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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Using Cfd To Improve Off-Design Throughflow Analysis, Troy J. Lanchman Jan 2019

Using Cfd To Improve Off-Design Throughflow Analysis, Troy J. Lanchman

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In turbomachinery design, complex internal flows give rise to significant losses and blockage whose effects are difficult to properly analyze without detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods or experiments. In a typical design method, CFD is used in conjunction with simpler throughflow or cascade codes to hasten the process. However, the lesser physical accuracy of the design codes demands the inclusion of models to improve the accuracy of the throughflow codes. This thesis aims to use CFD data to generate improved loss and blockage models for a 2D compressor throughflow code by matching throughflow data to CFD data using optimizations ...


Deposition Of Nanoparticles Or Thin Films Via Magnetron Sputtering Towards Graphene Surface Functionalization And Device Fabrication, Bridget Jul Larson Jan 2019

Deposition Of Nanoparticles Or Thin Films Via Magnetron Sputtering Towards Graphene Surface Functionalization And Device Fabrication, Bridget Jul Larson

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Graphene, a 2-dimensional single layer of carbon, has high carrier mobility, strength and electrical conductivity. Due to the absence of a band gap and chemical reactivity, pristine graphene has less competitiveness in semiconductors and sensors. Functionalizing graphene is imperative in the development of advanced applications. Among various wet chemical or physical vapor deposition, magnetron sputtering is cost-effective, minimum maintenance, user-friendly, and can be used to rapidly deposit nano-particulates or thin films with less contaminations on any substrates surface. This study is to investigate the morphology evolution of the deposited films using magnetron sputtering and to find appropriate conditions for nanoparticulate ...


Growth Of Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Disulfide Via Chemical Vapor Deposition, Zachary Durnell Ganger Jan 2019

Growth Of Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Disulfide Via Chemical Vapor Deposition, Zachary Durnell Ganger

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Graphene has successfully been a 2D material applied in various fields, but it is not the most appropriate candidate for many electronic devices unless its bandgap structure is tuned through functionalization. Among all other 2D material families, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), represented by molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), are promising and emerging in power electronics due to their large direct bandgap and other electronic properties. 2D MoS2 has been fabricated through different approaches such as mechanical exfoliation, chemical etching, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The current major challenge in fabricating 2D MoS2 films is to produce a high-quality large-area monolayer film at ...


Unsteady Effects Of A Pulsed Blowing System On An Endwall Vortex, Molly Hope Donovan Jan 2019

Unsteady Effects Of A Pulsed Blowing System On An Endwall Vortex, Molly Hope Donovan

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The low-pressure turbine is an important component of a gas turbine engine, powering the low-pressure spool which provides the bulk of the thrust in medium- and high-bypass engines. It is also a significant fraction of the engine weight and complexity as it can comprise up to a third of the total engine weight. One way to drastically reduce the weight of the low-pressure turbine is to utilize high lift blades. To advance high-lift technology, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) designed the L2F blade profile, which was implemented in the linear cascade at AFRL/RQT’s low speed wind tunnel ...


Multi-Sensor Approach To Determine The Effect Of Geometry On Microstructure In Additive Manufacturing, Joseph R. Walker Jan 2019

Multi-Sensor Approach To Determine The Effect Of Geometry On Microstructure In Additive Manufacturing, Joseph R. Walker

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Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing technique used for making complex parts through a layer-by-layer process with fine feature resolution. However, the layer-by-layer process, with complex scanning patterns within each layer, introduces variability in thermal behavior leading to inconsistent microstructure and defects. The in- situ process monitoring approach in this work uses sensors including a high-speed visible camera, thermal camera, and spectrometer to evaluate each location in the LPBF process. Each sensor focuses on a different process phenomenon such as the melt pool or thermal behavior. An experimental study, using metallographic analysis and collection of sensor data ...


