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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Design And Development Of Four To Sixteen Channel Video Multiplexers, Ronan Rahimi Dec 1995

Design And Development Of Four To Sixteen Channel Video Multiplexers, Ronan Rahimi

Theses

Video multiplexer series were successfully designed and built for prototype and evaluation both in terms of hardware and software. The hardware platform was designed to accommodate up to sixteen color video input channels for time lapse or real time recording on a single video cassette recorder. This product implements four modes of operation; Live, Record, Playback and Menu mode, which is not a full mode of operation. Menu mode is a series of on-screen programming menus which appears on Live, Record and Playback modes. Menu mode enables the user to program the machine to work under specific modes of application ...


The Development Of An Embedded Wireless Modem Conforming To Advanced Mobile Phone System And Cellular Digital Packet Data Standards, Xin Ren Dec 1995

The Development Of An Embedded Wireless Modem Conforming To Advanced Mobile Phone System And Cellular Digital Packet Data Standards, Xin Ren

Theses

Introduced by AT&T Bell Labs in 1970s, today Advanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS) - a first generation analog cellular system serve millions of customers in the United States and 55 other countries, and the number of subscribers is still rapidly increasing. Although digital cellular systems are emerging in recent years, research efforts are still being made to the enhancement of AMPS systems because of their popularity. An example is the new Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) standard announced in 1994. CDPD is an overlay of the existing AMPS, and has the capability of transmitting data packets over such an analog ...


A Comparative Study Of Image Compress Schemes, Kui Wang Dec 1995

A Comparative Study Of Image Compress Schemes, Kui Wang

Theses

Image compression is an important and active area of signal processing. All popular image compression techniques consist of three stages: Image transformation, quantization (lossy compression only), and lossless coding (of quantized transform coefficients).

This thesis deals with a comparative study of several lossy image compression techniques. First, it reviews the well-known techniques of each stage. Starting with the first stage, the techniques of orthogonal block transformation and subband transform are described in detail. Then the quantization stage is described, followed by a brief review of the techniques for the third stage, lossless coding.

Then these different image compression techniques are ...


On The Adaptive Multi-Stage Detector For Cancellation Of Multiuser Interference In Cdma Wireless Communication Systems, Nadir Sezgin Dec 1995

On The Adaptive Multi-Stage Detector For Cancellation Of Multiuser Interference In Cdma Wireless Communication Systems, Nadir Sezgin

Dissertations

The classical multiple access techniques such as Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) schemes are band limited in terms of their capacity to be used for mobile radio communication. Recent developments in the area of digital signal processing, makes Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) as a possible solution to the demand of capacity for the mobile radio communication. The capacity of CDMA is limited by multiuser interference, that is the interference from the other users.

The goal of this dissertation is to improve the multiuser CDMA detector with high Bit Error Rate (BER) performance, low ...


Adaptive Space-Time Processing For Wireless Communications, Xiao Cheng Bernstein Dec 1995

Adaptive Space-Time Processing For Wireless Communications, Xiao Cheng Bernstein

Dissertations

Adaptive space-time processing techniques have been found to increase the capacity of two major, multiple-access wireless communication systems: Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

In an IS-54 TDMA system, the frequency re-use factor has to be set to 7 so that cells with the same spectrum are separated far enough to meet a required carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR). Space processing uses multiple antennas which, in turn, provide alternative signal paths in order to cancel interferences and combat multipath fading. We have proposed the eigencanceler method and have reviewed the theoretical optimum combining and the feasible direct ...


On Optimal Design And Applications Of Linear Transforms, Mehmet V. Tazebay Dec 1995

On Optimal Design And Applications Of Linear Transforms, Mehmet V. Tazebay

Dissertations

Linear transforms are encountered in many fields of applied science and engineering. In the past, conventional block transforms provided acceptable answers to different practical problems. But now, under increasing competitive pressures, with the growing reservoir of theory and a corresponding development of computing facilities, a real demand has been created for methods that systematically improve performance. As a result the past two decades have seen the explosive growth of a class of linear transform theory known as multiresolution signal decomposition. The goal of this work is to design and apply these advanced signal processing techniques to several different problems.

The ...


