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Theses/Dissertations

1995

Civil and Environmental Engineering

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Articles 1 - 30 of 46

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Nondestructive Dynamic Load Testing Of Bridges Using Strain Sensors, Suzanne Boland Dec 1995

Nondestructive Dynamic Load Testing Of Bridges Using Strain Sensors, Suzanne Boland

Theses

This thesis investigates the use of nondestructive bridge load testing utilizing strain sensing equipment. Nondestructive bridge load testing has not been used extensively due to lack of expertise and perceived high cost. It can, however, play a key role when an existing bridge needs to be evaluated. Since most evaluation techniques tend to be conservative, the results from such an evaluation may not represent the real properties of the structural members. The true properties of an existing bridge can be identified using the results from nondestructive static and dynamic load testing. The procedures used to identify a structure with the ...


Anaerobic Digestion And Acid Hydrolysis Of Nitrocellulose, Fong-Jung Tai Dec 1995

Anaerobic Digestion And Acid Hydrolysis Of Nitrocellulose, Fong-Jung Tai

Dissertations

In this investigation, studies were conducted to evaluate the biodegradation of nitrocellulose in anaerobic batch reactors with and without the supplemental carbon inducers, such as cellulose, cellobiose, and lactose. Results from the anaerobic study show that degradation of nitrocellulose alone is difficult and that nitrocellulose degradative enzymes could be induced by the three inducers tested. As high as 48.91% conversion could be obtained at Cellulose/Nitrocellulose ratio of 1 to I. Studies also indicated that type 20 and 50 celluloses would be more effective and optimum pH was about 6.4 in biodegradation of nitrocellulose. Three testing systems, namely ...


Remediation And Reuse Of Chromium Contaminated Soils Through Cold Top Ex-Site Vitrification, Wiwat Kamolpornwijit Dec 1995

Remediation And Reuse Of Chromium Contaminated Soils Through Cold Top Ex-Site Vitrification, Wiwat Kamolpornwijit

Theses

More than 150 sites in Hudson County, New Jersey are identified as chromium contaminated sites. Hexavalent chromium, highly soluble in water, is considered as an environmental and health hazard, classified as a group A human carcinogen. In this research, the feasibility was performed to study the possibility of remediation of chromium contaminated soil by ex-situ vitrification and to evaluate reuse potential of vitrified products as highway construction aggregate. A series of physical and chemical analysis was conducted on nine soil samples collected from different chromium contaminated sites. Results were analyzed for their compatibility for vitrification. Sand and carbon were added ...


Sensivity Analysis And Design Calculations With Biofiltration Models, Michael Lawrence Cohen Dec 1995

Sensivity Analysis And Design Calculations With Biofiltration Models, Michael Lawrence Cohen

Theses

Biofiltration is a new technology for biological treatment of volatile organic compounds present in airstreams. It is a complex process and thus, engineering models which attempt to describe it are by necessity very involved and contain a large number of parameters.

In this study, two models describing biofiltration of airstreams carrying a single pollutant (VOC) were used in detailed parameter-sensitivity studies. One model concerned biofiltration under steady-state conditions, while the second described the transient behavior of the process. The intent of the sensitivity studies was to determine which model parameters need to be known with accuracy in order to allow ...


An Examination Of Railroad Capacity And Its Implications For Rail-Highway Intermodal Transportation, David Bruce Clarke Dec 1995

An Examination Of Railroad Capacity And Its Implications For Rail-Highway Intermodal Transportation, David Bruce Clarke

Doctoral Dissertations

After many years of decline in market share, railroads are now experiencing an increasing demand for their services. Service intensive intermodal transportation seems to be an especially promising market area. Since the historic decline in traffic has been accompanied by a reduction in network infrastructure, however, the railroads' ability to handle sizable traffic increases, at least in the short term, is in question. Since rail transportation is critical to the domestic economy of the nation, and is increasingly important in international logistics channels, shortfalls in railroad capacity are not desirable.

The published literature on railroad capacity is relatively sparse, especially ...


A Study On The Causes Of Variations In Transmissivity And Storativity During Pump Tests At Asylum Lake, Paul Joseph Pare Dec 1995

A Study On The Causes Of Variations In Transmissivity And Storativity During Pump Tests At Asylum Lake, Paul Joseph Pare

Master's Theses

Over a two year period, Western Michigan University ran a number of pump tests in the Asylum Lake Area in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The transmissivities and storativities calculated from these tests differed significantly from well to well in any particular test, and from pump test to pump test. Utilizing the computer programs AQTESOLV 3.0 and Aquifer Parameter Estimator, a number of T and S values were calculated. After analysis of the results, the following conclusion was drawn. The main reason for the deviations in the T and S values arose from the mixing of the results of numerous methods (some ...