Rasters Vs Contours For Thin Wall Ultem 9085 Fdm Applications, Vausman Kota Jan 2019

Rasters Vs Contours For Thin Wall Ultem 9085 Fdm Applications, Vausman Kota

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Currently many components are additively manufactured via fused deposition modeling (FDM). However, FDM results in gaps between passes which produces a poor surface finish and porous material that is difficult to hold pressure. Commercial scale air systems require a pressure to be maintained within thin walled components with minimal post processing and clean up after fabrication. A design of experiments (DOE) was created to identify the optimal raster vs contour ratio for UTLEM 9085 CG fabricated using FDM at different build angles and wall thicknesses. A custom-built pressurized test system was developed, the leak rates were calculated and the surfaces ...


Applied Deep Learning In Orthopaedics, William Stewart Burton Ii Jan 2019

Applied Deep Learning In Orthopaedics, William Stewart Burton Ii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The reemergence of deep learning in recent years has led to its successful application in a wide variety of fields. As a subfield of machine learning, deep learning offers an array of powerful algorithms for data-driven applications. Orthopaedics stands to benefit from the potential of deep learning for advancements in the field. This thesis investigated applications of deep learning for the field of orthopaedics through the development of three distinct projects.

First, algorithms were developed for the automatic segmentation of the structures in the knee from MRI. The resulting algorithms can be used to accurately segment full MRI scans in ...


Laxity Of The Hip Capsule In Natural And Posteriorly Implanted Specimens, Luke Storer Jan 2019

Laxity Of The Hip Capsule In Natural And Posteriorly Implanted Specimens, Luke Storer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The hip capsule consists of ligament tissue that surrounds the hip joint, providing stability to ensure proper alignment, prevent dislocation, and facilitate proper joint function. The objective of this study was to characterize the torque-rotation response of the natural and posteriorly implanted hip capsule in healthy cadaveric specimens in multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOF) and under combined loading scenarios using the AMTI VIVO, a robotic joint simulator. The anterior portion of the hip capsule was stained with Methylene Blue and virtual extensometers were calculated by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) software for Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model validation. The range of motion (ROM ...


Aerodynamics Of Fan Blade Blending, Clint J. Knape Jan 2019

Aerodynamics Of Fan Blade Blending, Clint J. Knape

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Blending is a method of fan and compressor blade repair. The goal of the blending process is to remove stress concentration points such as cracks and nicks along the leading, trailing, or tip edges of the blade. The stressed areas are typically removed by grinding or cropping away the surrounding material. For integrally bladed rotor (IBR) disks, repairing a damaged blade is much more economical than replacing the entire disk. However, the change in shape of the blade will change the local aerodynamics and result in mistuning, both structurally and aerodynamically. In a worst case scenario, the change in the ...


Analytical And Experimental Investigation Of Time-Variant Acceleration Fields, Justin A. Williams Jan 2019

Analytical And Experimental Investigation Of Time-Variant Acceleration Fields, Justin A. Williams

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Devices expected to operate in elevated or non-standard acceleration fields are often tested in similar conditions prior to deployment. Typically these tests only simulate steady-state acceleration fields in one direction. However, real acceleration fields often vary both directionally and temporally. Designing experiments to produce these conditions requires careful forethought and analysis in order to understand the emergent acceleration components that result from the methodology. An experiment was designed and executed on a horizontal centrifuge in which the radial acceleration varied sinusoidally between -10 < a_r < 10 g. Negative acceleration was achieved by rotating the test article relative to the radial acceleration vector using a servo motor. A model was developed that predicted the acceleration field at every point along the test article. The model provided important information such as the acceleration magnitude and direction anywhere on the test device at any point in time. This model was then used to optimize the velocity profile of the servo motor to minimize experimental artifacts.


