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Open Access Dissertations

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Articles 31 - 60 of 554

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interfaces And Related Applications, Stephen L. Hodson Dec 2016

Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interfaces And Related Applications, Stephen L. Hodson

Open Access Dissertations

The development of thermal interface materials (TIMs) is necessitated by the temperature drop across interfacing materials arising from macro and microscopic irregularities of their surfaces that constricts heat through small contact regions as well as mismatches in their thermal properties. Similar to other types of TIMs, CNT TIMs alleviate the thermal resistance across the interface by thermally bridging two materials together with cylindrical, high-aspect ratio, and nominally vertical conducting elements. Within the community of TIM engineers, the vision driving the development of CNT TIMs was born from measurements that revealed impressively high thermal conductivities of individual CNTs. This vision was ...


Examination And Utilization Of Rare Features In Text Classification Of Injury Narratives, Hsin-Ying Huang Dec 2016

Examination And Utilization Of Rare Features In Text Classification Of Injury Narratives, Hsin-Ying Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Thanks to the advances in computing and information technology, analyzing injury surveillance data with statistical machine learning methods has grown in popularity, complexity, and quality over recent years. During that same time, researchers have recognized the limitations of statistical text analysis with limited training data. In response to the two primary challenges for statistical text analysis, dimensionality reduction and sparse data, many studies have focused on improving machine learning algorithms. Less research has been done, though, to examine and improve statistical machine learning methods in text classification from a linguistic perspective.

This study addresses this research gap by examining the ...


Concurrent Detection And Isolation Of Cellular And Molecular Biomarkers, Wanfeng Huang Dec 2016

Concurrent Detection And Isolation Of Cellular And Molecular Biomarkers, Wanfeng Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Detection of cancer markers such as protein biomolecules and cancer cells in bodily fluids is of great importance in early diagnosis, prognosis as well as evaluation of therapy efficacy. Numerous devices have been developed for detecting either cellular or molecular targets, however there has not yet been a system that can simultaneously detect both cellular and molecular targets effectively. Molecule and cell-based assays are important because each type of target can tell a different story about the state of the disease and the two types of information can potentially be combined and/or compared for more accurate biological or clinical ...


Gravity-Assist Trajectories To Venus, Mars, And The Ice Giants: Mission Design With Human And Robotic Applications, Kyle M. Hughes Dec 2016

Gravity-Assist Trajectories To Venus, Mars, And The Ice Giants: Mission Design With Human And Robotic Applications, Kyle M. Hughes

Open Access Dissertations

Gravity-assist trajectories to Uranus and Neptune are found (with the allowance of impulsive maneuvers using chemical propulsion) for launch dates ranging from 2024 to 2038 for Uranus and 2020 to 2070 for Neptune. Solutions are found using a patched conic model with analytical ephemeris via the Satellite Tour Design Program (STOUR), originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Delivered payload mass is computed for all solutions for select launch vehicles, and attractive solutions are identified as those that deliver a specified amount of payload mass into orbit at the target body in minimum time. The best cases for each ...


Exploring The Cause Of Injury Or Death In Grain Entrapment, Engulfment And Extrication, Salah F. Issa Dec 2016

Exploring The Cause Of Injury Or Death In Grain Entrapment, Engulfment And Extrication, Salah F. Issa

Open Access Dissertations

Grain entrapments and engulfments are one of most common hazards associated with grain storage facilities. Since the 1970’s over 1,880 incidents have been documented in agricultural confined spaces of which 65% of all recorded incidents were grain entrapments and engulfments. There have been several studies conducted on the contributing factors behind these incidents; however, there have been very few attempts to understand the environmental, physiological or psychological factors the victims experience while entrapped, engulfed, or extricated. This includes understanding how secondary injuries are caused by grain or during extrication by first responders. The research effort was divided into ...


New Marked Point Process Models For Microscopy Images, Dae Woo Kim Dec 2016

New Marked Point Process Models For Microscopy Images, Dae Woo Kim

Open Access Dissertations

In developing new materials, the characterization of microstructures is one of the key steps. To characterize the microstructure, many microscope modalities have been devised and improved over decades. With the increase in image resolution in the spatial and time domains, the amount of image data keeps increasing in the fields such as materials science and biomedical engineering. As a result, image processing plays a critical role in this era of science and technology. In materials image analysis, image segmentation and feature detection are considered very important.

The first part of this research aims to resolve the segmentation problem caused by ...


