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Bio-oil

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Investigations Of Thermal Treatment Of Softwood Kraft Lignin Under Fractional And Ablative Pyrolytic Conditions, Dideolu J. Daniel Oct 2019

Investigations Of Thermal Treatment Of Softwood Kraft Lignin Under Fractional And Ablative Pyrolytic Conditions, Dideolu J. Daniel

LSU Master's Theses

Lignin is second to cellulose in abundance among polymers in nature. Research studies on the development of new products and material combinations in which lignin degradation/conversion products are involved are still in their infancy, because fundamental knowledge about its structure, reactivity, and material and polymer behavior, is still lacking.

The objective of this research study was to investigate the complex thermal deconstruction and mechanistic behavior of a type of technical lignin, known as Kraft lignin, under depolymerization and to develop operating conditions for parameters influencing resulting product yields and operation of pyrolysis reactors.

Softwood Kraft lignin (s-KL) and methanol-fractionated ...


Pyrolysis Of Miscanthus And Products Characterization, Arshdeep Singh Aug 2019

Pyrolysis Of Miscanthus And Products Characterization, Arshdeep Singh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Miscanthus, an invasive crop, has recently gained attention as an emerging energy crop because of certain features such as adaptability to lower temperature, efficient use of water and nutrients, low or no need of nitrogen fertilizers, high biomass yield, fast growing cycle and less intensive agricultural cultivation practices than other energy crops, such as corn.

The literature review is focused on the value-added applications and conversion of Miscanthus for bioenergy and biomaterial applications. The thermochemical conversion technologies reviewed in this chapter include pyrolysis, liquefaction, torrefaction and gasification, whereas biochemical conversion technologies include enzymatic saccharification and fermentation.

In this work, Miscanthus ...


Production Of Monomeric Aromatics/Phenolics From Hydrolysis Lignin (Hl) By Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis And Hydrothermal Liquefaction, Hooman Paysepar May 2018

Production Of Monomeric Aromatics/Phenolics From Hydrolysis Lignin (Hl) By Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis And Hydrothermal Liquefaction, Hooman Paysepar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bio-oil, produced from bio-feedstocks by thermochemical conversion technologies (e.g., pyrolysis or direct liquefaction), can be renewable replacement for petroleum for energy and chemical production. However, bio oil has high oxygen content, low stability, and low heating value. Thus, upgrading of bio-oil is necessary to remove the oxygen and make it a suitable substitute for conventional liquid transportation fuels or for value-added bio-based chemicals. Oxygen in a bio-oil can be removed by catalytic cracking or hydro-de-oxygenation to the form of H2O, CO and CO2 in the presence of a catalyst.

The overall objective of this PhD project ...


Anaerobic Co-Digestion Of Aqueous Liquid From Biosolids Pyrolysis, Seyedfatemeh Seyedi Apr 2018

Anaerobic Co-Digestion Of Aqueous Liquid From Biosolids Pyrolysis, Seyedfatemeh Seyedi

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Pyrolysis is a process to treat biosolids and recover energy. During pyrolysis, conversion of organic matter to energy-rich products yields biochar, py-gas, and pyrolysis liquids (aqueous phase and non-aqueous bio-oil). The aqueous pyrolysis liquid (APL), is a high-COD liquid with no apparent use that contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing compounds. One potential beneficial use of APL is as a co-digestate to produce more biogas for renewable energy from anaerobic digesters at municipal water resource recovery facilities. Some of the organics in APL may be converted to biomethane via anaerobic digestion under proper conditions. However, some APL organics are known ...