On The Optimization Problems In Multiaccess Communication Systems, Gangsheng Wang Dec 1995

On The Optimization Problems In Multiaccess Communication Systems, Gangsheng Wang

Dissertations

In a. communication system, the bandwidth is often a primary resource. In order to support concurrent access by numerous users in a network, this finite and expensive resource must be shared among many independent contending users. Multi-access protocols control this access of the resource among users to achieve its efficient utilization, satisfy connectivity requirements and resolve any conflict among the contending users. Many optimization problems arise in designing a multi-access protocol. Among these, there is a class of optimization problems known as NP-complete, and no polynomial algorithm can possibly solve them. Conventional methods may not be efficient arid often produce ...


Comparison Of Adaptive Radar Algorithms : Transformed Smi, Eigencanceler, And Smi, Chaitanya H. Kathiari Dec 1995

Comparison Of Adaptive Radar Algorithms : Transformed Smi, Eigencanceler, And Smi, Chaitanya H. Kathiari

Theses

Advanced airborne radars must perform target detection in the presence of interference and heavy clutter. In many applications, the practical usefulness of adaptive arrays is limited by their convergence rate. In this paper, we first analyze the performance of the SMI method. Then, two other methods, the transformed SMI and the eigencanceler, both based on the principle component inversion (PCI) technique, are described and analyzed by simulation. It is shown by simulation based comparison that the transformed SMI and the Eigencanceler outperform the SMI method. It is also shown that the transformed SMI and the eigencanceler has higher convergence rate ...


Numerical Simulation Of Clipping Distortion In Lightwave Catv Systems, Luay Al-Nadi Dec 1995

Numerical Simulation Of Clipping Distortion In Lightwave Catv Systems, Luay Al-Nadi

Theses

Clipping induced distortion is an essential limit for modulation depth and number of channels in subcarrier multiplexed lightwave video transmission systems. Two different types of laser clipping are compared (single-clipping vs. double-clipping). In this work, the distortion limits imposed by clipping effects, in both directly (single-clipping) and externally (double-clipping) modulated systems, are examined. Numerical simulations were performed to test the efficiency of Saleh's Model. A comparison of results with clipping induced distortion in directly modulated lightwave systems (single-clipping) and clipping induced distortion in externally modulated lightwave systems (double-clipping) is presented, it is shown through numerical simulation that the total ...


Analysis Of Calibration, Robustness, Detection Of Space-Time Adaptive Rada Using Experimental Data, Murat O. Berin Dec 1995

Analysis Of Calibration, Robustness, Detection Of Space-Time Adaptive Rada Using Experimental Data, Murat O. Berin

Theses

Signal cancellation effects in adaptive array radar are studied under non ideal conditions when there is a mismatch between the true desired signal and the presumed theoretical desired signal. This mismatch results in decreased performance when the estimated correlation matrix has a large desired signal component. The performance of the sample matrix inversion (SMI) method is compared to the eigenanalysis-based eigencanceler method. Both analytical results and the processing on the experimental data from the Mountaintop Program, show that eigenanalysis-based adaptive beamformers have greater robustness to signal cancellation effects than the SMI method. Also, the calibration of the recorded data, and ...


Implementation Of A Friction Estimation And Compensation Technique, Jayesh N. Amin Dec 1995

Implementation Of A Friction Estimation And Compensation Technique, Jayesh N. Amin

Theses

This thesis reports implementation of a friction estimation and compensation technique on a special laboratory apparatus. In this work, experimental results are reported for the Coulomb friction observer.

The Coulomb friction observer estimates the total friction present in a system, assuming it to be a constant function of velocity. An extension of the observer, utilizing a coupled velocity observer, is used when velocity is not measurable. A modification to the velocity observer is also implemented. Experimental results show a remarkable improvement in the friction estimates which are also compared to the actual friction measurements. The estimates are qualitatively similar to ...


Adaptive Radar In Heterogeneous Environment, Albert Futernik Dec 1995

Adaptive Radar In Heterogeneous Environment, Albert Futernik

Theses

Radar performance in heterogeneous clutter has been a much studied topic. In all the studies so far, various forms of the sample matrix inversion (SMI) technique where used to calculate the weight vector of the processor. In this thesis an eigenanalysis-based technique known as the eigencanceler, is used. Performance of this technique is compared to the performance of the generalized likelihood ration (GLR) processor. This comparison is done using the clutter edge model, in which there is an abrupt change in the clutter power in the reference window. It is shown that the false alarm rate fluctuations, of the cell ...


