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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Economic Analysis Of Reactive Distillation In The Production Of Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether (Tame), Clayton Brandenburg Apr 2018

Economic Analysis Of Reactive Distillation In The Production Of Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether (Tame), Clayton Brandenburg

Senior Theses

Aspen HYSYS was used to make two flowsheets, one with plug flow reactors and distillation columns and another with a reactive distillation column, to see which flowsheet was better at producing tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and which one was more economically feasible. The goal was to produce 15,000 metric tons of TAME per year by reacting a naptha stream with methanol. It was found that both flowsheets were capable of producing the desired amounts of TAME and with product purities around 100%. The conversions of the reactive distillation was 93.93%, significantly higher than the 72.48% and 76 ...


The Influence Of Relative Particle Size And Material Interactions On The Flow-Induced Detachment Of Particles From A Microchannel, Morgan Brittany Mayfield Jul 2016

The Influence Of Relative Particle Size And Material Interactions On The Flow-Induced Detachment Of Particles From A Microchannel, Morgan Brittany Mayfield

Graduate Theses - Chemical Engineering

Particulate transport in microfluidic channels is difficult due to confined geometries and low flow rates, which promote solids settling. To re-entrain these solids, the detachment behavior of closely-fitting particles from microchannel walls must be understood. Experiments were completed to examine the effects of particle size and material interactions on particle detachment velocity. Studies were conducted for various sizes of glass and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, spheres in glass and poly(dimethyl siloxane), PDMS, microfluidic channels. In addition, an inexpensive method to produce monodisperse PMMA microparticles was developed. To analyze the effect of material interactions, the work of adhesion between the ...


Investigation Of Degradation Of Amine Sorbent, Elijah Arendt Jan 2016

Investigation Of Degradation Of Amine Sorbent, Elijah Arendt

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of amine-grafted sorbents, specifically when they are degraded at 120°C. This study varied the amine source and the amount of it in the sorbent. The additive type and the amount of it was also manipulated. The performance of sorbents is characterized by CO2 capture capacity, which is the amount (in mmol) of CO2 captured per gram of sorbent at 40°C. The best performing sorbents are ones that maintain their CO2 capture capacity after degradation. When the amount of additive was manipulated, the sorbents containing 2 ...


Heat Integration Of An Aniline Production Process To Optimize Cost Savings And Reduce Energy Usage, Dillon Ashby May 2015

Heat Integration Of An Aniline Production Process To Optimize Cost Savings And Reduce Energy Usage, Dillon Ashby

Senior Theses

The purpose of this project was to individually complete a heat integration optimization for my group’s senior design project, a process for the large-scale production of aniline.


Quantifying Individual Losses In A Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, Jennifer Rae Ruffing Dec 2014

Quantifying Individual Losses In A Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, Jennifer Rae Ruffing

Theses and Dissertations

The performance of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is complicated due to the complex interactions of kinetic and transport processes. As a result, changes in one aspect of the cell have consequences in other aspects, which are difficult to elucidate from the full-cell polarization (i.e. voltage vs. current) behavior that fuel cell researchers often use to characterize the performance of their systems. The objective of this work was to develop a strategy to use current and voltage relationships from anode half cells, cathode half-cells, and a hydrogen pump, coupled with methanol crossover data and a mathematical model, to ...


Design And Construction Of A Chemical Engineering (Cheme) Car Using Thermoelectrics, Timothy Barnhill, Sara Davino, Spencer Faltin, Lauryn Jamison, Christina Papadimitrio, Mccall Rogers May 2014

Design And Construction Of A Chemical Engineering (Cheme) Car Using Thermoelectrics, Timothy Barnhill, Sara Davino, Spencer Faltin, Lauryn Jamison, Christina Papadimitrio, Mccall Rogers

Senior Theses

Six chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of South Carolina formed a team to compete in the 2014 AIChE Chem-E-Car competition at the Southern Regional Student Conference in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in March. In the Chem-E-Car competition, students must design and build a vehicle powered by an unconventional form of chemical energy to carry a specified weight over a given distance (1). The group used knowledge gained through undergraduate study to construct a small-scale vehicle that is powered by a set of thermoelectric generators utilizing a heat gradient between boiling water and an ethanol-dry ice mixture (2). An iodine ...