Pyrolysis Of Fiber-Plastic Waste Blends, Shreyas Kolapkar Jan 2018

Pyrolysis Of Fiber-Plastic Waste Blends, Shreyas Kolapkar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The main objective of this work is to investigate fast pyrolysis of fiber and plastic feedstocks in order to understand the synergistic effect from their co-pyrolysis. In this on-going work, fiber, plastic and their blend are characterized and pyrolysis oil is produced from them in the fast batch pyrolysis reactor. Based on a heat transfer model it is shown that results of oil produced from batch reactor will be applicable to the continuous paddle reactor. From feedstock characterization, chlorine was observed particularly in the plastic feedstock. Thus, chlorine removal method using torrefaction and high shear mixing was implemented and was ...


Value Added Products From Lignin And Biomass Derivatives, Chen Li Jan 2018

Value Added Products From Lignin And Biomass Derivatives, Chen Li

Civil & Environmental Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Pyrolysis is one of the traditional lignin and biomass utilization methods. The liquid products bio-oil and solid products bio-char are the main value-added products from lignin pyrolysis. Due to the narrow application and low quality, using the pyrolysis method to produce bio-oil and bio-char cannot bring sufficient economic benefits. In this dissertation, two methods were investigated to improve the quality of lignin bio-products.

Instead of direct pyrolysis, chemical activation (pyrolysis) was introduced in this dissertation. Compared to bio-char, the lignin chemical activation product lignin-activated-carbon has better economic value. With the best activation conditions, the lignin-activated-carbon produced a surface area of ...


Production Of Bio-Oil With Different Oxygen Content And Characterization Of Catalytic Upgrading To Transportation Fuel, Mubarak Mohammed Khlewee Dec 2017

Production Of Bio-Oil With Different Oxygen Content And Characterization Of Catalytic Upgrading To Transportation Fuel, Mubarak Mohammed Khlewee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The world’s increasing population requires an increase in transportation fuel production. The lack of production of transportation fuels due to the shortage of fossil fuel resources combined with concerns about global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion are the two major issues that have driven researchers to actively pursue alternative sources for oil production. Biomass is being considered as an alternative feedstock to produce fuel and chemicals due to its abundance and renewability. It has many features that make it suitable as a source of transportation fuel production. However, the bio-oil produced by the fast pyrolysis process ...


Catalytic Pyrolysis Of Poly Vinyl Chloride As A Viable Way Of Waste Management, Randy Santos, Foster A. Agblevor Aug 2016

Catalytic Pyrolysis Of Poly Vinyl Chloride As A Viable Way Of Waste Management, Randy Santos, Foster A. Agblevor

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The main purpose of this investigation is to achieve the dechlorination and cracking of PVC producing a low chlorinated oil using a single step process; finding and using a suitable adsorbent that captures the chlorine released in the decomposition of the Poly Vinyl Chloride in the solid phase; then use the adsorbent to enhance red mud chlorine absorption activity. Find an alternative viable use for the waste PVC and red mud that will reduce landfilling. Calcium Hydroxide was selected as the main chlorine adsorbent since it captured 75% chlorine in the solid phase. The calcium hydroxide was mixed with red ...


Gasification Of Liquid Sprays In An Entrained Flow Gasifier, Nicholas Ryan Creager Jan 2016

Gasification Of Liquid Sprays In An Entrained Flow Gasifier, Nicholas Ryan Creager

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In an advancing technological world, gasification is a relatively mature technology that can be refreshed to help achieve sustainable energy production. This thesis discusses the development of a pressurized gasification system that converts bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of red oak into producer gas. Focus will be given to the challenges of operating a pressurized system at high temperature while injecting a non-uniform liquid. Demonstration experiments using methanol resulted in development of experimental methods to show critical nozzle designs and their affects on gasification of liquid jets.

Start up of the bio-oil gasification system was performed using methanol as a model ...


Experimental Investigation Of Fast Pyrolysis Of Arundo Donax In A Novel Paddle Reactor, Chintan Desai Jan 2016

Experimental Investigation Of Fast Pyrolysis Of Arundo Donax In A Novel Paddle Reactor, Chintan Desai

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The main objective of this research was to show the effectiveness of a novel paddle reactor for fast pyrolysis and study the effect of biomass particle size and reaction temperature of Arundo Donax a type of energy crop on the bio-oil yields. The novel paddle reactor showed effective mixing and heat transfer which were proved with the help of studying the residence time and the heating characteristics of the system respectively. The effect of different biomass particle sizes on the bio-oil yield was not significant, the bio-oil yield was approximately 50% for all the sizes. For Arundo Donax particle sizes ...