Gabor Expansion Of An Equivalent Dipole Antenna, Oksana Manzhura Dec 1995

Gabor Expansion Of An Equivalent Dipole Antenna, Oksana Manzhura

Theses

The Gabor representation in the context of an aperture problem is an expansion of a radiated field in terms of a discrete set of linearly shifted and spatially rotated elementary Gaussian beams. The parameters that can be varied in this summation are the number of beams and corresponding beam widths. As the difficulty associated with the unique determination of the expansion coefficients was alleviated, the method has been successfully applied to one and two dimensional apertures. Although, the asymptotic evaluation of expansion functions has reduced the computational burden drasticallym it was at the expense of some loss in accuracy. The ...


Small Computer System Interface (Scsi) Universal Services For The Turbonet Parallel Computer, Artak Ohan Melkonian Dec 1995

Small Computer System Interface (Scsi) Universal Services For The Turbonet Parallel Computer, Artak Ohan Melkonian

Theses

TurboNet is a parallel computer with shared-memory and message-passing hybrid architecture. It employs two boards, with four digital signal processors (DSPs) each, and a host FORCE SPARC CPU-2CE board with a SCSI bus.

Software has been developed in this thesis to provide SCSI services to programs running on the DSPs. DSP programs can therefore fully control assigned SCSI devices at the SCSI command level. Transfer control modifiers ensure compatibility with most SCSI devices.

The software provides service for three SCSI access levels. The "su" SCSI universal device driver is built into the host computer's kernel and is a gateway ...


Configuring The Radial Basis Function Neural Network, Insoo Sohn Dec 1995

Configuring The Radial Basis Function Neural Network, Insoo Sohn

Theses

The most important factor in configuring an optimum radial basis function (RBF) network is the training of neural units in the hidden layer. Many algorithms have been proposed, e.g., competitive learning (CL), to train the hidden units. CL suffers from producing "dead-units." The other major factor Which was ignored in the past is the appropriate selection of the number of neural units in the hidden layer. The frequency sensitive competitive learning (FSCL) algorithm was proposed to alleviate the problem of dead-units, but it does not alleviate the latter problem. The rival penalized competitive learning (RPCL) algorithm is an improved ...


Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna, Luis Alberto Tumialan Dec 1995

Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna, Luis Alberto Tumialan

Theses

Design procedure for Linearly Tapered Slot Antennas (LTSA) has been developed and implemented using High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) code based on a finite-element analysis.

A CAD study of two variations of a LISA based on either a stripline or a microstrip feed has been carried out. Circular and radial stubs have been considered in these designs for an antenna operating at 10 Ghz. LTSA on a Duroid substrate fed by a stripline has been designed to operate with better than 12 dB return loss. Fabricated antenna was characterized and had even a wider response than the CAD design. Radiation ...


Seasonal Hidden Markov Models For Stochastic Time Series With Periodically Varying Characteristics, Arthur M. Lewis Jul 1995

Seasonal Hidden Markov Models For Stochastic Time Series With Periodically Varying Characteristics, Arthur M. Lewis

Dissertations and Theses

Novel seasonal hidden Markov models (SHMMs) for stochastic time series with periodically varying characteristics are developed. Nonlinear interactions among SHMM parameters prevent the use of the forward-backward algorithms which are usually used to fit hidden Markov models to a data sequence. Instead, Powell's direction set method for optimizing a function is repeatedly applied to adjust SHMM parameters to fit a data sequence. SHMMs are applied to a set of meteorological data consisting of 9 years of daily rain gauge readings from four sites. The fitted models capture both the annual patterns and the short term persistence of rainfall patterns ...


Grain-Size Optimization And Scheduling For Distributed Memory Architectures, Jing-Chiou Liou May 1995

Grain-Size Optimization And Scheduling For Distributed Memory Architectures, Jing-Chiou Liou

Dissertations

The problem of scheduling parallel programs for execution on distributed memory parallel architectures has become the subject of intense research in recent, years. Because of the high inter-processor communication overhead in existing parallel machines, a crucial step in scheduling is task clustering, the process of coalescing heavily communicating fine grain tasks into coarser ones in order to reduce the communication overhead so that the overall execution time is minimized.

The thesis of this research is that the task of exposing the parallelism in a given application should be left to the algorithm designer. On the other hand, the task of ...


