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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Effect Of Alkali On The Efficiency And Reliability Of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells, Shankar Karki Apr 2019

Effect Of Alkali On The Efficiency And Reliability Of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells, Shankar Karki

Physics Theses & Dissertations

The incorporation of alkali metal has contributed tremendously in a bid to realize greater than 20% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2(CIGS) solar cells. Achieving high efficiency is one key parameter for the success of a photovoltaic technology but so is its long-term stability. In this thesis, the relationship between the performance of alkali treated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells and their physicochemical, electronic and structural properties are explored through a comparative study between standard devices and alkali (K, Rb) treated devices. The alkali treated devices tend to have a lower concentration of Ev+0.98 ...


Plasma Processing Of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities, Janardan Upadhyay Apr 2016

Plasma Processing Of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities, Janardan Upadhyay

Physics Theses & Dissertations

The development of plasma processing technology of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities not only provides a chemical free and less expensive processing method, but also opens up the possibility for controlled modification of the inner surfaces of the cavity for better superconducting properties. The research was focused on the transition of plasma etching from two dimensional flat surfaces to inner surfaces of three dimensional (3D) structures. The results could be applicable to a variety of inner surfaces of 3D structures other than SRF cavities. Understanding the Ar/Cl2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for achieving the desired modification of ...


Development Of Superconducting Spoke Cavities For High-Velocity Applications, Christopher Shawn Hopper Apr 2015

Development Of Superconducting Spoke Cavities For High-Velocity Applications, Christopher Shawn Hopper

Physics Theses & Dissertations

To date, superconducting spoke cavities have been designed, developed, and tested for particle velocities up to β0 ~ 0.6, but there is a growing interest in possible applications of spoke cavities for high-velocity applications. The first task is to explore the design parameter space for low-frequency, high-velocity, single- and double-spoke superconducting cavities in order to determine how each design parameter affects the electromagnetic properties, in particular the surface electromagnetic fields and the shunt impedance. Once an electromagnetically optimized, high-velocity spoke cavity is designed, there are several other characteristics that need to be investigated. These include multipacting scenarios, higher-order mode excitation ...


Investigation And Optimization Of A New Compact Superconducting Cavity For Deflecting And Crabbing Applications, Subashini Uddika De Silva Jul 2014

Investigation And Optimization Of A New Compact Superconducting Cavity For Deflecting And Crabbing Applications, Subashini Uddika De Silva

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Deflecting and crabbing structures have many applications in current accelerator systems. The primary use of a deflecting cavity is to separate a single beam into multiple beams. A crabbing cavity enables the head-on collision at the interaction point in particle colliders in order to increase the luminosity. The early uses of the deflecting structures have been in the early 1960s: these structures were disk loaded structures operating at room temperature. The crabbing structure which was installed at the NEK electron-positron collider was the first and only operational superconducting cavity of that kind. The most common design of superconducting deflecting and ...


Application Of Chebyshev Formalism To Identify Nonlinear Magnetic Field Components In Beam Transport System, Michael Spata Jul 2012

Application Of Chebyshev Formalism To Identify Nonlinear Magnetic Field Components In Beam Transport System, Michael Spata

Physics Theses & Dissertations

An experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility to develop a beam-based technique for characterizing the extent of the nonlinearity of the magnetic fields of a beam transport system. Horizontally and vertically oriented pairs of air-core kicker magnets were simultaneously driven at two different frequencies to provide a time-dependent transverse modulation of the beam orbit relative to the unperturbed reference orbit. Fourier decomposition of the position data at eight different points along the beamline was then used to measure the amplitude of these frequencies. For a purely linear transport system one expects to find solely ...


Laser Processing Of Metals And Polymers, Senthilraja Singaravelu Apr 2012

Laser Processing Of Metals And Polymers, Senthilraja Singaravelu

Physics Theses & Dissertations

A laser offers a unique set of opportunities for precise delivery of high quality coherent energy. This energy can be tailored to alter the properties of material allowing a very flexible adjustment of the interaction that can lead to melting, vaporization, or just surface modification. Nowadays laser systems can be found in nearly all branches of research and industry for numerous applications. Sufficient evidence exists in the literature to suggest that further advancements in the field of laser material processing will rely significantly on the development of new process schemes. As a result they can be applied in various applications ...


