full-scale specimens. The IFW are simulated with the sub-scale specimen ...


Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon Scaffolds For Hydrogen Storage Applications, Christopher Carr Mar 2018

Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon Scaffolds For Hydrogen Storage Applications, Christopher Carr

Dissertations

Recent efforts have demonstrated confinement in porous scaffolds at the nanoscale can alter the hydrogen sorption properties of metal hydrides, though not to an extent feasible for use in onboard hydrogen storage applications, proposing the need for a method allowing further modifications. The work presented here explores how the functionalization of nanoporous carbon scaffold surfaces with heteroatoms can modify the hydrogen sorption properties of confined metal hydrides in relation to non-functionalized scaffolds (FS). Investigations of nanoconfined LiBH4and NaAlH4indicate functionalizing the carbon scaffold surface with nitrogen can shift the activation energy of hydrogen desorption in excess of ...


Modeling Of Fiber Microbuckling In Soft Composites Under Bending, Savina Brachthauser Balcells Jan 2018

Modeling Of Fiber Microbuckling In Soft Composites Under Bending, Savina Brachthauser Balcells

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Soft ber reinforced composites are very suitable materials for space deployable structures.

These materials are characterized by a very compliant matrix that allows the bers

to highly deform so microbuckling under bending can appear without failure. This mechanism

acts as a stress-reliever, so the material can be folded to very high curvatures without

damage. However, the existing models are not able to accurately capture the mechanical

behavior of these materials.

A new micromechanical model is proposed for this materials under bending. The

model considers both the pre and post buckling regimes using a large strain formulation.

The strain energy is ...


An Examination Of Ash Elutriation From A Fluidized Bed Regenerator, Dane Erickson Jan 2018

An Examination Of Ash Elutriation From A Fluidized Bed Regenerator, Dane Erickson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The danger of climate change looms in the minds of researchers across the world. To combat this threat, many have focused efforts on the development of clean energy. In this study, the renewable resource that is investigated is biomass, specifically red oak. Energy can be extracted from biomass by fast pyrolysis, where the feedstock is rapidly heated within a reactor to approximately 500℃ in the absence of oxygen. This produces biochar, ash, and condensable gases that, once cooled, become a bio-oil. To optimize economic feasibility, the process must operate continuously. This presents a problem—the presence of ash as a ...


Hybrid Water Pump, Dylan W. Grant, Wei Chen Yeh Jun 2017

Hybrid Water Pump, Dylan W. Grant, Wei Chen Yeh

Electrical Engineering

This project seeks to use multiple sources to power a water pump. We will design a system which will combine inputs from solar and wind energy production to ensure the pump will have enough power to run. This will create a system powered by clean energy and will be self-sustained once completed. This will theoretically create a more sustainable source of power for the pump than only one of the sources. Because the power sources don’t require outside inputs (aside from sun and wind), the pump can be placed in a remote area. This could be very helpful in ...


Dc House Energy Management System, Zachary L. Eldredge, Zoe M. Hay Jun 2017

Dc House Energy Management System, Zachary L. Eldredge, Zoe M. Hay

Electrical Engineering

In this work, a previously completed proof of concept for an Energy Management System (EMS) for the DC House project has been revised and re-implemented. The implemented design changes will improve the performance and reproducibility of the system. This new design of the EMS replaces the two-separate buck and boost DC-DC converters with a single bidirectional DC-DC converter to reduce components and improve efficiency. Analysis of the bidirectional DC-DC converter shows high efficiency especially at larger load currents. The code of the previous work was updated for smoother operation as well as to accommodate an LCD capable of displaying more ...


Automatic Standby Power-Saving Power Strip, Trung Nguyen Jun 2017

Automatic Standby Power-Saving Power Strip, Trung Nguyen

Electrical Engineering

The Standby Power Saving Power Strip improves on common power strip functionality. The project reduces the power loss from most electrical devices’ standby power mode, while retaining the convenience of leaving the devices plugged-in. The surge protector automatically recognizes when the plugged-in devices enter standby power mode. Then, it shuts off power to that device and automatically provides power back to the plugged-in devices, when turned on.