Application Of Mechanically Fluidized Reactors To Lignin Pyrolysis, Valentina Lago Apr 2015

Application Of Mechanically Fluidized Reactors To Lignin Pyrolysis, Valentina Lago

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignin has great potential for the production of aromatics currently derived from petroleum, since it is the most abundant source of aromatics in nature. At present, Kraft lignin is used as fuel within the pulping process but, alternatively, it could be converted to high-value chemicals using thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis. Kraft lignin, however, is a very cohesive and thermally sensitive powder with foaming and agglomerating tendency under reaction conditions. Therefore, new reactor designs are necessary to efficiently process this raw material.

Consequently, a novel reactor design, designated as Mechanically Fluidized Reactor (MFR) has been developed to successfully process Kraft ...


Techno-Economic, Uncertainty, And Optimization Analysis Of Commodity Product Production From Biomass Fast Pyrolysis And Bio-Oil Upgrading, Wenhao Hu Jan 2015

Techno-Economic, Uncertainty, And Optimization Analysis Of Commodity Product Production From Biomass Fast Pyrolysis And Bio-Oil Upgrading, Wenhao Hu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Advanced biofuel is a promising replacement to fossil fuels for the purpose of protecting the environment and securing national energy supply, but the high cost of producing advanced biofuels makes it not as competitive as petroleum-based fuels. Recent technology developments in biomass fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading introduced several innovative pathways to convert bio-oil into other commodity products, such as bio-asphalt, bio-cement, dextrose and benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX). Before commercializing these products, a comprehensive techno-economic analysis should be employed to examine the economic feasibility of producing them. This thesis compared the economic performance of biofuels, biochemicals, and hydrocarbon chemicals portfolios ...


Thermo-Catalytic Upgrading Of Pyrolysis Vapors Using Electromagnetic Heating, Pranjali Devidas Muley Jan 2015

Thermo-Catalytic Upgrading Of Pyrolysis Vapors Using Electromagnetic Heating, Pranjali Devidas Muley

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Electromagnetic heating offers several advantages such as rapid heating rates, accurate temperature control and energy efficiency over conventional reactors. The goal of this study was to design an effective and energy efficient catalytic reactor for pyrolysis vapor upgrading. An induction based catalytic reactor was designed for upgrading of pyrolysis vapors. The effect of catalyst bed temperatures (290°, 330° and 370°C) and biomass to catalyst ratios of 1, 1.5 and 2 was studied. The results were compared to conventional heating reactor. Induction heating reactor performance exceeded that of conventional heater. The biomass to catalyst ratio of 2 in combination ...


Upgrading Of Fast Pyrolysis Oil Via Hdo Using Nano-Structured Catalysts, Shima Ahmadi Aug 2014

Upgrading Of Fast Pyrolysis Oil Via Hdo Using Nano-Structured Catalysts, Shima Ahmadi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The effects of type of solvents (hydro-treated or upgraded pyrolysis oil and ethanol) on hydro-de-oxygenation (HDO) of fast pyrolysis oil were studied. The presence and the type of solvent were found to be effective for prevention or reduction of self-polymerization during the bio-oil HDO process. Using ethanol as the solvent had superior performance in terms of the heating value, molecular weight and elemental composition of the upgraded oil products, compared to using hydro-treated oils as the solvent. Furthermore, novel CoMo catalysts supported on nano-structured materials including MCM-41 and SBA-15 were synthesized and tested on HDO of fast pyrolysis oil in ...