Reduction Of Ketoximes To Amines By Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation Using Raney Nickel And 2-Propanol As Hydrogen Donor, Katherynne E. Taylor May 2014

Reduction Of Ketoximes To Amines By Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation Using Raney Nickel And 2-Propanol As Hydrogen Donor, Katherynne E. Taylor

Honors Theses

Ketoximes successfully underwent hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation under catalytic transfer conditions with Raney Nickel and 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor. Ketoximes were reduced to primary amines when 2% KOH was included in the reaction. In the absence of KOH N-isopropyl-secondary-amines were obtained in good yields.


Asymmetric Hydrogenation Of Α, Β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acid Over Chiral-Modified Palladium Catalyst, Shuai Tan Jan 2013

Asymmetric Hydrogenation Of Α, Β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acid Over Chiral-Modified Palladium Catalyst, Shuai Tan

Theses and Dissertations

The production of optically pure chemicals through enantioselective catalytic reaction plays a key role a variety of industrials (e.g., pharmaceutical, agrochemical). Among several established methods, chiral-modified supported transition metal catalyst has been addressed attentions since past decades due to an environmental concern. Asymmetric hydrogenation of α, β-unsaturated carboxylic acid over Pd catalyst is of particular interest in this area. Nevertheless, the spectroscopic aspect, as well as the kinetic mechanism of such reaction system are still not clearly understood and require further study. In this work, a model catalytic reaction has been investigated from both spectroscopic and kinetic view. To ...


Effect Of Matrix Modulus On Cancer Stem Cells And Tumorsphere Formation In Three-Dimensional-Engineered Matrix, Samaneh Kamali Sarvestani Jan 2013

Effect Of Matrix Modulus On Cancer Stem Cells And Tumorsphere Formation In Three-Dimensional-Engineered Matrix, Samaneh Kamali Sarvestani

Theses and Dissertations

Maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is regulated by their microenvironment. As cancer cells are affected by many factors in their microenvironment, a major challenge is to isolate the effect of a specific factor on cancer stem cells (CSCs) while keeping other factors unchanged. We have developed a synthetic inert 3D polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) gel culture system as a unique tool to study the effect of microenvironmental factors on CSCs response. Synthetic hydrogels provide the flexibility to design three-dimensional (3D) matrices to isolate and study individual factors in the tumor microenvironment.

The objective of this work was to investigate ...


Theoretical Investigation Of The Water-Gas Shift Reaction At The Three Phase Boundary Of Ceria Supported Platinum Metal Clusters, Sara Aranifard Jan 2013

Theoretical Investigation Of The Water-Gas Shift Reaction At The Three Phase Boundary Of Ceria Supported Platinum Metal Clusters, Sara Aranifard

Theses and Dissertations

The Water-Gas Shift (WGS: CO+H2O→CO2+H2) reaction is a key step in hydrogen fuel processing for mobile fuel cell applications. Since the reaction is equilibrium-limited and exothermic, high conversions are favored by low temperatures. However, conventional low-temperature shift catalysts are not active enough. Reducible oxide supported small noble metal clusters have shown excellent activity as low temperature WGS catalysts and it is generally believed that these catalysts are bifunctional. In other words, the reaction occurs at the three-phase boundary (TPB) of the noble metal, the reducible oxide, and the gas phase. The small noble metal cluster adsorbs/activates ...


Enantioselective Hydrogenation Of Α-Methylcinnamic Acid Over Pd/Al2o3: A Spectroscopic And Kinetic Study, Xiaojing Sun Jan 2013

Enantioselective Hydrogenation Of Α-Methylcinnamic Acid Over Pd/Al2o3: A Spectroscopic And Kinetic Study, Xiaojing Sun

Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogenation of C=C in α-methylcinnamic acid (MCA) is studied by both kinetic and spectroscopic method. Kinetic study was in a semi-batch reactor. The reaction activity is strongly solvent dependent, while selectivity remains almost unaffected. The reaction is zero order in hydrogen pressure and first order in MCA. The presence of cinchonidine does not affect the reaction order with respect to either acid or H2 pressure, but has a significant inhibiting effect on the reaction rate. The catalyst exhibits stable activity during the reaction with no sign of deactivation. The adsorption and hydrogenation in dichloromethane, isopropanol and 1, 4-Dioxane over ...


Kinetic Modeling Of Methanol Synthesis From Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, And Hydrogen Over A Cu/Zno/Cr2o3 Catalyst, Daaniya Rahman Jan 2012

Kinetic Modeling Of Methanol Synthesis From Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, And Hydrogen Over A Cu/Zno/Cr2o3 Catalyst, Daaniya Rahman

Master's Theses

The main purpose of this study was to investigate kinetic models proposed in the

literature for methanol synthesis and select the best fit model using regression techniques

in POLYMATH. Another aim was to use the results from the best fit model to explain

some aspects and resolve some questions related to methanol synthesis kinetics. Two

statistically sound kinetic models were chosen from literature based on their goodness of

fit to the respective kinetic data. POLYMATH, the non-linear regression software, was

used to fit published experimental data to different kinetic models and evaluate kinetic

parameters. The statistical results from POLYMATH were ...