Excitation-Induced Ge Quantum Dot Growth On Si(100)-2x1 By Pulsed Laser Deposition, Ali Oguz Er Jul 2011

Excitation-Induced Ge Quantum Dot Growth On Si(100)-2x1 By Pulsed Laser Deposition, Ali Oguz Er

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Self-assembled Ge quantum dots (QD) are grown on Si(100)-(2×1) with laser excitation during growth processes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In situ reflection-high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and post-deposition atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to study the growth dynamics and morphology of the QDs. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm, 40 ns pulse width, 5 J/cm2 fluence, and 10 Hz repetition rate) were used to ablate germanium and irradiate the silicon substrate. Ge QD formation on Si(100)-(2×1) with different substrate temperatures and excitation laser energy densities was studied. The ...


Compensation Techniques In Accelerator Physics, Hisham Kamal Sayed Apr 2011

Compensation Techniques In Accelerator Physics, Hisham Kamal Sayed

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two ...


Nuclear Electromagnetic Currents In Chiral Effective Field Theory, Saori Pastore Apr 2010

Nuclear Electromagnetic Currents In Chiral Effective Field Theory, Saori Pastore

Physics Theses & Dissertations

A nucleon-nucleon potential and consistent nuclear electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory retaining pions and nucleons as explicit degrees of freedom. The calculation of the potential is carried out up to next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO), while the currents include up to N3LO corrections. The potential at N2 LO and currents at N3LO consist of two-pion-exchange and contact contributions. The currents are then utilized to study a number of low-energy electromagnetic observables induced by magnetic dipole transitions, such as the deuteron and trinucleon magnetic moments and the np, nd and n ...


Characterization Of Microwave Cavity Discharges In A Supersonic Flow, Dareth Janette Drake Apr 2009

Characterization Of Microwave Cavity Discharges In A Supersonic Flow, Dareth Janette Drake

Physics Theses & Dissertations

A partially ionized gas is referred to as either a plasma or a discharge depending on the degree of ionization. The term discharge is usually applied to a weakly ionized gas, i.e. mostly neutrals, where as a plasma usually has a larger degree of ionization. To characterize a discharge the plasma parameters, such as the rotational temperature, vibrational temperature, and electron density, must be determined. Detailed characterization of supersonic flowing discharges is important to many applications in aerospace and aerodynamics. One application is the use of plasma-assisted hydrogen combustion devices to aid in supersonic combustion. In conditions close to ...


Investigation Of The Superconducting Properties Of Niobium Radio-Frequency Cavities, Gianluigi Ciovati Jul 2005

Investigation Of The Superconducting Properties Of Niobium Radio-Frequency Cavities, Gianluigi Ciovati

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Radio-frequency (rf) superconducting cavities are widely used to increase the energy of a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The maximum gradients of cavities made of bulk niobium have constantly improved over the last ten years and they are approaching the theoretical limit of the material. Nevertheless, rf tests of niobium cavities are still showing some "anomalous" losses (so-called "Q-drop"), characterized by a marked increase of the surface resistance at high rf fields, in absence of field emission. A low temperature "in-situ" baking under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied by several laboratories to reduce those losses and improve ...


Field Emission Based Sensors Using Carbon Nanotubes, Changkun Dong Apr 2003

Field Emission Based Sensors Using Carbon Nanotubes, Changkun Dong

Physics Theses & Dissertations

A number of sensitive applications would be greatly benefited by the development of better cold cathodes that employ the electron field emission process. Among the many kinds of field emitters that could be tried, carbon nanotubes (CNT) have a number of distinct advantages because of their unique geometrical structure, chemical inertness, mechanical stiffness, and high thermal and electrical conductivities. This dissertation describes research in which CNT cathodes were fabricated and their emission characteristics were measured.

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on various substrates: Ni and Hastelloy gauze, 304 stainless steel (SS) plates, and Ni-coated ...


