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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Smart Thermostat, Matt Allen, Sam Billett, Kevin Read Jun 2015

Smart Thermostat, Matt Allen, Sam Billett, Kevin Read

Electrical Engineering Senior Theses

The current thermostat marketplace is dominated by programmable thermostats that are engineered to give the user as much control as possible. However, not all users program these thermostats optimally. Some prefer comfort over energy efficiency and will heat an empty house. Others do not care to program their thermostat and leave it at a set temperature. The Smart Thermostat that we have created is engineered to optimize the temperature for the user, using the common sense of the engineer to lower energy consumption. It uses a Raspberry Pi as a platform to implement a fuzzy logic control System. By removing ...


Pilot-1: Autonomous Fixed-Wing Aircraft Control System, Chris Millsap, Nathan Garvey, Faisal Hayat Jun 2015

Pilot-1: Autonomous Fixed-Wing Aircraft Control System, Chris Millsap, Nathan Garvey, Faisal Hayat

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

In the past decade, the personal ownership of unmanned aerial vehicles has exploded in the US and around the world. The rapidly declining size and cost of integrated circuits, sensors and embedded micro-controllers has lead to a flourishing community of hobbyists designing flight controllers with levels of sophistication approaching those for government and military applications. The typical flight assisted controllers integrate data from the user's control system and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) in order to keep the craft level and on course. Deriving mostly from the radio controlled (RC) hobby industry, the flight control technologies for both rotary ...


Rsl Autonomous Rover, Cris Madrigal, Jiachi Zhang, Nicholas Peacock, Brogan O'Hara Jun 2015

Rsl Autonomous Rover, Cris Madrigal, Jiachi Zhang, Nicholas Peacock, Brogan O'Hara

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

Autonomous vehicles are useful for a variety of applications such as military, urban, and agricultural environments. This paper discusses adding an autonomous navigation system to an all-terrain vehicle by implementing controllers that interface with its current system, installing sensors on the vehicle for obstacle detection, and developing effective safety mechanisms to prevent injury to others. The result is a vehicle capable of waypoint navigation and obstacle avoidance. Testing the vehicle showed that the LIDAR and the autonomous navigation system were integrated seamlessly, and that the sensor output signals were successfully translated into vehicle commands the existing system uses. This system ...


Might-E Wheel, Abigail Grills, Daniel Doke, Jared O'Rourke, Zach Jesberger Jun 2015

Might-E Wheel, Abigail Grills, Daniel Doke, Jared O'Rourke, Zach Jesberger

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

Electric bikes are proving to be an increasingly reliable source of transportation, but with large price tags and existing conversion kits proving too complicated and unapproachable for the average user, commuters are failing to consider electric bicycles as an option. A prototype of a wireless, rear-wheel replacement to convert a bicycle from manual to full-power electric was built. This motorized wheel is called Might-E Wheel. Might-E Wheel was designed as the most approachable and user-friendly way to convert a bicycle from manual to full-power electric. Might-E Wheel was able to achieve a top speed of 27.5 km/h, a ...


Mobile Music: A Musical Therapy Assistance Device, Alex Hildebrand, Tanner Malkoff Jun 2015

Mobile Music: A Musical Therapy Assistance Device, Alex Hildebrand, Tanner Malkoff

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

Children suffering from Cerebral Palsy often undergo gait therapy in order to strengthen and coordinate their trunks and legs. The patients often feel unmotivated to perform their gait training because the physical movements associated with it are difficult and there is no immediate reward. Physical therapists (PT) will often play music as an incentive to get the children focused on their physical therapy, but this is inefficient and impedes the PT from analyzing and tuning the patients' gait. Mobile Music is a small device designed for automating musical therapy during gait training. In this paper, we go through several design ...


Dynamic Capacitor Bank, J. Daniel Mendoza, Peter Roguski Jun 2015

Dynamic Capacitor Bank, J. Daniel Mendoza, Peter Roguski

Electrical Engineering Senior Theses

Low power factor systems run inefficiently and cause power companies to lose thousands of dollars with wasted power. Correction systems currently implement static capacitor solutions to offset this power factor; however, companies where the power factor varies significantly need a better solution. In this paper, we discuss a reactive power factor correction system that could greatly benefit companies with this problem. The system is in its prototype state, which comprises of a capacitor bank, sensing circuit, a switching circuit and a microprocessor; we named it the Dynamic Capacitor Bank. During our project, we were able to get a sensing circuit ...