Radiation Damage Studies In Gate Oxides, Sandeep G. Bharathi May 1995

Radiation Damage Studies In Gate Oxides, Sandeep G. Bharathi

Theses

Detailed investigation of the effects of Gamma-ray irradiation on the electrical properties such as current-voltage arid capacitance-voltage characteristics in thermally grown SiO2 films in the thickness range of 15 to 120 nm on silicon substrates is presented in this thesis. The structures used in this study are Al/Poly/SiO2/Si/Al and Al/SiO2/Si/Al MOS capacitors. Based on the electrical characterization studies, we observe that irradiation causes generation of positive charges in the oxide leading to a shift of the high frequency Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) curves. An increase in surface state density at the SiO ...


A Defect Detection Algorithm For Sequential And Parallel Computers, Ralf Hross May 1995

A Defect Detection Algorithm For Sequential And Parallel Computers, Ralf Hross

Theses

The comparison of images containing a single object of interest, where one of them contains a model object, is frequently used for defect detection/identification. This is often a problem of interest to industrial applications. To make this task more efficient, the implementation on parallel computers should be a major objective. This thesis introduces sequential and parallel versions of an algorithm that compares original(reference) and processed images in the time and frequency domains. The emphasis is on parallel implementation. This comparison may help to detect changes in images. Extracted data is also compared to database data in an attempt ...


Investigation Of Hybrid Message-Passing And Shared-Memory Architectures For Parallel Computer : A Case Study : Turbonet, Xi Li May 1995

Investigation Of Hybrid Message-Passing And Shared-Memory Architectures For Parallel Computer : A Case Study : Turbonet, Xi Li

Dissertations

Several DSP (Digital Signal Processing) algorithms are developed for the MIT TurboNet parallel computer. In contrast to other parallel computers that implement exclusively in hardware either the message-passing or the shared-memory communication paradigm, or employ distributed shared-memory architectures characterized by inefficient implementation of the shared-memory paradigm, the hybrid architecture of TurboNet supports direct, efficient implementation of both paradigms. Three versions of each algorithm are developed, if possible, corresponding to message-passing, shared-memory, and hybrid communications, respectively. Theoretical and experimental comparisons of algorithms are employed in the analysis of performance. The results prove that the hybrid versions generally achieve better performance than ...


A Modified Lrt-Based Spread-Spectrum Receiver Using Spatial And Temporal Processing, Jeffrey L. Cutcher May 1995

A Modified Lrt-Based Spread-Spectrum Receiver Using Spatial And Temporal Processing, Jeffrey L. Cutcher

Theses

The problem of demodulating a direct-sequence (DS) spread-spectrum signal in the presence of single-tone or narrow-band interference and multi-path is discussed. A likelihood-ratio test (LRT) receiver is presented which consists of a whitening filter and a RAKE correlator.

A modified LRT receiver structure is then considered where the whitening filter is replaced by an antenna array with corresponding tap coefficients. The array spatially removes the interference by estimating it's angle-of-arrival. Using the array has an advantage over the original LRT receiver when a narrow-band interference is present. Both receivers are identical in performance under the single-tone interference model.

A ...


Automatic Synthesis Of Vlsi Layout For Analog Continuous-Time Filters, David Lyle Robinson Mar 1995

Automatic Synthesis Of Vlsi Layout For Analog Continuous-Time Filters, David Lyle Robinson

Dissertations and Theses

Automatic synthesis of digital VLSI layout has been available for many years. It has become a necessary part of the design industry as the window of time from conception to production shrinks with ever increasing competition. However, automatic synthesis of analog VLSI layout remains rare. With digital circuits, there is often room for signal drift. In a digital circuit, a signal can drift within a range before hitting the threshold which triggers a change in logic state. The effect of parasitic capacitances for the most part, hinders the timing margins of the signal, but not its functionality. The logic functionality ...


A Silicon Knife Design And Fabrication, Mingli Wang Jan 1995

A Silicon Knife Design And Fabrication, Mingli Wang

Theses

In this thesis, the design and fabrication of a silicon knife is described. The device design is based on the principle of oxidation sharpening.

The knife is made from a silicon wafer and can be made to be any chosen length up to 150 mm. It was made with the same basic procedures used in semiconductor chip manufacturing. This type of processing/manufacturing results in a knife with a high degree of sharpness and smoothness compared with existing knife technology.

The knife fabrication plan combines IC processing, techniques including anisotropic and isotropic etching of silicon, plasma dry etching and chemical ...