The Economic Potential Of The All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery With A Focus On State Of Charge, Elizabeth Hope Mouron May 2011

The Economic Potential Of The All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery With A Focus On State Of Charge, Elizabeth Hope Mouron

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Engineering Polyanhydride Microspheres For The Stabilization And Controlled Release Of Proteins , Amy Sywassink Determan Jan 2006

Engineering Polyanhydride Microspheres For The Stabilization And Controlled Release Of Proteins , Amy Sywassink Determan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This work investigates the use of polyanhydride microspheres as drug delivery carriers for therapeutic proteins. The polymers investigated are poly(sebacic anhydride) and opolymers of poly[1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane] (poly(CPH)) and poly(SA), 20:80 (CPH:SA), 50:50 (CPH:SA), and 80:20 (CPH:SA). The model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was encapsulated in poly(SA), 20:80 (CPH:SA), 50:50 (CPH:SA), and 80:20 (CPH:SA) microspheres to determine the feasibility of using polyanhydrides as protein carriers. Poly(SA) and 20:80 (CPH:SA) were found to stabilize the encapsulated BSA and were ...


Multicomponent Drying Of Semicrystalline Polymers , Sim-Siong Wong Jan 2006

Multicomponent Drying Of Semicrystalline Polymers , Sim-Siong Wong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research is to gain a better understanding of multicomponent drying behavior of semicrystalline polymers. A combination of experimental and theoretical approaches was used in this work. A mathematical model involving free-volume theory and solvent-induced crystallization kinetics as the backbone was developed to examine the complex relationship between polymers and solvents during drying. External conditions such as temperature, external mass transfer rate and film shrinkage were considered. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/water/methanol test system was chosen. The parametric studies of the model show that it can be adapted for wide range of initial and operating conditions ...


Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Of Fluidized Bed Polymerization Reactors , Rong Fan Jan 2006

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Of Fluidized Bed Polymerization Reactors , Rong Fan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this research, a CFD algorithm for simulation of fluidized bed polymerization reactors is described. In order to properly model the evolution of a polydisperse solid phase, population balance equation (PBE) must be solved along with other transport equations. A novel approach---DQMOM is applied to polydisperse fluidized bed to simulate particle aggregation and breakage in the reactors. Two different aggregation and breakage kernels are tested and the performance of the DQMOM approximation with different numbers of nodes are compared. Results show that the approach is very effective in modeling solid segregation and elutriation and in tracking the evolution of the ...


Computational Methods In The Study Of Carbohydrates And Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes , Anthony David Hill Jan 2006

Computational Methods In The Study Of Carbohydrates And Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes , Anthony David Hill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Carbohydrates are important molecules in energy storage and cellular recognition. New methods are used and discussed to capture important structural details of created by the protein/carbohydrate interactions. In particular, the thermodynamics of carbohydrate binding are explored, and a new model to accurately calculate the free energy of binding is developed. Additionally, a new method of describing the pucker of carbohydrate ring with three coordinates is discussed. These methods are then applied to Family 1 Glycoside Hydrolases.


Carbon-13 Metabolic Flux Analysis Of Soybean Central Carbon Metabolism: Response To Temperature And Genotype Effects , Vidya Vaancheeswaran Iyer Jan 2006

Carbon-13 Metabolic Flux Analysis Of Soybean Central Carbon Metabolism: Response To Temperature And Genotype Effects , Vidya Vaancheeswaran Iyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soybeans are a major source of high quality protein, edible oil, food products, and also several industrial non food applications such as paper coating, textiles and plastics. It is difficult to develop soybeans with high protein and high oil, however, due to the inverse relationship between these two components. Consequently, increasing seed protein concentration without adversely affecting the yield and oil content has been difficult to achieve. It has been demonstrated that the temperature and genotype of soybeans influence the protein or lipid composition considerably. However, the interactions between various pathways responsible for the changes in the composition are unknown ...