Congestion Management Systems Development And Implementation : Four Case Studies, Arlene Rose-Marie Willis Oct 1995

Congestion Management Systems Development And Implementation : Four Case Studies, Arlene Rose-Marie Willis

Theses

To address concerns of poor air quality, congested highways and the need to manage and plan for transportation within budgetary constraints, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) mandated the development and implementation of a Congestion Management System (CMS). Primarily, a CMS will fuel transportation decision making with information on system performance and alternate strategies to alleviate congestion and enhance mobility. Efforts through ISTEA are expected to produce a more efficient American transportation system -- this thesis takes a look at the preparatory activities.

It is based on a federally funded project with metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) in Albany ...


Intermodal Commuter Network Planning, Maria P. Boile Oct 1995

Intermodal Commuter Network Planning, Maria P. Boile

Dissertations

An intermodal commuter network is an integration of passenger transportation systems, or modes, to a single comprehensive system that provides connections among the various modes, and improved travel choices to users. In the system examined in this dissertation, commuters access their final destination via auto, rail, and intermodal auto-to-rail modes. There are numerous highway paths by which a commuter can reach the final destination. Once on the highway, the commuter can switch to rail at stations along the rail route. The commuter may also choose to walk to the rail station closest to the trip's origin.

The main focus ...


A Theoretical Analysis Of Volatile Contaminant Removal By The Pneumatic Fracturing Process, Yuan Ding Oct 1995

A Theoretical Analysis Of Volatile Contaminant Removal By The Pneumatic Fracturing Process, Yuan Ding

Dissertations

A mathematical model that simulates the process of contaminant removal from a pneumatically induced fracture within a porous medium is presented. It includes: (1) model development; (2) parameter evaluation; (3) statistical sensitivity analysis; and (4) model validation.


A Study Of Settlement In Landfills Due To Biodegradation, Michael Guasconi Oct 1995

A Study Of Settlement In Landfills Due To Biodegradation, Michael Guasconi

Theses

Finding new space for landfills is difficult due to land availability, stringent environmental regulations, and public sentiment. So other means of waste disposal, such as hauling it to a distant landfill, or incinerating it, will have to be resorted to. These methods may be unpopular with the public involved. By studying settlement due to biodegradation, ways to increase settlement can be found, allowing for additional waste disposal capacity in operating, and closed landfills.

Existing theoretical models are based on rheological concepts, not on biodegradation. So, they do not realistically model settlement. In this study, a model to determine the rate ...


Optimizing Rail-Truck Intermodal Drayage Operations, Wen Zhang Oct 1995

Optimizing Rail-Truck Intermodal Drayage Operations, Wen Zhang

Theses

This thesis presents a case study of the trucking (or drayage) portion of rail-truck intermodal freight transportation. The approach used was to examine in detail the current costs and potential for improvement at one New Jersey intermodal terminal. The analysis is conducted using a mathematical programming model to find an optimal scheduling plan for the drayage operation. To solve the model more efficiently, a modification is made to explore the special structure of the original problem which has a sparse constraint matrix. The model is solved first with an objective function that minimizes the total cost of the operation, and ...


Reverse Osmosis As A Pretreatment Of Ion Exchange Equipment At Pse & G'S Hudson Generation Station, Steven Leon Oct 1995

Reverse Osmosis As A Pretreatment Of Ion Exchange Equipment At Pse & G'S Hudson Generation Station, Steven Leon

Theses

Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hudson Generating Station has historically had problems providing sufficient high quality water for its two once through, supercritical design boilers. The station requires over 60 million gallons annually to compensate for system losses.