Uavino, Matthew Belesiu, Aaron Chung, Kirby Linvill, Nathan Carlson, Phillip Coyle, Megan Peekema Jun 2015

Uavino, Matthew Belesiu, Aaron Chung, Kirby Linvill, Nathan Carlson, Phillip Coyle, Megan Peekema

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

UAVino is a drone solution that uses aerial imagery to determine the overall plant health and water content of vineyards. In general, the system focuses on automating crop inspection by taking aerial imagery of a vineyard, conducting post-processing, and outputting an easily interpreted map of the vineyard's overall health. The project's key innovation is an auto-docking system that allows the drone to automatically return to its launch point and recharge in order to extend mission duration. Long term, UAVino is envisioned as a multi-year, interdisciplinary project involving both the Santa Clara University Robotics Systems Laboratory and local wineries ...


Aquasift: Point-Of-Use Microfluidic Detection System, Daniel Beyers, Jasper Tan, Brandon Young Jun 2015

Aquasift: Point-Of-Use Microfluidic Detection System, Daniel Beyers, Jasper Tan, Brandon Young

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

AquaSift is a portable, affordable, point-of-use system that performs microfluidic detection of contaminants in drinking water. It comprises four main components: a three-electrode sensor, a potentiostat circuit device, an Android application, and an online database. It utilizes three-electrode voltammetry by applying a voltage stimulus across the electrodes and reading the induced current on the water sample. Testing has shown that our system is able to detect arsenic in solution samples. The Android application serves as the user interface to the system, and the online database allows the mapping of test results on an easy-to-use website.


Thin Film Based Biocompatible Sensors For Physiological Monitoring, Yihao Zhu May 2015

Thin Film Based Biocompatible Sensors For Physiological Monitoring, Yihao Zhu

Theses and Dissertations

The development and evolution of physiological sensors, from wearable to implantable, has enabled long term continuous physiological monitoring, making possible for the out-of-clinic treatment and management of many chronic illnesses, mental health issues and post-surgery recovery. This technology advance is gradually changing the definition of health care and the way it is delivered, from clinic/emergency room to patient’s own environment. In this dissertation, three general types of sensors have been proposed for physiological monitoring of blood pressure, oxygen content and electrolyte ion concentration level in human body, respectively. The study proved the device concepts and shows promising results ...


Study Of Electronic Characteristics Of Heterojunction With Intrinsic Thin-Layer Devices And Defect Density Profile Of Nanocrystalline Silicon Germanium Devices, Watson Paul Mulder Jan 2015

Study Of Electronic Characteristics Of Heterojunction With Intrinsic Thin-Layer Devices And Defect Density Profile Of Nanocrystalline Silicon Germanium Devices, Watson Paul Mulder

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin-layer (HIT) solar cells are an important photovoltaic technology, recently reaching record power conversion efficiencies. HIT cells hold advantages over the conventional crystalline Si solar cells, such as their fabrication at lower temperatures and their shorter fabrication time. It is important to understand the electronic characteristics and transport properties of HIT cells to continue to improve their efficiencies. The fundamental measurements of a HIT solar cell with an innovative n+/p/p+ structure are presented. We also report on a series of these HIT cells fabricated on wafers with different doping concentrations, observing the relationship between doping ...


Power Conversion Techniques In Nanometer Cmos For Low-Power Applications, Wei Fu Jan 2015

Power Conversion Techniques In Nanometer Cmos For Low-Power Applications, Wei Fu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As System-on-Chip (SoCs) in nanometer CMOS technologies grow larger, the power management process within these SoCs becomes very challenging. In the heart of this process lies the challenge of implementing energy-efficient and cost-effective DC-DC power converters. To address this challenge, this thesis studies in details three different aspects of DC-DC power converters and proposes potential solutions. First, to maximize power conversion efficiency, loss mechanisms must be studied and quantified. For that purpose, we provide comprehensive analysis and modeling of the various switching and conduction losses in low-power synchronous DC-DC buck converters in both Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) and Discontinuous Conduction ...


Uncertainty In Power System Planning, Oluwaseyi Ayorinde Olatujoye Jan 2015

Uncertainty In Power System Planning, Oluwaseyi Ayorinde Olatujoye

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Deterministic transmission planning is based on deterministic assumptions, by planning for a single forecasted set of conditions. The issue of adaptability in transmission and generation expansion planning has become important for planners in order to deal with future uncertainties. Adaptability is "the ability to change (or be changed) to fit changed circumstances" [ ]. Adaptability planning helps mitigate losses in unforeseen situations and exploit opportunities in expected situations. Adaptability also provides the opportunities to take alternative actions after events unfold. Adaptable plans can help reduce future costs and time, and it also reduces complexity associated with possible future changes to the existing ...