Blended Wing Design Considerations For A Next Generation Commercial Aircraft, Jay Abhilash Vora Jan 2019

Blended Wing Design Considerations For A Next Generation Commercial Aircraft, Jay Abhilash Vora

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The current aircraft design has not changed significantly in the last few decades. Growing environmental concerns and fuel prices are driving manufacturers to develop unconventional but efficient aircraft configurations. The blended wing body (BWB) configuration provides an alternate and more efficient means of subsonic travel. The BWB aircraft replaces the traditional wings and fuselage with hybrid wing shape where the fuselage and wings have integrated. Major aircraft manufacturers are researching the BWB concept incorporating electric propulsion for civil transport use. In this research a 300 passenger BWB aircraft aerodynamic shape is designed. This aircraft is used to assess the aerodynamic ...


Development Of A Computer Program For Transient Heat Transfer Coefficient Studies, Sri Prithvi Samrat Samayamantula Jan 2019

Development Of A Computer Program For Transient Heat Transfer Coefficient Studies, Sri Prithvi Samrat Samayamantula

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At the present time, the magnitude of transient convective heat transfer is approximated using heat transfer coefficient correlations developed for steady state conditions. This is done by necessity, as transient heat transfer correlations are not readily available. There is a rare transient heat transfer correlation found in the literature, but the number of correlations available can be counted on one hand. In addition, the literature does provide some plots of Nusselt numbers for specific cases of transient convective heat transfer, but these are limited to the specific case for which they were developed. The work presented in this thesis is ...


Adaptive Identification Of Classification Decision Boundary Of Turbine Blade Mode Shape Under Geometric Uncertainty, Ian M. Boyd Jan 2019

Adaptive Identification Of Classification Decision Boundary Of Turbine Blade Mode Shape Under Geometric Uncertainty, Ian M. Boyd

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Integrally Bladed Rotors (IBR) of aircraft turbine engines suffer from fluctuations in the dynamic response that occurs due to blade to blade geometric deviations. The Stochastic Approach for Blade and Rotor Emulation (SABRE) framework has been used to enable a probabilistic study of mistuned blades in which a reduced order modeling technique is applied in conjunction with sets of surrogate models, called emulators, to make predictions of mistuned mode shapes. SABRE has proven useful for non-switching mode shapes. However, switching mode shapes have non-stationary or discontinuous response surfaces which reduce the accuracy of the surrogate models used in SABRE. To ...


Power/Thermal Interaction Within An Adaptive Turbine Engine, Andrew K. Desomma Jan 2019

Power/Thermal Interaction Within An Adaptive Turbine Engine, Andrew K. Desomma

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Usually power take off (PTO) with a two-spool turbofan engine has been accomplished via the high pressure (HP) shaft and bleed air from the high-pressure compressor (HPC). The PTO is used to run various aircraft components such as generators and hydraulic pumps, which also produce waste heat. To better understand the coupled transient nature of balancing engine thrust, power take off and thermal management, a transient variable cycle three stream turbofan engine model has been developed to investigate the integrated behavior. The model incorporates many dynamic features including a third-stream heat exchanger as a heat sink for thermal management and ...


Design And Implementation Of Periodic Unsteadiness Generator For Turbine Secondary Flow Studies, Nathan James Fletcher Jan 2019

Design And Implementation Of Periodic Unsteadiness Generator For Turbine Secondary Flow Studies, Nathan James Fletcher

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A primary source of periodic unsteadiness in low-pressure turbines is the wakes shed from upstream blade rows due to the relative motion between adjacent stators and rotors. These periodic perturbations can affect boundary layer transition, secondary flow, and loss generation. In particular, for high-lift front-loaded blades, the secondary flowfield is characterized by strong three-dimensional vortical structures. It is important to understand how these flow features respond to periodic disturbances. A novel approach was taken to generate periodic unsteadiness which captures some of the physics of turbomachinery wakes. Using stationary pneumatic devices, pulsed jets were used to generate disturbances characterized by ...