Surface Resistance Measurements Of Superconducting Niobium Samples With A Triaxial Cavity, Paul Martin Boccard Jan 1999

Surface Resistance Measurements Of Superconducting Niobium Samples With A Triaxial Cavity, Paul Martin Boccard

Physics Theses & Dissertations

This experimental study has revealed and investigated many of the physical issues that affect accurate measurement of the surface resistance for small samples consisting of superconducting niobium films on copper substrates. It is believed that this work provides the groundwork for future research directed towards solving this important problem. Accurate measurement of surface resistance for such samples is needed to allow the rapid evaluation and optimization of the deposition parameters necessary for manufacturing low-loss superconducting niobium films.

A superconducting niobium triaxial cavity was investigated to determine its suitability for measuring the residual surface resistance of copper samples that were sputter-coated ...


Characterization Of Iron Oxides And Atmospheric Corrosion Of Steel, Sei Jin Oh Jan 1997

Characterization Of Iron Oxides And Atmospheric Corrosion Of Steel, Sei Jin Oh

Physics Theses & Dissertations

The study of corrosion behavior was performed using three different analytical techniques, which provided information on the formation, development and layering of iron oxides on the corrosion products as a function of atmospheric conditions, exposure time and type of steel. In particular, the protective layer formed on weathering steel was investigated as a function of different amounts of alloying elements in the steel, atmospheric conditions and exposure times. Combined together, the results provided a better understanding of the atmospheric corrosion behavior of steel, and formed a part of database of the atmospheric corrosion characteristics.

Accurate characterization of the iron oxides ...


Gamma-Ray Optical Studies Of ⁷³Ge And ⁵⁷Fe, Walter Carlton Mcdermott Iii Apr 1996

Gamma-Ray Optical Studies Of ⁷³Ge And ⁵⁷Fe, Walter Carlton Mcdermott Iii

Physics Theses & Dissertations

The research described herein is among the first attempts to test one of the more popular theories for development of a gamma-ray laser. This work is a "marriage" between the Borrmann effect, which is a consequence of the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction, and time-filtering which comes from time-domain Mossbauer spectroscopy.

Our experiments involved the search for a nuclear Borrmann effect and the subsequent time-filtering effect using 57Fe and 73Ge. In both cases, no nuclear Borrmann effect was observed; however, the methodology and criteria necessary for such an observation with any isotope were documented. The procedures necessary for ...


Identification And Characterization Of The Iron-Zinc Intermetallics Formed In Galvanneal Steel, Richard Frederick George Grant Apr 1995

Identification And Characterization Of The Iron-Zinc Intermetallics Formed In Galvanneal Steel, Richard Frederick George Grant

Physics Theses & Dissertations

The demand to improve the corrosion resistance of steel sheet, particularly for use within the automotive industry, has led to a dramatic increase in the use of coated steels in place of cold-rolled sheet steel. Galvanneal steel results from the post annealing of the zinc-coated steel sheet, in which iron and zinc are interdiffused to form an iron-zinc alloy coating. Within this alloy coating, four main iron-zinc phases, Zeta, Delta, Gamma-1, and Gamma may be present. Manufacture of the most suitable coating requires identifying which phases form during the galvannealing process, an understanding of the properties of each phase and ...


The Effects Of Electron Radiation On The Glass Transition Temperature Of A Polyetherimide, Kristen Tulloch Kern Apr 1993

The Effects Of Electron Radiation On The Glass Transition Temperature Of A Polyetherimide, Kristen Tulloch Kern

Physics Theses & Dissertations

The effects of electron radiation on a polyetherimide (PEI), Ultem*, were investigated. In particular, the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) with absorbed radiation dose were studied. The polymer was exposed to mono-energetic beams of 100-keV electrons and 1.0-MeV electrons for doses up to 100 megagray (MGy). Dosimetry for the exposures was based on Monte-Carlo simulations of the transfer of energy from an energetic electron to the polymer and on comparison to Nylon standards. Dynamic mechanical analysis was used to determine the (Tg) for non-exposed PEI and the changes in (Tg) resulting from irradiation. The ...