Fundamentals Of Adhesion Of Organic Compounds And Aqueous Cleaning Of Glass And Metal Surfaces : Applications In The Pharmaceutical And Chemical Industries, Michel J. De Ruijter May 1995

Fundamentals Of Adhesion Of Organic Compounds And Aqueous Cleaning Of Glass And Metal Surfaces : Applications In The Pharmaceutical And Chemical Industries, Michel J. De Ruijter

Theses

In this thesis we studied the physics and chemistry of the adhesion of various classes of organic compounds to glass and stainless steel surfaces, by using diagnostic aqueous cleaning solutions and other techniques. We defined the thermodynamic requirements for aqueous cleaning based on extensive experimental and theoretical work. Novel cleaning diagrams are introduced, based on electrostatic interactions between organic compounds and solid surfaces, to facilitate the design of aqueous cleaning systems. We studied the mass transfer parameters for selected situations. The electrochemical Pourbaix-diagrams were used to explain the effect of hydrogen peroxide added to aqueous solutions and to avoid corrosion ...


Composite Beam Analogy Fracture Model (Cbafm) : A Non-Linear Fracture Mechanics Model For Concrete, Mohammed Enamul Haque May 1995

Composite Beam Analogy Fracture Model (Cbafm) : A Non-Linear Fracture Mechanics Model For Concrete, Mohammed Enamul Haque

Dissertations

The main objective of this dissertation is to develop a simple non-linear fracture mechanics model for the determination of fracture mechanics parameters for concrete, such as fracture process zone length (rp), critical fracture energy release rate (Gic), critical stress intensity factor (KO and fracture energy (GF). The fracture process zone (FPZ) is modeled as a damaged non-elastic cohesive band where the extent of damage due to microcracking varies from no damage at the boundary of FPZ to complete crack surface separation at the notch or macro-crack tip. The proposed method can predict theoretically both the pre-peak and post-peak load versus ...


Integration Of Pneumatic Fracturing And In Situ Vitrification In Coarse Grained Soils, Sean Thomas Mcgonigal May 1995

Integration Of Pneumatic Fracturing And In Situ Vitrification In Coarse Grained Soils, Sean Thomas Mcgonigal

Theses

This thesis investigates conceptual integration of the Pneumatic Fracturing (PF) process with In Situ Vitrification (ISV) for remediation of contaminated soil. Integration will permit ISV melts to be initiated below the ground surface and extend the depth of the ISV process.

Bench scale experiments were conducted in 4.9 ft3 (0.14 m3) Plexiglas tanks filled with a test soil that was specifically blended to simulate the Hanford Formation in Richland, WA. Discrete pneumatic fractures were successfully created and filled with the ISV starter path material. Conductivity measurements made across two graphite electrodes exhibited a pre-fracture soil resistance ...


Reducing Rail-Truck Freight Intermodal Drayage Costs, David Moy Jr. May 1995

Reducing Rail-Truck Freight Intermodal Drayage Costs, David Moy Jr.

Theses

In rail-truck intermodal transport, a highway truck-trailer or container is moved by truck from a shipper to a rail terminal in the shipper's vicinity, and by rail in line haul between rail terminals. Upon being unloaded at the destination rail terminal, the container is delivered to a receiver (consignee) by truck. The highway portion of the move, or drayage, accounts for a relatively high percentage of total origin to destination cost, and it limits severely the competitiveness of intermodal service with door-to-door truck service. The approach used in this thesis is to examine in detail the current costs and ...


Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Modeling Of The Whippany River, John E. Krohn May 1995

Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Modeling Of The Whippany River, John E. Krohn

Theses

The Whippany River is located in northern New Jersey and is a major tributary to the Passaic River System. This waterway accepts a wide variety of wastes from the diverse communities within its watershed. These wastes contribute to a rather complex network of biological, chemical and physical interactions.

The purpose of this study is to develop a water quality model using QUAL2E. This model will be used as a tool to simulate the complex interactions that take place within the river system. The river must he considered from physical, biological and chemical perspectives. A successful model can determine current water ...


A Study Of Transit Corridors Within The Njtpa Region, Mark Kagen Berger May 1995

A Study Of Transit Corridors Within The Njtpa Region, Mark Kagen Berger

Theses

Identifying potential bus and rail transit corridors for the North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority (NJTPA) region by examining current travel patterns of commuters was the purpose of this thesis. The current transit corridors within the NJTPA region was discussed first, followed by the methods for selecting specific municipalities for analysis. At this point, specific examinations of the selected municipalities' origin and destination travel patterns were mapped. The results were then summed up, along with a discussion of potential new bus and rail transit corridors based on trips originating along a corridor enroute to the same municipality. The final discussion examined ...