The Effect Of Process Variables On Pyrolysis In A Freefall Reactor, Preston Gable Jan 2014

The Effect Of Process Variables On Pyrolysis In A Freefall Reactor, Preston Gable

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this work is to test variables of fast pyrolysis conditions in a free fall reactor in order to better understand their impact on pyrolysis products, specifically optimization of bio-oil yields. In the first study, a design of experiments was performed and products were analyzed to evaluate the effects of temperature, sweep gas flow rates, and particle heating time, on bio-oil yields. This study proved particle heating time to be a very important variable effecting bio-oil yields, and that a heating time of greater than the traditionally assumed two seconds must be achieved in order to optimize yields ...


A Study Of Induction Pyrolysis Of Lignicellulosic Biomass For The Production Of Bio-Oil, Charles Edward Henkel Jan 2014

A Study Of Induction Pyrolysis Of Lignicellulosic Biomass For The Production Of Bio-Oil, Charles Edward Henkel

LSU Master's Theses

The increasing demand for energy coupled with a growing concern that the combustion of fossil fuels has on the environment, through the production of greenhouse gases, has created a demand for renewable energy sources. The demand for renewable energy, particularly liquid transportation fuels, can be met in part by the use of biomass based liquid fuels. There are several methods that can be used to produce biomass based fuels, but only thermochemical conversion (pyrolysis) can readily convert lignocellulosic biomass into a fuel-like liquid, bio-oil. The pyrolytic conditions for obtaining maximum liquid yields vary, but many of the criteria can be ...


Development And Applications Of A Novel Intermittent Solids Feeder For Pyrolysis Reactors, Federico M. Berruti Sep 2013

Development And Applications Of A Novel Intermittent Solids Feeder For Pyrolysis Reactors, Federico M. Berruti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This PhD research addresses the challenge of feeding biomass residues into fluidized bed reactors for pyrolysis, through the development of a novel intermittent solid slug feeder, both for laboratory-scale and large-scale reactors. The new feeder can successfully handle biomass residues that are either too cohesive or thermally sensitive for traditional feeders.

To optimize the novel feeder performance, a model for the pulsating solids flow was developed from experimental data collected with ideal slugs, as well as real biomass flow. The model was validated using both a laboratory-scale (< 10 kg/hr) and large-scale feeder (> 250 kg/hr). Several important variables were identified. They include the material flow ...


Analysis Of Sugars And Phenolic Compounds In Bio-Oil, Marjorie Ruth Rover Jan 2013

Analysis Of Sugars And Phenolic Compounds In Bio-Oil, Marjorie Ruth Rover

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this research is to develop methods for analyzing and recovering sugars and phenolic compounds from bio-oil. Specific objectives include (1) adapting analytical methods developed for sugar analysis in the food industry to measure total water-soluble sugars in the aqueous phase of bio-oil; (2) adapting analytical methods developed for total phenolic analysis of wine to measure total phenolic content of bio-oil; (3) separate the heavy fraction of bio-oil into a concentrated sugar solution and a phenolic oligomer-rich raffinate; and (4) determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the yield of sugars and phenolic compounds in bio-oil.

Recent ...


The Laboratory Evaluation Of Bio Oil Derived From Waste Resources As Extender For Asphalt Binder, Xu Yang Jan 2013

The Laboratory Evaluation Of Bio Oil Derived From Waste Resources As Extender For Asphalt Binder, Xu Yang

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

A shortage of petroleum asphalt is creating opportunities for engineers to utilize alternative pavement materials. Three types of bio oils, original bio oil (OB), dewatered bio oil (DWB) and polymer-modified bio oil (PMB) were used to modify and partially replace petroleum asphalt in this research. The research investigated the procedure of producing bio oil, the rheological properties of asphalt binders modified and partially replaced by bio oil, and the mechanical performances of asphalt mixtures modified by bio oil. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted on the test results for the significance analysis. The main finding of the study includes ...