Methods Of Magnetic Field Switching For Biomedical And Power Applications, Narimdinda Robert Bouda Jan 2015

Methods Of Magnetic Field Switching For Biomedical And Power Applications, Narimdinda Robert Bouda

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Surrounded by electromagnetic (EM) fields humans continuously interact and utilize EM fields for domestic devices, telecom systems, power systems and different medical applications including MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation). During the last century, numerous new electronic devices and technologies have been developed leading to an exponential increase in exposure to Electromagnetic Fields. Although all of these applications are byproducts of Maxwell' experimentation, there are considerable differences in the way they interact with us.

In the treatment of noninvasive treatment of the human brain, the majority of the research has been mainly focused on realizing systems that ...


Slew-Rate Enhancement And Trojan State Avoiding For Fully-Differential Operational Amplifier, Chongli Cai Jan 2015

Slew-Rate Enhancement And Trojan State Avoiding For Fully-Differential Operational Amplifier, Chongli Cai

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Operational amplifiers are fundamental building blocks in modern analog and mixed-signal systems such as data converters, switched-capacitor circuits, and filters. The fully-differential structure is extensively used in these applications because of its improved dynamic performance with respect to such aspects as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and total harmonic distortion (THD) when compared to its single-ended counterpart. In some of these applications, the fully-differential amplifier is required to have fast transient settling time without slew-rate limitations. Power consumption also must be taken into consideration because low power consumption can significantly reduce a battery's weight and size, and extend its life-time. A ...


Unconventional Elastomeric Microsystems: Fabrication And Application, Jungwook Paek Jan 2015

Unconventional Elastomeric Microsystems: Fabrication And Application, Jungwook Paek

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Elastomer-based microsystems hold great promise for a diverse range of applications such as rapid prototyping of lab-on-a-chip device, soft-MEMS, and soft-robotics. For better performance in such applications, unconventional elastomeric structures in terms of size, shape, and patterning trajectory, have been intensely sought after in microtechnology but their realization has been a continuous challenge. Here, as my dissertation work, I present new microfabrication schemes which enable the realizations of unconventional PDMS structures, and their applications, which will enrich the field of soft-microsystems.

First, I present a new fabrication scheme for the realization of cylindrical microfluidic (MF) channels with 3D trajectories based ...


Correctness Results For On-Line Robust Principal Components Analysis, Brian Thomas Lois Jan 2015

Correctness Results For On-Line Robust Principal Components Analysis, Brian Thomas Lois

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This work studies two interrelated problems - online robust PCA (RPCA) and online low-rank matrix completion (MC). In recent work by Candes et al., RPCA has been defined as a problem of separating a low-rank matrix (true data), L:=[ℓ₁, ℓ₂, ... ℓt, ... , ℓtmax and a sparse matrix (outliers), S:=[x₁, x₂, ... xt, ..., xtmax] from their sum, M:=L+S. Our work uses this definition of RPCA. An important application where both these problems occur is in video analytics in trying to separate sparse foregrounds (e.g., moving objects) and slowly changing backgrounds.

While there has been a large amount of recent ...


Radio Frequency And Capacitive Sensors For Dielectric Characterization Of Low-Conductivity Media, Robert Thomas Sheldon Jan 2015

Radio Frequency And Capacitive Sensors For Dielectric Characterization Of Low-Conductivity Media, Robert Thomas Sheldon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Low-conductivity media are found in a vast number of applications, for example as electrical insulation or as the matrix polymer in high strength-to-weight ratio structural composites. In some applications, these materials are subjected to extreme environmental, thermal, and mechanical conditions that can affect the material's desired performance. In a more general sense, a medium may be comprised of one or more layers with unknown material properties that may affect the desired performance of the entire structure. It is often, therefore, of great import to be able to characterize the material properties of these media for the purpose of estimating ...


A Broadband Bistable Piezoelectric Cantilever-Based Vibration Energy Harvester With Nonlinear High Power Extraction, Kanishka Aman Singh Jan 2015

A Broadband Bistable Piezoelectric Cantilever-Based Vibration Energy Harvester With Nonlinear High Power Extraction, Kanishka Aman Singh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This work presents a nonlinear vibration energy harvester, which combines a nonlinear bistable broadband piezoelectric cantilever used to transduce ambient vibration energy, with synchronized capture for efficient harvesting over broadband sources. An accurate model of the bistable transducer, that augments the Butterworth van Dyke piezoelectric model to capture the external magnetic force added as a bias to the external vibrations, is presented. Its validity has been demonstrated through physical implementation and experimental validation against simulation of the mathematical model. For efficient extraction of the transduced energy, nonlinear extraction circuits, namely synchronous charge extraction (SCE) and parallel synchronized switch harvesting on ...