Water Quality Model For South Slough, Coos Bay, Oregon, Holly Kay Juza May 1995

Water Quality Model For South Slough, Coos Bay, Oregon, Holly Kay Juza

Dissertations and Theses

The South Slough Estuary is located off Coos Bay along the southern coast of Oregon. It is divided into two channels that meet and continue to Coos Bay at the Charleston Harbor. There are six major contributing streams to South Slough. After rainfall events, the level of coliform bacteria in the slough increases because of stream bacteria loading. This is due to cattle grazing in the drainage areas, failed septic systems from private homes, and sewage sludge applied to the County landfill, which drains into the slough. The Oregon Health Division has enforced a Sanitation Management Plan for Commercial Shellfish ...


Numerical Study Of Granular Soil Behavior Using Random Arrays Of Elastic Ellipsoids, Xiaoshan Lin May 1995

Numerical Study Of Granular Soil Behavior Using Random Arrays Of Elastic Ellipsoids, Xiaoshan Lin

Civil Engineering ETDs

For the purpose of improving computer simulation of granular materials in the framework of the Discrete Element Method (DEM), 2-D and 3-D discrete element models using random arrays of elastic ellipsoids have been developed.


Nonparametric Stochastic Generation Of Daily Precipitation And Other Weather Variables, Rajagopalan Balaji May 1995

Nonparametric Stochastic Generation Of Daily Precipitation And Other Weather Variables, Rajagopalan Balaji

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Traditional stochastic approaches for synthetic generation of weather variables often assume a prior functional form for the stochastic process, are often not capable of reproducing the probabilistic structure present in the data, and may not be uniformly applicable across sites. In an attempt to find a general framework for stochastic generation of weather variables, this study marks a unique departure from the traditional approaches, and ushers in the use of data-driven nonparametric techniques and demonstrates their utility.

Precipitation is one of the key variables that drive hydrologic systems and hence warrants more focus . In this regard, two major aspects of ...


Evaluation Of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Techniques For Utah Probable Maximum Flood Determinations, Ashraf Mohammed Shammet May 1995

Evaluation Of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Techniques For Utah Probable Maximum Flood Determinations, Ashraf Mohammed Shammet

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Every dam must be capable of safely passing a predetermined flood magnitude. For high-hazard dams, it is a common practice to require that this flood be the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). The determination of the PMF starts with the determination of the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). We used the generalized estimates of the PMP as outlined in Hydrometeorological Report (HMR) 49. In this study we used the storm event model approach to convert the PMP into PMF. Different synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH) techniques were then used in the conversion process. The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method was used ...


Improved Finite Analytic Methods For Solving Advection-Dominated Transport Equation In Highly Variable Velocity Field, Wei Cuifeng Apr 1995

Improved Finite Analytic Methods For Solving Advection-Dominated Transport Equation In Highly Variable Velocity Field, Wei Cuifeng

Dissertations and Theses

Solute transport studies frequently rely on numerical solutions of the classical advection-diffusion equation. Unfortunately, solutions obtained with traditional finite difference and finite element techniques typically exhibit excessive numerical diffusion or spurious oscillation when advection dominates, especially when velocity field is highly variable. One recently developed technique, the finite analytic method, offers an attractive alternative. Finite analytic methods utilize local analytic solutions in discrete elements to obtain the algebraic representations of the governing partial differential equations, thus eliminating the truncation error in the finite difference and the use of approximating functions in the finite element method. The finite analytic solutions have ...


An Experiment To Measure Transport Parameters In A Saturated Heterogeneous Scaled Medium, Logan Mcinnis Apr 1995

An Experiment To Measure Transport Parameters In A Saturated Heterogeneous Scaled Medium, Logan Mcinnis

Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science Undergraduate Theses

One of the major difficulties in groundwater research is determining an appropriate scale at which to conduct an experiment. Because of a phenomenon called the scale effect, measured values of parameters in heterogeneous media can vary with the scale of measurement. The objective of this experiment was to measure the parameters of dispersivity and velocity at different length scales, to see if the measured values would converge to a limit at some scale of measurement. A good deal of research has been conducted on the scale effect in heterogeneous media, but this phenomenon is still not totally understood. The heterogeneous ...


Evaluation Of Automatic Vehicle Specific Identification (Avsi) In A Traffic Signal Control System , Alireza Kamyab Jan 1995

Evaluation Of Automatic Vehicle Specific Identification (Avsi) In A Traffic Signal Control System , Alireza Kamyab

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Automatic Vehicle Specific Identification (AVSI) is a generic name for advanced vehicle detection systems. By automating the identification of vehicles by sensing the presence of vehicles with roadside detection sites or readers, AVSI is assumed to provide vehicle specific information in traffic signal control systems;In the application of AVSI to traffic signal control systems, as a vehicle passes a reader site, the reader records the arrival time and type of the detected vehicle. The reader would then send the information received to a local microprocessor-based traffic signal controller. The controller's built-in signal control logic would then use the ...