Pyrolytic Sugars From Cellulosic Biomass, Najeeb M. Kuzhiyil Jan 2013

Pyrolytic Sugars From Cellulosic Biomass, Najeeb M. Kuzhiyil

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and ...


Development Of A Co-Firing Fuel From Biomass-Derived Binder And Crushed Coal, Andrew Friend Jan 2013

Development Of A Co-Firing Fuel From Biomass-Derived Binder And Crushed Coal, Andrew Friend

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this work was the development of a co-firing boiler fuel for use in the coal power plant industry. This fuel, known as co-fire pellets, is a densified product comprised of crushed coal and a renewable binder derived from the liquid product of the fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. The co-fire pellets can help meet certain state and federal regulations related to electricity production. A central composite design of experiments was used to evaluate properties of the co-fire pellets based on four factors relating to the makeup of the pellets. These factors are coal particle size, coal moisture ...


Fractional Condensation Of Bio-Oil Vapors, Akhil Tumbalam Gooty Dec 2012

Fractional Condensation Of Bio-Oil Vapors, Akhil Tumbalam Gooty

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The research project described in this thesis deals with an investigation on the fractional condensation of bio-oil vapors to improve the separation of some of the key components of the bio-oil and, consequently, improve the properties and the value of each of the separated product streams.

In the first part, the separation of a mixture of three model compounds of bio-oil from a vapor and carrier gas stream was investigated with the help of a series of three condensers maintained at different temperatures. The practical performance of the fractional condensation train was improved by comparing the experimental results with the ...


Gasification Of Bio-Oils To Syngas In Fluidized Bed Reactors, Mohammad Latifi Apr 2012

Gasification Of Bio-Oils To Syngas In Fluidized Bed Reactors, Mohammad Latifi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bio-fuels are renewable and clean which can be used as alternatives to fossil fuels or can be used in combination with them. Biomass is a main source of bio-fuels production: it is a renewable resource and its conversion to energy releases no net CO2 to the environment.

Bio-oil, the valuable liquid product obtained from biomass through pyrolysis, may be either combusted to generate carbon-neutral electricity or converted to a synthesis gas from which chemicals or clean fuels can be produced. Producing bio-oil from biomass and then converting the bio-oil to syngas has several advantages: The bio-oil may be generated ...


Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions For Bio-Oil Upgrading: Heterogeneous Catalyst And Model Compound Studies, Ryan William Snell Jan 2012

Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions For Bio-Oil Upgrading: Heterogeneous Catalyst And Model Compound Studies, Ryan William Snell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Development of a renewable liquid transportation fuel is likely to be one of the most important challenges faced by scientists during the 21st century. As biomass provides a renewable source of carbon it is ideally situated to supply this alternative to the traditional petroleum derived feedstocks. While there have been a number of different techniques used to convert biomass to liquid fuels, fast pyrolysis is particularly promising as it can quite efficiently break down biomass directly into a liquid. This resulting liquid, called bio-oil, is a very complex mixture containing a large number of oxygen functionalized compounds. Unfortunately, this oil ...


Pyrolysis Oils: Characterization, Stability Analysis, And Catalytic Upgrading To Fuels And Chemicals, Tushar Vispute Feb 2011

Pyrolysis Oils: Characterization, Stability Analysis, And Catalytic Upgrading To Fuels And Chemicals, Tushar Vispute

Open Access Dissertations

There is a growing need to develop the processes to produce renewable fuels and chemicals due to the economical, political, and environmental concerns associated with the fossil fuels. One of the most promising methods for a small scale conversion of biomass into liquid fuels is fast pyrolysis. The liquid product obtained from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil. It is a complex mixture of more than 300 compounds resulting from the depolymerization of biomass building blocks, cellulose; hemi-cellulose; and lignin. Bio-oils have low heating value, high moisture content, are acidic, contain solid char particles, are ...