Design And Manipulation Of A Power-Generating System With High-Temperature Fuel Cells For Hypersonic Applications, Jack Randolph Chalker Jan 2019

Design And Manipulation Of A Power-Generating System With High-Temperature Fuel Cells For Hypersonic Applications, Jack Randolph Chalker

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Current hypersonic vehicles tend to be incapable of producing onboard power with traditional generators due to their use of supersonic combusting ramjets (scramjets). Because of this, they seek additional energy sources for supporting advanced electronics or other auxiliary power-dependent devices while requiring elaborate thermal management systems to combat temperatures exceeding 700ºC. The incorporation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFCs) stacks is an efficient solution, capable of generating large quantities of power through the use of natural fuel sources at high temperatures. Developments in this thesis include the design, construction, and support of a system operating at hypersonic-environment conditions with a ...


Hierarchical Carbon Structures With Vertically- Aligned Nanotube Carpets For Oil-Water Separation Under Different Conditions, Kimia Kiaei Jan 2019

Hierarchical Carbon Structures With Vertically- Aligned Nanotube Carpets For Oil-Water Separation Under Different Conditions, Kimia Kiaei

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The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the role of surface nano-structuring in fluid separation. It is hypothesized that hierarchical carbon structures consisting of aligned carbon nanotube arrays strongly adhered to the surface of porous carbon solids such as fabric and foam, can be used for separation of polar and non-polar fluids by selective wettability of one fluid and rejection of another. The vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays, as synthesized, possess super hydrophobicity demonstrated by high water contact angle on their surfaces. On the other hand, they are incredibly oleophilic, showing a high affinity to adsorb oil. These properties ...


Ice Adhesion Analysis Of Severely Aged Pdms Rubbers, Theodore R. Woll Aug 2018

Ice Adhesion Analysis Of Severely Aged Pdms Rubbers, Theodore R. Woll

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to evaluate and optimize the ice adhesion test initially developed by the University of Denver and to examine Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based silicone rubbers for their ice-phobicity as a function of their physical and chemistry properties, and under severe oxidative aging. The test is based on an ice block bonded to a silicone rubber substrate and subjected to shear. In its original state, the test had severe limitations that caused the ice to be dislodged through a mixture of shear and peeling. Several steps were taken in this research to improve the test, and the ...


Translating Data From The Laboratory Into Simulation: A Computational Framework For Subject-Specific Finite Element Musculoskeletal Simulation, Donald R. Hume Aug 2018

Translating Data From The Laboratory Into Simulation: A Computational Framework For Subject-Specific Finite Element Musculoskeletal Simulation, Donald R. Hume

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Computational modeling is a powerful tool which has been used to inform decisions made by engineers, scientists, and clinicians for decades. Musculoskeletal modeling has emerged as a computational modeling technique used to understand the interaction between the body and its surroundings. There are several common approaches used for musculoskeletal modeling which take advantage of different model formulations to obtain information of interest. Unfortunately, models with different joint formulations inherit disparities in representations of ligament, muscle, and cartilage at joints of interest. These differences affect the way the joint functions and limit the insight it provides through computational analysis. Musculoskeletal models ...


Nanoengineering Of Next Generation Silicone Rubber Materials For Extreme Applications, Monika Bleszynski Aug 2018

Nanoengineering Of Next Generation Silicone Rubber Materials For Extreme Applications, Monika Bleszynski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Silicone rubber materials are frequently used in extreme environments, including aviation, space, high voltage and other applications. In service, however, complex and difficult to predict damage mechanisms in the rubbers can occur which can lead to severe failures of essential infrastructural components. For example, Non-Ceramic Insulators (NCIs), which support some of the most critical high voltage lines in the world, regularly exhibit severe polymer aging due to environmental pollution, ultra-violet (UV) radiation, and dry band and corona arcing. Designing silicone rubbers to resist aging in these demanding environments is difficult and requires an interdisciplinary approach, including correctly assessing the actual ...


Layer-To-Layer Physical Characteristics And Compression Behavior Of 3d Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Metastructures Fabricated Using Different Process Parameters, Sivani Patibandla Jan 2018

Layer-To-Layer Physical Characteristics And Compression Behavior Of 3d Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Metastructures Fabricated Using Different Process Parameters, Sivani Patibandla

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Three-dimensional (3D) printing, a subset of additive manufacturing, is currently being explored heavily for actual part fabrication due to its ability to create complex objects with intricate internal features. There are several 3D printing technologies; however, the extrusion-based technology such as fused deposition modeling (FDM) is the widely used one owing to its low cost. The FDM method can be used to fabricate parts with different fill densities, fill patterns, and process parameters such as extruder temperature and print speed. In this research, influence of process parameters such as extruder temperature and speed on the physical characteristics such as the ...