Study Of Stress In Microelectronic Materials By Photoelasticity, Hancheng Liang Jan 1995

Study Of Stress In Microelectronic Materials By Photoelasticity, Hancheng Liang

Dissertations

The study of stress is playing an important role in microelectronic technology. In comparison with other techniques, the photoelasticity technique has the advantages of having high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. It can be used in qualitative observation in real-time and quantitative determination of stress distribution in the microelectronic materials and devices.

This dissertation presents a systematic study of photoelastic stress analysis in microelectronic materials and devices, ranged from theoretical study to practical system setup, from measurement methods to their applications. At first, based on the detailed survey on the piezo-optic properties of the crystals used in microelectronics, we apply ...


Growth Optimization And Characterization Of Gallium Indium Nitride Grown By Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy , William O. Liners Jan 1995

Growth Optimization And Characterization Of Gallium Indium Nitride Grown By Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy , William O. Liners

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The various alloys of gallium indium nitride (GaInN) form a technologically important semiconductor materials system, with potential uses in optoelectronic devices operating in the blue and blue-green region of the visible light spectrum. There has been little work reported on the growth of these materials, and this research addresses fundamental issues related to the epitaxial growth of the nitrides. Our first step in this project was to install an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) apparatus into our molecular beam epitaxy system. This provided a source for atomic nitrogen needed to grow the nitride materials. We also put together a photoluminescence (PL ...


A Predictive Model Of The Hf Noise Environment At Satellite Heights , Marisa Mccoy Jan 1995

A Predictive Model Of The Hf Noise Environment At Satellite Heights , Marisa Mccoy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The radio noise background is an area of continuing research and measurement. In many cases, the background noise becomes the primary limiting factor in a communication system's sensitivity. The issue of HF (1-30 MHz) interference from terrestrial sources is especially pertinent to space-based low-frequency radio astronomy. Radio astronomy observations in the HF portion of the electromagnetic spectrum could result in new insights into astrophysical processes. However, this particular part of the spectrum is mostly inaccessible from the ground due to the effects of the Earth's ionosphere;The objective of this research is to determine to what extent terrestrial ...


Analysis Of Nonlinear Modal Interaction And Its Effect On Control Performance In Stressed Power Systems Using Normal Forms Method , Chih-Ming Lin Jan 1995

Analysis Of Nonlinear Modal Interaction And Its Effect On Control Performance In Stressed Power Systems Using Normal Forms Method , Chih-Ming Lin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this research the nonlinear modal interaction and the effect of the interaction on the stressed power system dynamic behavior including excitation control performance are discussed. A systematic scheme based on the normal forms method for the determination of nonlinear interaction between fundamental modes and excitation control modes in a stressed power system is developed;In a stressed power system, the interarea mode phenomenon may occur under large disturbance. Recent investigations revealed that the interarea mode may be among the power system fundamental modes of oscillation associated with the nonlinear modal interaction. If there is significant interaction, the controls will ...


Image Fusion Using Multi-Resolution Decomposition And Lmmse Filter , Jaewon Yim Jan 1995

Image Fusion Using Multi-Resolution Decomposition And Lmmse Filter , Jaewon Yim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The subject of data fusion utilizing heterogeneous sensors has received significant attention in recent years. Each of the sensors provides a limited perspective of the desired information. A heterogeneous sensor environment combined with a procedure for synergistically combining data from each of the transducers can potentially lead to a more comprehensive and accurate estimate of the desired information. An example of a field that can profit from the application of data fusion techniques is the area of nondestructive evaluation (NDE);This dissertation is concerned with developing efficient image fusion techniques for NDE applications. This dissertation begins with a brief description ...


Automated Image Inspection Using Wavelet Decomposition And Fuzzy Rule-Based Classifier , Zhong Zhang Jan 1995

Automated Image Inspection Using Wavelet Decomposition And Fuzzy Rule-Based Classifier , Zhong Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A general purpose image inspecting system has been developed for automatic flaw detection in industrial applications. The system has a general purpose image understanding architecture that performs local feature extraction and supervised classification. Local features of an image are extracted from the compactly supported wavelet transform of the image. The features extracted from the wavelet transform provide local harmonic analysis and multi-resolution representation of the image. Image segmentation is achieved by classifying image pixels based on features extracted within a local area near each pixel. The supervised classifier used in the segmentation process is a fuzzy rule-based classifier which is ...