A Comprehensive Dynamic Model For High-Pressure Tubular Low-Density Polyethylene (Ldpe) Reactors , Mothivel B. Mummudi Boopathy Jan 2006

A Comprehensive Dynamic Model For High-Pressure Tubular Low-Density Polyethylene (Ldpe) Reactors , Mothivel B. Mummudi Boopathy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a versatile polymer which is widely used both in domestic and industrial applications. About 50% of commercial LDPE production around the world is carried out by free-radical polymerization initiated by organic peroxides in high-pressure tubular reactors. The free-radical polymerization is highly sensitive to even small changes in process conditions. As a result, the extreme pressures and temperatures in the high-pressure tubular LDPE reactor (HPTLR) present operational challenges to the plant engineer. A reliable model of the HPTLR will prove to be a valuable tool for the plant engineer in making decisions about reactor operations;In this ...


Directed Growth And Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells Using A Synergistic Combination Of Topographical And Soluble Cues , Jennifer Behr Recknor Jan 2006

Directed Growth And Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells Using A Synergistic Combination Of Topographical And Soluble Cues , Jennifer Behr Recknor

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to develop strategies to facilitate nerve regeneration using a synergistic combination of guidance cues. We are investigating the cellular mechanisms of development using adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) and have demonstrated that manipulating a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues can lead to oriented astrocyte and neural progenitor cell outgrowth and can influence progenitor cell differentiation. To provide physical guidance, micropatterned polystyrene (PS) substrates were fabricated and chemically modified with laminin. Astrocytes or AHPCs cultured on these substrates align along the grooves of the patterned surface extending highly elongated processes. To further ...


Recovery Of Monosaccharides Via Catalytic Hydrolysis , Jason Alan Bootsma Jan 2006

Recovery Of Monosaccharides Via Catalytic Hydrolysis , Jason Alan Bootsma

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research has provided a fundamental analysis of the use of novel separation and catalyst techniques for saccharification of lignocellulosic tissues. Separation techniques focused on providing a feedstock that was more amenable to hydrolysis. Catalyst development focused on solid acid materials that would provide processing advantages, cost reductions, and waste reduction. A mechanical separation technique was used on corn stover to separate the parent material into two streams with improved processing characteristics. The desire was to produce a material that was easier to hydrolyze in addition to producing a material with enhanced fiber character. The separation technique was effective; however ...


Recovery And Purification Of Recombinant Protein From Transgenic Corn By Aqueous Two-Phase Partitioning , Zhengrong Gu Jan 2006

Recovery And Purification Of Recombinant Protein From Transgenic Corn By Aqueous Two-Phase Partitioning , Zhengrong Gu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Aqueous two-phase (ATP) partitioning was paired in a variety of ways to use of transgenic corn for protein expression. Systems were developed to selectively partition corn proteins from classes of potential recombinant proteins as well as the specific case of dog gastric lipase. More fundamentally, ATP partitioning was used to expand 2D gel electrophoretic characterization of protein size and pI to the third dimension of hydrophobicity with the usefulness of the method illustrated for corn extracts;ATP partitioning in polyethylene glycol (PEG)-salt systems separates proteins primarily according to their surface hydrophobicity differences. The average hydrophobicity of pH 7 extracts ...


Vibration-Induced Mobilization Of Trapped Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids In Porous Media , Wenqing Li Jan 2006

Vibration-Induced Mobilization Of Trapped Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids In Porous Media , Wenqing Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Acoustic wave stimulation, such as vibration-induced mobilization, is a promising enhancement approach to remove trapped NAPLs (Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids) usually encountered in multiphase flows through porous media, especially the remediation of underground water contamination and incomplete petroleum recovery from oil reservoirs, with advantages of high efficiency, low cost and environmental safety relative to traditional mobilization methods;According to a simple hypothesized capillary-physics mechanism, specific predictions can be deduced that vibration will be the most effective in mobilizing trapped non-aqueous phase liquids with a comparative higher acceleration amplitude and lower vibration frequency;Quasi-two-dimensional glass micro-model experiments were carried out and it ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Stimuli Responsive Block Copolymers, Self-Assembly Behavior And Applications , Michael Duane Determan Jan 2006

Synthesis And Characterization Of Stimuli Responsive Block Copolymers, Self-Assembly Behavior And Applications , Michael Duane Determan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Water-soluble stimuli responsive block copolymers are a rapidly emerging class of materials with great potential in biomedical and technological applications. In this work a novel class of pentablock copolymers are synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization techniques and their stimuli-responsive self-assembly properties are characterized. Aqueous solutions of these materials are observed to form micelles and hydrogels in response to changes in both temperature and pH. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) techniques are used to investigate the nanoscale structures formed by these pentablock copolymers in solution. The gel structure and mechanical ...