Identification Of Nonlinear Constitutive Properties Of Damping Coatings, Mackenzie E. Tidball Jan 2018

Identification Of Nonlinear Constitutive Properties Of Damping Coatings, Mackenzie E. Tidball

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Scheduled and unscheduled maintenance actions are a significant cost for gas turbines. Advanced life prediction capabilities help to mitigate these costs. However, the protective thermal and damping coatings applied to the turbine rotors which can help significantly extend component life simultaneously increase the difficulty of modeling the behavior of the components due to the nonlinearity they introduce.This research approaches modeling and analysis of nonlinear coatings for turbine blades and blisks using a nonlinear constitutive law model for the coating. The theoretical frequency response of the nonlinear system is solved for using the harmonic balance method. The coefficients of the ...


Fabrication And Characterizations Of Lithium Aluminum Titanate Phosphate Solid Electrolytes For Li-Based Batteries, Anurag Yaddanapudi Jan 2018

Fabrication And Characterizations Of Lithium Aluminum Titanate Phosphate Solid Electrolytes For Li-Based Batteries, Anurag Yaddanapudi

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Demands for electric vehicles and flexible electronics have escalated research in developing high-performance lithium batteries based on solid-state chemistry. The present work is to develop highly-conductive and flexible solid electrolyte for such applications. Lithium aluminum titanate phosphate (LATP or Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3), both in ceramic pellets and free-standing composite membranes, have been fabricated. The crystal structure, surface morphology, and ionic conductivity are systematically studied. LATP pellets are prepared using solid state reaction approach. The results indicate that calcine temperature has significant impacts on the phase impurity and sintering temperature and duration have more impacts on the grain ...


Functionalization And Characterization Of Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene Sheets Towards Application In Chemical Vapor Sensing, Nicholas Alexander Engel Jan 2018

Functionalization And Characterization Of Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene Sheets Towards Application In Chemical Vapor Sensing, Nicholas Alexander Engel

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Chemical/biological sensors serve many purposes in protecting machinery, the environment, and human life/wellness. Graphene, a two-dimensional (2-D) material made up of carbon atoms in a honeycomb-like lattice, is promising for applications to chemical/biological sensing due to its unique properties. Functionalization of graphene by surface decorating with nanoparticles and increasing interior adsorption sites can tailor its catalytic activity and electrical properties, and hence, important for detecting and distinguishing trace hazardous gases. This research introduces two different approaches to functionalize graphene towards enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of graphene-based sensors. The morphologies, structures, and electrical properties of the functionalized graphene ...


Development And Thermal Management Of A Dynamically Efficient, Transient High Energy Pulse System Model, Nathaniel J. Butt Jan 2018

Development And Thermal Management Of A Dynamically Efficient, Transient High Energy Pulse System Model, Nathaniel J. Butt

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As technology advances, the abilities of civilian and military vehicles, both air and ground, will undoubtedly increase as well. One of the main areas of improvement is in the electronics area. The new electronics are ever smaller, use ever higher amounts of electrical power, and require ever smaller temperature tolerances. This leads to the problem of effectively managing the increasing thermal loads and temperature tolerances on these systems. One electronic system that causes concern is a high energy pulse system (HEPS). These devices have very high thermal loads (100s of kW). On an air vehicle, where thermal management by legacy ...