Steam Reforming Of Water-Soluble Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil: Studies On Bio-Oil Composition Effect, Carbon Deposition, And Catalyst Modifications, Pedro J. Ortiz-Toral Jan 2011

Steam Reforming Of Water-Soluble Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil: Studies On Bio-Oil Composition Effect, Carbon Deposition, And Catalyst Modifications, Pedro J. Ortiz-Toral

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass can be phase separated into a heavy water insoluble portion and a light water-soluble portion. The water-rich portion contains mainly carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. This highly oxygenated water-rich portion was evaluated for production of the renewable hydrogen required for the upgrading reactions. There are certain challenges introduced due to the complexity of these mixtures. Catalyst deactivation by coking and the formation of carbon deposits are major limitations although the specific causes were previously unidentified. A bio-oil fractionating system can separate heavier components from the light-end components. This light-end fraction has ...


Asphalt Modification By Utilizing Bio-Oil Esp And Tall Oil Additive, Sheng Tang Jan 2010

Asphalt Modification By Utilizing Bio-Oil Esp And Tall Oil Additive, Sheng Tang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bio-oil is a dark-brown, mobile liquid derived from the thermo-chemical processing of biomass. Bio-oils generally contain water and lignin. Lignin is a highly-available, well-studied carbohydrate derivative known for its antioxidant properties. For asphalt pavements, oxidation can cause deterioration via long-term aging and eventually result in cracking. Therefore, bio-oil could potentially serve as an antioxidant additive in asphalt mixtures. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the effects of lignin-containing bio-oil for utilization in asphalt binders, and attempt to optimize the bio-oil modification formula by adding other additives. Using bio-oil as an antioxidant in asphalt production could prove to ...


Understanding The Product Distribution From Biomass Fast Pyrolysis, Pushkaraj Ramchandra Patwardhan Jan 2010

Understanding The Product Distribution From Biomass Fast Pyrolysis, Pushkaraj Ramchandra Patwardhan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fast pyrolysis of biomass is an attractive route to transform solid biomass into a liquid bio-oil, which has been envisioned as a renewable substitute for crude oil. However, lack of fundamental understanding of the pyrolysis process poses a significant challenge in developing cost-effective pyrolysis based technologies for producing transportation fuels. The fundamental knowledge of pyrolysis pathways, product distribution and underlying mechanisms will have a direct and significant impact on the reactor design, strategic operation and kinetic modeling of the pyrolysis process. However, this knowledge has remained obscure due to the complexity of the pyrolysis process and lack of well established ...


Development Of A Lab-Scale Auger Reactor For Biomass Fast Pyrolysis And Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology, Jared Nathaniel Brown Jan 2009

Development Of A Lab-Scale Auger Reactor For Biomass Fast Pyrolysis And Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology, Jared Nathaniel Brown

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A lab-scale biomass fast pyrolysis system was designed and constructed based on an auger reactor concept. The design features two intermeshing augers that mix biomass with a heated bulk solid material that serves as a heat transfer medium. A literature review, engineering design process, and shake-down testing procedure was included as part of the system development.

A response surface methodology was carried out by performing 30 experiments based on a four factor, five level central composite design to evaluate and optimize the system. The factors investigated were: (1) heat carrier inlet temperature, (2) heat carrier mass feed rate, (3) rotational ...


Design, Optimization And Evaluation Of A Free-Fall Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Reactor And Its Products, Cody James Ellens Jan 2009

Design, Optimization And Evaluation Of A Free-Fall Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Reactor And Its Products, Cody James Ellens

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this work is a radiatively heated, free-fall, fast pyrolysis reactor. The reactor was designed and constructed for the production of bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. A central composite design of experiments was performed to evaluate the novel reactor by varying four operating conditions: reactor temperature, biomass particle size, carrier gas flow rate and biomass feed rate. Maximum bio-oil yields of 72 wt % were achieved at a heater set point temperature of 600 yC, using particle sizes of 300 micron, carrier gas flow rates of 4 sL/min and Red oak biomass feed rates of 1 ...