Development Of A Novel Microreactor For Improved Chemical Reaction Conversion, Yu Liang Apr 2005

Development Of A Novel Microreactor For Improved Chemical Reaction Conversion, Yu Liang

Doctoral Dissertations

Microreactors have been widely studied over the past two decades for different chemical reactions, to develop new analytical capabilities, and to obtain high mixing performance in the reactors. The main objectives of this work are to investigate the effect of different microchannel structures on the fluid properties and mixing behavior in microreactors, and to design, fabricate, and test a novel microreactor for higher conversion in a chemical reaction. The development of this novel microreactor is intended to provide a valuable guideline in achieving enhanced chemical mixing and to make available a solid research base for optimization of the yield of ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanostructured Aluminas , Weihua Deng Jan 2005

Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanostructured Aluminas , Weihua Deng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the work, mesoporous aluminas were produced by nonionic supramolecular templating and characterized to determine the stability of their physical structure during extended calcination at elevated temperatures. The effect of synthesis temperature on the physical structure of these materials and the resulting thermal evolution from synthesized aluminum hydroxide to transitional alumina was studied using thermogravimetric analysis. A high resolution multiple quantum magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy method was used to determine quantitatively the evolution of the aluminum coordination during the thermal processing. The mesoporous alumina exhibited high stability upon prolonged heating, which is essential for their future applications in catalytic ...


Mechanistic Insight Into The Production Of Ethylene Glycol And Propylene Glycol From Biorenewable Resources , Daniel George Lahr Jan 2005

Mechanistic Insight Into The Production Of Ethylene Glycol And Propylene Glycol From Biorenewable Resources , Daniel George Lahr

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The production of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol from biorenewable resources, i.e. sorbitol, has been parametrically examined numerous times. However, the current selectivity is too low to be economically feasible. In order to develop improved catalyst systems, a better understanding of the reaction mechanism is required. Sorbitol, due to its many functional groups is quite complex. Thus, in order to begin understanding of this system, analysis of the products is required. The study of the degradation of the product glycols and reaction of glycerol under hydrogenolysis conditions gives foundational insight. The effects of pH, competitive adsorption, and product degradation ...


Force Computations In Automated Docking , Chandrika Mulakala Jan 2005

Force Computations In Automated Docking , Chandrika Mulakala

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Automated docking refers to the problem of computing the optimal complementary fit of two molecules---a macromolecular receptor such as DNA or protein and a small molecule of interest (ligand). AutoDock is a docking software that computes the receptor-ligand binding energy to rank docked ligands. In this work, AutoDock's grid-based method for energy evaluation was exploited to complement the binding energies with computed forces on docked ligand atoms. These forces and energies helped to provide insights into enzyme-substrate interaction mechanisms of three different enzymes--- Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A, a cellobiohydrolase, Fusarium oxysporum Cel7B, an endoglucanase, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-1,2-mannosidase. Cel7A ...


Continuous-Time Block-Oriented Nonlinear Modeling With Complex Input Noise Structure , Dongmei Zhai Jan 2005

Continuous-Time Block-Oriented Nonlinear Modeling With Complex Input Noise Structure , Dongmei Zhai

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The continuous-time closed-form algorithms to sinusoidal input changes are proposed and presented for single-input, single-output (SISO) Hammerstein and Wiener systems with the first-order, second-order, and second-order plus lead dynamics. By simulation on theoretical Hammerstein and Wiener systems, the predicted responses agree exactly with the true process values. They depend on only the most recent input change. The algorithms to SISO Hammerstein and Wiener systems can be conveniently extended to the multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems as shown by the two-input, two-output examples and demonstrated by the simulated seven-input, five-output continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The predictions and the simulated theoretical responses ...


Design Of Catalytic Domains Within Organosulfonic Acid-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica , Isa Kipkoech Mbaraka Jan 2005

Design Of Catalytic Domains Within Organosulfonic Acid-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica , Isa Kipkoech Mbaraka

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas were synthesized via nonionic supramolecular assembly using the co-condensation synthesis technique with the intention of understanding the catalytic domain as well as developing strategies to control the catalytic functionalities at the molecular level. Esterification of free fatty acids in natural oils and fats was used to probe the catalytic activity of the synthesized acid-modified mesoporous catalysts. Application of solid acid catalysts in such reaction systems can possibly simplify the manufacturing process, reducing production costs, as well as eliminate environmental hazards posed by toxic wastes generated in homogeneous catalyzed reactions;The catalytic performance of the functionalized mesoporous ...