Constitutive Modeling Of Creep In Leaded And Lead-Free Solder Alloys Using Constant Strain Rate Tensile Testing, Eric Thomas Stang Jan 2018

Constitutive Modeling Of Creep In Leaded And Lead-Free Solder Alloys Using Constant Strain Rate Tensile Testing, Eric Thomas Stang

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Environmental and safety concerns have necessitated a phase-out of lead-based alloys, which are often used in electronics solder applications. In order to properly assess suitable replacement materials, it is necessary to understand the deformation mechanisms relevant to the application. In the case of electronics solder, creep is an important mechanism that must be considered in the design of reliable devices and systems. In this study, Power-Law and Garofalo constitutive creep models were derived for two medium temperature solder alloys. The first alloy is known by the commercial name Indalloy 236 and is a quaternary alloy of lead, antimony, tin, and ...


Design Of A Novel Tissue Culture System To Subject Aortic Tissue To Multidirectional Bicuspid Aortic Valve Wall Shear Stress, Janet Liu Jan 2018

Design Of A Novel Tissue Culture System To Subject Aortic Tissue To Multidirectional Bicuspid Aortic Valve Wall Shear Stress, Janet Liu

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Blood vessels experience complex hemodynamics marked by three-dimensionality and pulsatility. Arterial endothelial cells interact with the characteristics of the fluid wall shear stress (WSS) to maintain homeostasis or promote disease states. In particular, the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), a congenital heart valve anatomy consisting of two leaflets instead of three, is associated with aortic complications presumably promoted by hemodynamic abnormalities. While devices have been used to test this hypothesis, their capabilities are limited to the generation of time-varying WSS magnitude in one direction. However, the increased flow helicity generated by BAVs in the aorta is expected to result in increased ...


In Vitro Assessment Of The Effects Of Valvular Stenosis On Aorta Hemodynamics And Left Ventricular Function, Ashish Madan Jan 2018

In Vitro Assessment Of The Effects Of Valvular Stenosis On Aorta Hemodynamics And Left Ventricular Function, Ashish Madan

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Calcific aortic stenosis (CAS) is the most common valvular heart disease and is associated with aortopathy and ventricular dysfunction. Hemodynamic alterations due CAS could affect the aorta lining (endothelium), that is in direct contact with the blood, triggering adverse biological responses that may possibly cause aortic dilation and dissection. Also, CAS could impose excessive ventricular load leading to ventricular wall thickening, thus putting an individual at a higher risk of heart attack or stroke. These pathophysiological effects of CAS are highly dependent on the degree of calcification. However, the impact of CAS development on aorta flow and left ventricular workload ...


Fabrication And Characterizations Of Lagp/Peo Composite Electrolytes For All Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jeremy J. Lee Jan 2018

Fabrication And Characterizations Of Lagp/Peo Composite Electrolytes For All Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries, Jeremy J. Lee

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With the rise of electric vehicles and increasing dependence on mobile electronics, the demands for lithium-ion batteries have followed in tandem for their high energy and power densities. However, traditional lithium-ion batteries consisting of liquid electrolytes have limited operating temperatures and are susceptible to ignition and subsequent fires. Recently, battery research has diverged into solid state chemistry to address the aforementioned issues. In this research, we systematically investigate a series of ceramic/polymer lithium-ion conducting composite electrolytes, i.e. Li1.4Al0.4Ge1.6(PO4)3 /lithiated polyethylene oxide (LAGP/PEO). Lithiated PEO was prepared with two different lithium salts, LiBF4 ...


Defect Engineering: Novel Strengthening Mechanism For Low- Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanostructures, Seyed Emad Rezaei Jan 2018

Defect Engineering: Novel Strengthening Mechanism For Low- Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanostructures, Seyed Emad Rezaei

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The advent of nanomaterials has opened a new avenue for designing and fabricating materials with unique properties, e.g., superior mechanical properties. Based on a common notion, the perfect structures are assumed to exhibit better mechanical properties, such as higher yield strength and Young's modulus. Therefore, researchers have devoted an extensive amount of time to decrease defect concentration by fabricating materials with the micro/nanoscale, e.g., nanowires (NWs) and nanobelts (NBs), to enhance the mechanical characteristics of the system. However, defects are a part of the fabrication process and precise control over synthesizing procedure is needed to eliminate ...