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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Pyrolysis Of Miscanthus And Products Characterization, Arshdeep Singh Aug 2019

Pyrolysis Of Miscanthus And Products Characterization, Arshdeep Singh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Miscanthus, an invasive crop, has recently gained attention as an emerging energy crop because of certain features such as adaptability to lower temperature, efficient use of water and nutrients, low or no need of nitrogen fertilizers, high biomass yield, fast growing cycle and less intensive agricultural cultivation practices than other energy crops, such as corn.

The literature review is focused on the value-added applications and conversion of Miscanthus for bioenergy and biomaterial applications. The thermochemical conversion technologies reviewed in this chapter include pyrolysis, liquefaction, torrefaction and gasification, whereas biochemical conversion technologies include enzymatic saccharification and fermentation.

In this work, Miscanthus ...


Production Of Monomeric Aromatics/Phenolics From Hydrolysis Lignin (Hl) By Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis And Hydrothermal Liquefaction, Hooman Paysepar May 2018

Production Of Monomeric Aromatics/Phenolics From Hydrolysis Lignin (Hl) By Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis And Hydrothermal Liquefaction, Hooman Paysepar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bio-oil, produced from bio-feedstocks by thermochemical conversion technologies (e.g., pyrolysis or direct liquefaction), can be renewable replacement for petroleum for energy and chemical production. However, bio oil has high oxygen content, low stability, and low heating value. Thus, upgrading of bio-oil is necessary to remove the oxygen and make it a suitable substitute for conventional liquid transportation fuels or for value-added bio-based chemicals. Oxygen in a bio-oil can be removed by catalytic cracking or hydro-de-oxygenation to the form of H2O, CO and CO2 in the presence of a catalyst.

The overall objective of this PhD project ...


Production Of Bio-Oil With Different Oxygen Content And Characterization Of Catalytic Upgrading To Transportation Fuel, Mubarak Mohammed Khlewee Dec 2017

Production Of Bio-Oil With Different Oxygen Content And Characterization Of Catalytic Upgrading To Transportation Fuel, Mubarak Mohammed Khlewee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The world’s increasing population requires an increase in transportation fuel production. The lack of production of transportation fuels due to the shortage of fossil fuel resources combined with concerns about global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion are the two major issues that have driven researchers to actively pursue alternative sources for oil production. Biomass is being considered as an alternative feedstock to produce fuel and chemicals due to its abundance and renewability. It has many features that make it suitable as a source of transportation fuel production. However, the bio-oil produced by the fast pyrolysis process ...


Catalytic Pyrolysis Of Poly Vinyl Chloride As A Viable Way Of Waste Management, Randy Santos, Foster A. Agblevor Aug 2016

Catalytic Pyrolysis Of Poly Vinyl Chloride As A Viable Way Of Waste Management, Randy Santos, Foster A. Agblevor

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The main purpose of this investigation is to achieve the dechlorination and cracking of PVC producing a low chlorinated oil using a single step process; finding and using a suitable adsorbent that captures the chlorine released in the decomposition of the Poly Vinyl Chloride in the solid phase; then use the adsorbent to enhance red mud chlorine absorption activity. Find an alternative viable use for the waste PVC and red mud that will reduce landfilling. Calcium Hydroxide was selected as the main chlorine adsorbent since it captured 75% chlorine in the solid phase. The calcium hydroxide was mixed with red ...


Application Of Mechanically Fluidized Reactors To Lignin Pyrolysis, Valentina Lago Apr 2015

Application Of Mechanically Fluidized Reactors To Lignin Pyrolysis, Valentina Lago

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignin has great potential for the production of aromatics currently derived from petroleum, since it is the most abundant source of aromatics in nature. At present, Kraft lignin is used as fuel within the pulping process but, alternatively, it could be converted to high-value chemicals using thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis. Kraft lignin, however, is a very cohesive and thermally sensitive powder with foaming and agglomerating tendency under reaction conditions. Therefore, new reactor designs are necessary to efficiently process this raw material.

Consequently, a novel reactor design, designated as Mechanically Fluidized Reactor (MFR) has been developed to successfully process Kraft ...


Upgrading Of Fast Pyrolysis Oil Via Hdo Using Nano-Structured Catalysts, Shima Ahmadi Aug 2014

Upgrading Of Fast Pyrolysis Oil Via Hdo Using Nano-Structured Catalysts, Shima Ahmadi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The effects of type of solvents (hydro-treated or upgraded pyrolysis oil and ethanol) on hydro-de-oxygenation (HDO) of fast pyrolysis oil were studied. The presence and the type of solvent were found to be effective for prevention or reduction of self-polymerization during the bio-oil HDO process. Using ethanol as the solvent had superior performance in terms of the heating value, molecular weight and elemental composition of the upgraded oil products, compared to using hydro-treated oils as the solvent. Furthermore, novel CoMo catalysts supported on nano-structured materials including MCM-41 and SBA-15 were synthesized and tested on HDO of fast pyrolysis oil in ...


Development And Applications Of A Novel Intermittent Solids Feeder For Pyrolysis Reactors, Federico M. Berruti Sep 2013

Development And Applications Of A Novel Intermittent Solids Feeder For Pyrolysis Reactors, Federico M. Berruti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This PhD research addresses the challenge of feeding biomass residues into fluidized bed reactors for pyrolysis, through the development of a novel intermittent solid slug feeder, both for laboratory-scale and large-scale reactors. The new feeder can successfully handle biomass residues that are either too cohesive or thermally sensitive for traditional feeders.