Dynamic Optimization Based Reactive Power Planning For Improving Short-Term Voltage Performance, Magesh Kumar Paramasivam Jan 2015

Dynamic Optimization Based Reactive Power Planning For Improving Short-Term Voltage Performance, Magesh Kumar Paramasivam

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Short term voltage stability in the form of delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) poses a significant threat to system stability and reliability. This work examines the voltage instability issue in a power system with dense concentration of induction motor loads and applies dynamic VAR injection as a counter-measure to ensure short term voltage stability following a large disturbance. The dynamic behavior of motor loads, such as decelerating and stalling, is considered as the major cause of FIDVR incidents especially during summer peak load conditions in areas where low inertia single-phase air conditioning (A/C) motors comprise a significant portion of the ...


Energy Efficiency In Cognitive Radio Network: Study Of Cooperative Sensing Using Different Channel Sensing Methods, Chenxuan Cui Jan 2015

Energy Efficiency In Cognitive Radio Network: Study Of Cooperative Sensing Using Different Channel Sensing Methods, Chenxuan Cui

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

When cognitive radio (CR) operates, it starts by sensing spectrum and looking for idle bandwidth. There are several methods for CR to make a decision on either the channel is occupied or idle, for example, energy detection scheme, cyclostationary detection scheme and matching filtering detection scheme [1]. Among them, the most common method is energy detection scheme because of its algorithm and implementation simplicities [2]. There are two major methods for sensing, the first one is to sense single channel slot with varying bandwidth, whereas the second one is to sense multiple channels and each with same bandwidth. After sensing ...


Development Of Smartphone-Based Spectroscopy Instruments For Diagnostic Test Analysis, Benjamin Jin Seong Ch'ng Jan 2015

Development Of Smartphone-Based Spectroscopy Instruments For Diagnostic Test Analysis, Benjamin Jin Seong Ch'ng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The latest generation of smartphones are more powerful than the first computer that sent the man to the moon. These smartphones are increasingly seen as handheld computers due to the capabilities that can be done with smartphones. Therefore, in this thesis, we will demonstrate the utilization of a smartphone-based spectrometer using the CMOS CCD chip of the camera. The characterization and integration between the smartphone and spectrometer is done to ensure robust and reliable results. The smartphone-based spectrometer is able to measure accurately and made to be comparable to industrial spectrometers. This research was done in order to attempt to ...


Spectral Diffusion Map Approach For Structural Health Monitoring Of Wind Turbine Blades Using Distributed Sensors, Venkatesh Chinde Jan 2015

Spectral Diffusion Map Approach For Structural Health Monitoring Of Wind Turbine Blades Using Distributed Sensors, Venkatesh Chinde

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Distributed Sensor Networks (DSN) has emerged as a sensing paradigms in the structural engineering field due to the application of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for large-scale structures which results in accurately diagnosing the health of structures and enhancing the reliability and robustness of monitoring systems. The multisensor network greatly enhances the feasibility of applying SHM and also provides awareness of structural damage. In this work, we develop data-driven method for the diagnosis of damage in mechanical structures using an array of distributed sensors. The proposed approach relies on comparing intrinsic geometry of data sets corresponding to the undamage and damage ...


Study Of Transport Properties And Defect Density Profile In Nanocrystalline Silicon Germanium Devices, Siva Konduri Jan 2015

Study Of Transport Properties And Defect Density Profile In Nanocrystalline Silicon Germanium Devices, Siva Konduri

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nanocrystalline Silicon-Germanium (nc-SiGe:H) is a useful material for photovoltaic devices and photo-detectors. Its bandgap can be tuned between Si (~1.1 eV) and Ge (~0.7 eV) by changing the alloy composition during growth. The material exhibits a good absorption extending to the infrared region even with thin layers. However previous work has shown that devices with higher Ge content have poor device performance. Also, very little work has been done previously to measure and understand the defect spectrum of nanocrystalline (Si,Ge). Defects control recombination, and hence, the performance of solar cell devices.

This work deals with studying ...


Fast Estimation Of Nonlinearities In Atomic Force Microscopy, Wenyu Wang Jan 2015

Fast Estimation Of Nonlinearities In Atomic Force Microscopy, Wenyu Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We propose a fast method to reconstruct the curve of tip-surface force v.s. distance

in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). A precise and fast force curve reconstruction can

help improve research in material science, biological science, chemistry, etc. Existing

techniques require multiple sinusoids at the input to introduce intermodulation terms,

i.e., exponential components at equally spaced frequencies, and the estimation is done

by balancing those terms. Instead of using intermodulation terms, our method tries to

balance time domain samples. The method is based on the assumption that a discrete

model approximates the continuous AFM model well when sampled at ...