Modeling Recession And Low Flow Characteristics Of Iowa Streams , Ahmad Ali Raaii Jan 1995

Modeling Recession And Low Flow Characteristics Of Iowa Streams , Ahmad Ali Raaii

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Available mean daily streamflow data from 143 gaging stations were initially analyzed to characterize recessions and low flows of Iowa streams. The period of record varies between 10 and 115 years for different stations. A computerized mathematical model was used to derive two master recession curves (MRC's)--one for winter and the other for summer--and to calculate the median storage delay factor (K med) for each individual station. These factors were used to estimate the diffusivity of the aquifer(s) contributing base flow to each stream;The MRC's can be used to forecast the general behavior of streams ...


Surface And Sub-Surface Ablation Cell Design For Remote (Robotic) Radioactive Soil Analysis Using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled-Atomic Emission Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry La-Icp-Aes/Ms , Reza Bashirzadeh Jan 1995

Surface And Sub-Surface Ablation Cell Design For Remote (Robotic) Radioactive Soil Analysis Using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled-Atomic Emission Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry La-Icp-Aes/Ms , Reza Bashirzadeh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There are approximately 1800 uncontrollable hazardous waste sites across the United States. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleaning up several of these sites that were contaminated as a result of producing weapon-grade nuclear fuels in different states since the 1940s. Site characterization is the first and a very critical step in the remediation program of a radioactive contaminated site. During this process, all the necessary information about location, level, and chemical composition of the contaminated sites must be collected for the clean up planning. Ames Laboratory, one of the U.S. Department of Energy sites, has adopted ...


Analytical Investigation Of The Effect Of Material And Geometric Imperfections On Buckling Strength Of Spherical Shells , Rama Krishna Challa Jan 1995

Analytical Investigation Of The Effect Of Material And Geometric Imperfections On Buckling Strength Of Spherical Shells , Rama Krishna Challa

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Spherical shells are extensively used as structural elements. As they are subjected to different loading conditions, compressive membrane forces develop causing failure due to compressive stability. In order that the shells perform their design function adequately, sufficient design margins should exist. These design margins are established by means of experimental tests and numerical analysis. Comparisons between classical, theoretical and experimental results for spherical shells subjected to external pressure loading demonstrated large discrepancies. These discrepancies are attributable to material and geometric imperfections resulting from fabrication methods.;Sufficient design information with respect to the imperfections is required to perform numerical analyses. The ...


Flocculation Kinetics Using Dual Coagulants: Effects Of Temperature, Addition Sequence, Rapid Mixing, And Sulfate , Bashaar Yakoub Ammary Jan 1995

Flocculation Kinetics Using Dual Coagulants: Effects Of Temperature, Addition Sequence, Rapid Mixing, And Sulfate , Bashaar Yakoub Ammary

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of temperature, rapid mixing time and intensity, sulfate, and coagulant addition sequence of dual coagulants on the flocculation kinetics were studied. Either ferric nitrate alone or a cationic polymer alone or in combination as dual coagulants were used. The flocculation kinetics were monitored using mainly a Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA). An Automatic Image Analyzer was also used in a limited number of experiments to monitor the flocculation kinetics. Kaolinite clay (with four concentrations: 5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/L) suspended in distilled water with added salinity was used at two temperatures (5 or 23°C) and two ...


Effect Of Various Mixing Devices And Patterns On Flocculation Kinetics In Water Treatment , Md. Wahid Sajjad Jan 1995

Effect Of Various Mixing Devices And Patterns On Flocculation Kinetics In Water Treatment , Md. Wahid Sajjad

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research was designed to investigate the effects of different mixing variables on flocculation kinetics of kaolinite clay suspension at both warm and cold water temperatures (23°C and 5°C) using alum and ferric nitrate under a number of physico-chemical conditions. The following work was performed during this experimental study: (1) G versus rpm curves for different impellers were developed using calculated power based on measured torque. The torque was measured by a rotating torque meter using a photographic technique. (2) The effects of impeller geometry, rapid mixing intensity and pattern, concentration of coagulant dosing solution, coagulant injection pattern ...