To optimize the novel feeder performance, a model for the pulsating solids flow was developed from experimental data collected with ideal slugs, as well as real biomass flow. The model was validated using both a laboratory-scale (< 10 kg/hr) and large-scale feeder (> 250 kg/hr). Several important variables were identified. They include the material flow ...


Fractional Condensation Of Bio-Oil Vapors, Akhil Tumbalam Gooty Dec 2012

Fractional Condensation Of Bio-Oil Vapors, Akhil Tumbalam Gooty

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The research project described in this thesis deals with an investigation on the fractional condensation of bio-oil vapors to improve the separation of some of the key components of the bio-oil and, consequently, improve the properties and the value of each of the separated product streams.

In the first part, the separation of a mixture of three model compounds of bio-oil from a vapor and carrier gas stream was investigated with the help of a series of three condensers maintained at different temperatures. The practical performance of the fractional condensation train was improved by comparing the experimental results with the ...


Gasification Of Bio-Oils To Syngas In Fluidized Bed Reactors, Mohammad Latifi Apr 2012

Gasification Of Bio-Oils To Syngas In Fluidized Bed Reactors, Mohammad Latifi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bio-fuels are renewable and clean which can be used as alternatives to fossil fuels or can be used in combination with them. Biomass is a main source of bio-fuels production: it is a renewable resource and its conversion to energy releases no net CO2 to the environment.

Bio-oil, the valuable liquid product obtained from biomass through pyrolysis, may be either combusted to generate carbon-neutral electricity or converted to a synthesis gas from which chemicals or clean fuels can be produced. Producing bio-oil from biomass and then converting the bio-oil to syngas has several advantages: The bio-oil may be generated ...


Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions For Bio-Oil Upgrading: Heterogeneous Catalyst And Model Compound Studies, Ryan William Snell Jan 2012

Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions For Bio-Oil Upgrading: Heterogeneous Catalyst And Model Compound Studies, Ryan William Snell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Development of a renewable liquid transportation fuel is likely to be one of the most important challenges faced by scientists during the 21st century. As biomass provides a renewable source of carbon it is ideally situated to supply this alternative to the traditional petroleum derived feedstocks. While there have been a number of different techniques used to convert biomass to liquid fuels, fast pyrolysis is particularly promising as it can quite efficiently break down biomass directly into a liquid. This resulting liquid, called bio-oil, is a very complex mixture containing a large number of oxygen functionalized compounds. Unfortunately, this oil ...


Pyrolysis Oils: Characterization, Stability Analysis, And Catalytic Upgrading To Fuels And Chemicals, Tushar Vispute Feb 2011

Pyrolysis Oils: Characterization, Stability Analysis, And Catalytic Upgrading To Fuels And Chemicals, Tushar Vispute

Open Access Dissertations

There is a growing need to develop the processes to produce renewable fuels and chemicals due to the economical, political, and environmental concerns associated with the fossil fuels. One of the most promising methods for a small scale conversion of biomass into liquid fuels is fast pyrolysis. The liquid product obtained from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil. It is a complex mixture of more than 300 compounds resulting from the depolymerization of biomass building blocks, cellulose; hemi-cellulose; and lignin. Bio-oils have low heating value, high moisture content, are acidic, contain solid char particles, are ...


Steam Reforming Of Water-Soluble Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil: Studies On Bio-Oil Composition Effect, Carbon Deposition, And Catalyst Modifications, Pedro J. Ortiz-Toral Jan 2011

Steam Reforming Of Water-Soluble Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil: Studies On Bio-Oil Composition Effect, Carbon Deposition, And Catalyst Modifications, Pedro J. Ortiz-Toral

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass can be phase separated into a heavy water insoluble portion and a light water-soluble portion. The water-rich portion contains mainly carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. This highly oxygenated water-rich portion was evaluated for production of the renewable hydrogen required for the upgrading reactions. There are certain challenges introduced due to the complexity of these mixtures. Catalyst deactivation by coking and the formation of carbon deposits are major limitations although the specific causes were previously unidentified. A bio-oil fractionating system can separate heavier components from the light-end components. This light-end fraction has ...


Understanding The Product Distribution From Biomass Fast Pyrolysis, Pushkaraj Ramchandra Patwardhan Jan 2010

Understanding The Product Distribution From Biomass Fast Pyrolysis, Pushkaraj Ramchandra Patwardhan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fast pyrolysis of biomass is an attractive route to transform solid biomass into a liquid bio-oil, which has been envisioned as a renewable substitute for crude oil. However, lack of fundamental understanding of the pyrolysis process poses a significant challenge in developing cost-effective pyrolysis based technologies for producing transportation fuels. The fundamental knowledge of pyrolysis pathways, product distribution and underlying mechanisms will have a direct and significant impact on the reactor design, strategic operation and kinetic modeling of the pyrolysis process. However, this knowledge has remained obscure due to the complexity of the pyrolysis process and lack of well established ...


Steam Reforming Of Bio-Oil: Effect Of Bio-Oil Composition And Stability, Pedro J, Ortiz-Toral Jan 2008

Steam Reforming Of Bio-Oil: Effect Of Bio-Oil Composition And Stability, Pedro J, Ortiz-Toral

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogen can be obtained from biomass pyrolysis liquids by catalytic steam reforming. Catalyst deactivation by coking and the formation of carbon deposits are the major known limitations although the specific causes are unidentified. It is proposed that these limitations could be reduced by selectively reforming specific fractions of the bio-oil. The hydrophobic fraction mainly composed of heavy oligomers can be separated by water extraction as a high-value product. In the current work, the particular interest is on efficient hydrogen production from the residual aqueous fractions. There are certain challenges introduced due to the complexity of these mixtures. An improved understanding ...