Novel Acceleration Approaches Of Accurate And Efficient Modeling Of High Speed Interconnects In Layered Media, Hongsheng Xu Jan 2015

Novel Acceleration Approaches Of Accurate And Efficient Modeling Of High Speed Interconnects In Layered Media, Hongsheng Xu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Accurate modeling of interconnect structures is an important issue in modern high frequency circuit and chip design; such as the accurate computation of the frequency dependent internal impedance of interconnect structures, like wires and conducting

strips, and the accurate and efficient electromagnetic (EM) modeling for shielded microstrip structures, especially in multilayered medium.

In the first part of this dissertation, a rigorous volume integral equation (VIE) is developed for the current distributions over two-dimensional conducting cylinders.

For very low frequencies, it can be reduced to the widely-used quasi-static approximation. The different VIEs, surface integral equation (SIE), and partial differential equation (PDE ...


Network Topology Identification Based On Measured Data, Mahdi Zamanighomi Jan 2015

Network Topology Identification Based On Measured Data, Mahdi Zamanighomi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We consider the problem of modeling of systems and learning of models from a limited number of measurements. We also contribute to the development of inference algorithms that require high-dimensional data processing. As an inspiring example, a growing interest in biology is to determine dependencies among genes. Such problem, known as gene regulatory network inference, often leads to identifying of large networks through relatively small gene expression data.

The main purpose of the thesis is to develop models and learning methods for data based applications. In particular, we first build a dynamical model for gene-gene interactions to learn the topology ...


Effective Medium Modeling And Experimental Characterization Of Multilayer Dielectric With Periodic Inclusion, Teng Zhao Jan 2015

Effective Medium Modeling And Experimental Characterization Of Multilayer Dielectric With Periodic Inclusion, Teng Zhao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Multi-layered dielectric structures are widely seen in modern semiconductor industry. Their applications cover multi-scaled areas such as in chips, packagings and printed circuit boards. Effective medium modeling for these structures enables fast yet accurate analysis so that the computational cost are reduced dramatically. In this dissertation, the numerical modeling techniques and experimental validations are explored for a general multilayer dielectric with periodic inclusions structure.

The effective medium model based on the same reflection and transmission coefficients is introduced. The extraction procedure for effective constitutive parameters is described in detail. The branch cut issue in extraction procedure is examined and the ...


The Crypto-Aided Physical Layer Integrity Check In Cooperative Relaying Communication, Xudong Liu Jan 2015

The Crypto-Aided Physical Layer Integrity Check In Cooperative Relaying Communication, Xudong Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the cooperative relaying communication, the system has to defend itself against the eavesdropper which may undermines the message integrity by sending the modified messages. We propose a physical layer integrity check scheme for cooperative relaying communication, where a source broadcast the signals to both destination target and an untrustworthy relay node. The approach exploits physical layer signals in detecting the modified messages conducted by the relay. We develop a scheme that utilizes a few cryptography information in the initial message packets to estimate the optimal detecting threshold. By applying the optimal detecting method, the proposed approach achieves almost same ...


Cellular Level Studies And Coil System Design For Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Yiwen Meng Jan 2015

Cellular Level Studies And Coil System Design For Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Yiwen Meng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is a novel non-invasive neuromodulation technique to treat human brain disorders such as depression, Parkinson's disease and PTSD. It uses pulsed currents in the coils to generate time varying magnetic field which induce eddy currents in the conductive tissues of human brain. Recently, there are several research publications in the field of TMS, specifically on coil designs, clinical trials and some in-vivo animal studies.

Even though FDA has approved TMS technique to treat depression , the basic mechanism or how does the neural tissue react to TMS is still not well understood. Therefore, conducting in-vitro study on ...


Mems Graphene Strain Sensor, Clinton Wen-Chieh Young Jan 2015

Mems Graphene Strain Sensor, Clinton Wen-Chieh Young

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Graphene is a two dimensional honeycomb structure of sp^2 hybridized carbon atoms that has possibilities in many applications due to its excellent mechanical and electrical properties. One application for Graphene is in the field of sensors. Graphene’s electronic properties do not degrade when it undergoes mechanical strain which is advantageous for strain sensors. In this thesis, certain properties, such as the piezo-resistivity and flexibility, of graphene will be explored to show how they can be utilized to make a strain sensing device. Our original fabrication process of patterning graphene and the transfer process of graphene onto a flexible ...