A Bug’S Life: Integration Of Anaerobic Digestion And Bioelectrochemical Systems For Enhanced Energy Recovery From Wastewater Solids And Other Waste Substrates, Jeff Ryan Beegle May 2017

A Bug’S Life: Integration Of Anaerobic Digestion And Bioelectrochemical Systems For Enhanced Energy Recovery From Wastewater Solids And Other Waste Substrates, Jeff Ryan Beegle

Masters Theses

Organic waste streams, like domestic wastewater and municipal solid waste, have the potential to be used as feedstocks for biotechnology processes to produce high value products and energy. This thesis investigated the technological, economical, and environmental potential for integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and bioelectrochemical system (BES) platforms as they were theoretically and physically evaluated for energy recovery from domestic wastewater. The first chapter of this thesis compared the theoretical energy efficiencies of converting waste directly into electricity, using AD and BES alone and in various combinations. This chapter reviewed the experimentally demonstrated energy efficiencies reported in the literature with comparisons ...


Electricity And Fuel Consumption In A Lean Energy Supply Chain, Mostafa Ghafoorivarzaneh May 2017

Electricity And Fuel Consumption In A Lean Energy Supply Chain, Mostafa Ghafoorivarzaneh

Doctoral Dissertations

Human activities are the main sources of environmental pollution. Awareness about this fact, motivated us to make changes in different paradigms of our lives including industrial or personal activities. Environmental activities assumed to have conflict with financial objectives, in this study we try to align business requirements with environmental concerns.

Among all human activities, generating energy has the most negative impact on the environment. The major part of the generated energy will be consumed in transportation and industrial demand which makes them the most effective targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. In a lean environment, small batch sizes ...


Towards A Cost-Effective Biorefinery : Production Of Activated Carbons From Residual Biomass For Energy Storage Devices., Zachary Dean Herde Apr 2017

Towards A Cost-Effective Biorefinery : Production Of Activated Carbons From Residual Biomass For Energy Storage Devices., Zachary Dean Herde

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomass processing for industrial products and biofuels has gained an increasing presence as society looks to using sustainable resources for manufacturing and renewable fuels for energy. However, these sustainably produced materials and products cannot gain a competitive edge because of the manufacturing expenses that are a result of high process temperatures and pressures. In order to lower these costs, theoretical modeling has described a value-added co-product strategy as one of the best ways to combat high bioprocessing prices. Biomass has been shown to make effective carbons for energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and batteries. These carbons, with the right ...


A Study Of Iron-Nitrogen-Carbon Fuel Cell Catalysts: Chemistry – Nanostructure – Performance, Michael J. Workman Mar 2017

A Study Of Iron-Nitrogen-Carbon Fuel Cell Catalysts: Chemistry – Nanostructure – Performance, Michael J. Workman

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Fuel cells have the potential to be a pollution-free, low-cost, and energy efficient alternative to the internal combustion engine for transportation and small-scale stationary power applications. The current state of fuel cell technology has already achieved two of these three lofty goals. The remaining barrier to wide-scale deployment is the high cost, which is primarily caused by dependence on large amounts of platinum to catalyze the energy conversion reactions. To overcome this barrier and facilitate the integration of fuel cells into mainstream applications, research into a new class of catalyst materials that do not require platinum is needed.

There has ...


Automatic Power Management For Instructional Computers At Humboldt State University: A Calculation Of Potential Energy Savings And Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions, Nicholas F. Flenghi Jan 2017

Automatic Power Management For Instructional Computers At Humboldt State University: A Calculation Of Potential Energy Savings And Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions, Nicholas F. Flenghi

Projects

Computers consume an estimated 5,610 GWh per year in California alone. Much of that energy is consumed by computers that are not being used. In this project, detailed user login data are used to estimate the energy consumption of instructional computers at Humboldt State University (HSU) over the course of one semester. The data are also used to estimate the potential energy savings from automating the shutdown process. Potential cost savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions resulting from implementing an automatic-shutdown power management plan are also calculated.

There are approximately 1,000 computers used for teaching and learning ...