Evaluating The Performance Of Passive Chilled Beams With Respect To Energy Efficiency And Thermal Comfort, Janghyun Kim Dec 2016

Evaluating The Performance Of Passive Chilled Beams With Respect To Energy Efficiency And Thermal Comfort, Janghyun Kim

Open Access Dissertations

Existing modeling approaches for passive chilled beams determined from tests on individual chilled beams in a laboratory are not adequate for assessing overall energy usage and occupant comfort within building simulation programs. In addition, design guidelines for passive chilled beam systems are needed for identifying appropriate applications and optimal configurations. This thesis includes (i) extensive experimental studies for characterizing the performance of passive chilled beams, in both laboratory settings and in field studies, (ii) development of passive chilled beam performance prediction models, (iii) integration of these models into building simulation models/tools and (iv) use of building simulation for overall ...


Optimal Design Of Sound Absorbing Systems With Microperforated Panels, Nicholas Nakjoo Kim Dec 2016

Optimal Design Of Sound Absorbing Systems With Microperforated Panels, Nicholas Nakjoo Kim

Open Access Dissertations

As the development of technology makes economic prosperity and life more convenient, people now desire a higher quality of life. This quality of life is based not only on the convenience in their life but also on clean and eco-friendly environments. To meet that requirement, much research is being performed in many areas of eco-friendly technology, such as renewable energy, biodegradable content, and batteries for electronic vehicles.

This tendency is also obvious in the acoustics area, where there are continuing attempts to replace fiber-glass sound absorbers with fiber-free materials. The combination of microperfoated panels (MPP) (one of the fiber-free sound ...


Two-Dimensional Electronics And Optoelectronics: From Materials Syntheses To Device Applications, Yexin Deng Dec 2016

Two-Dimensional Electronics And Optoelectronics: From Materials Syntheses To Device Applications, Yexin Deng

Open Access Dissertations

The current research on semiconductor device has pushed the scaling of the devices into sub-10 nanometers (nm) regime. While most of the current devices are made on silicon germanium, and III-V materials, people are looking for new materials for use in novel semiconductor devices: either for use in extremely scaled device in sub-10 or even sub-5 nm devices, or for use in other situations such as flexible electronics or low power and lower cost IoT (Internet of Things) applications.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted extensive research interests in their physical, chemical and mechanical properties.Since the discovery of graphene, which ...


The Association Between Tolerance For Ambiguity And Fear Of Negative Evaluation: A Study Of Engineering Technology Capstone Courses, Sergey I. Dubikovsky Dec 2016

The Association Between Tolerance For Ambiguity And Fear Of Negative Evaluation: A Study Of Engineering Technology Capstone Courses, Sergey I. Dubikovsky

Open Access Dissertations

For many students in engineering and engineering technology programs in the US, senior capstone design courses require students to form a team, define a problem, and find a feasible technical solution to address this problem. Students must integrate the knowledge and skills acquired during their studies at the college or university level. These truly integrative design activities do not have a single “correct” solution. Instead, there is an array of solutions, many of which could be used to achieve the final result. This ambiguity can cause students to experience anxiety during the projects.

This study examined the main topics: • To ...


The Effects Of Chloride-Based Deicing Chemicals On Degradation Of Portland Cement Mortars With Alkali Reactive Aggregate, Charles Yicheng Chiu Dec 2016

The Effects Of Chloride-Based Deicing Chemicals On Degradation Of Portland Cement Mortars With Alkali Reactive Aggregate, Charles Yicheng Chiu

Open Access Dissertations

The assessment of the influence of deicing chemicals on alkali reactivity of aggregates is still an area of active research, particularly with respect to the combined effects of long-term exposure to deicers, freezing and thawing cycles, and wetting and drying cycles. In order to develop a more comprehensive view of these topics, the present study was conducted in three phases. The focus of the first phase was on studying the effects of the chloride-based deicers on the alkali silica reaction (ASR) using accelerated test methods (i.e. the test was performed at high temperature (80 °C) as per modified ASTM ...


Device Design Factors For Enhancing The Functionality Of Chronic Intracortical Microelectrodes, Heui Chang Lee Dec 2016

Device Design Factors For Enhancing The Functionality Of Chronic Intracortical Microelectrodes, Heui Chang Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Intracortical microelectrodes are devices used in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) to help regain lost motor, sensory, and cognitive functions of individuals with neurological disorders. However, the long-term performance of microelectrode arrays is hampered by a series of inflammatory tissue responses. The consequence of the inflammatory response is the formation of a dense astroglial sheath around the vicinity of the electrode, impeding the electrical conduction between the electrode and neurons. Furthermore, due to the cascade of neuroinflammatory events, the number of neurons is significantly reduced near the electrode, manifested by decrease in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the yield of electrodes. Over time ...


Fast Time- And Frequency-Domain Finite-Element Methods For Electromagnetic Analysis, Woochan Lee Dec 2016

Fast Time- And Frequency-Domain Finite-Element Methods For Electromagnetic Analysis, Woochan Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Fast electromagnetic analysis in time and frequency domain is of critical importance to the design of integrated circuits (IC) and other advanced engineering products and systems. Many IC structures constitute a very large scale problem in modeling and simulation, the size of which also continuously grows with the advancement of the processing technology. This results in numerical problems beyond the reach of existing most powerful computational resources. Different from many other engineering problems, the structure of most ICs is special in the sense that its geometry is of Manhattan type and its dielectrics are layered. Hence, it is important to ...


Observability And Observer Design For Switched Linear Systems, Scott C. Johnson Dec 2016

Observability And Observer Design For Switched Linear Systems, Scott C. Johnson

Open Access Dissertations

Hybrid vehicles, HVAC systems in new/old buildings, power networks, and the like require safe, robust control that includes switching the mode of operation to meet environmental and performance objectives. Such switched systems consist of a set of continuous-time dynamical behaviors whose sequence of operational modes is driven by an underlying decision process. This thesis investigates feasibility conditions and a methodology for state and mode reconstruction given input-output measurements (not including mode sequence). An application herein considers insulation failures in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) used in heavy hybrid vehicles.

Leveraging the feasibility literature for switched linear time-invariant systems, this ...


Interplanetary Mission Design With Applications To Guidance And Optimal Control Of Aero-Assisted Trajectories, Peter J. Edelman Dec 2016

Interplanetary Mission Design With Applications To Guidance And Optimal Control Of Aero-Assisted Trajectories, Peter J. Edelman

Open Access Dissertations

A method for finding optimal aerogravity-assist tours of the solar system is developed using indirect methods. Two cost functionals are used in the optimization; finding the minimum required maximum lift-to-drag ratio, with and without a convective heating-rate path constraint, and the path which provides the minimum total stagnation point convective heat load. It is found that using present or near-future thermal protection system materials will suffice for certain aerogravity assist trajectories at Mars. Minimum heat load optimal trajectories are found for aerocapture maneuvers at Uranus and Neptune. With a large radius, and short rotational periods, atmospheric rotation must be taken ...


Towards Building A Prototype Spin-Logic Device, Ashish Verma Penumatcha Dec 2016

Towards Building A Prototype Spin-Logic Device, Ashish Verma Penumatcha

Open Access Dissertations

Since the late 1980s, several key discoveries, such as Giant and Tunneling Magne- toresistance, and advances in magnetic materials have paved the way for exponentially higher bit-densities in magnetic storage. In particular, the discovery of Spin-Transfer Torque (STT) has allowed information to be written to individual magnets using spin-currents. This has replaced the more traditional Oersted-field control used in field-MRAMs and allowed further scaling of magnetic-memories. A less obvious con- sequence of STT is that it has made possible a logic-technology based on magnets controlled by spin-polarized currents. Charge-coupled Spin Logic (CSL) is one such device proposal that couples a ...


Microstructural Evolution During The Homogenization Heat Treatment Of 6xxx And 7xxx Aluminum Alloys, Pikee Priya Dec 2016

Microstructural Evolution During The Homogenization Heat Treatment Of 6xxx And 7xxx Aluminum Alloys, Pikee Priya

Open Access Dissertations

Homogenization heat treatment of as-cast billets is an important step in the processing of aluminum extrusions. Microstructural evolution during homogenization involves elimination of the eutectic morphology by spheroidisation of the interdendritic phases, minimization of the microsegregation across the grains through diffusion, dissolution of the low-melting phases, which enhances the surface finish of the extrusions, and precipitation of nano-sized dispersoids (for Cr-, Zr-, Mn-, Sc-containing alloys), which inhibit grain boundary motion to prevent recrystallization. Post-homogenization cooling reprecipitates some of the phases, changing the flow stress required for subsequent extrusion. These precipitates, however, are deleterious for the mechanical properties of the alloy ...


Experimentally Validated 3d Md Model For Afm-Based Tip-Based Nanomanufacturing, Rapeepan Promyoo Dec 2016

Experimentally Validated 3d Md Model For Afm-Based Tip-Based Nanomanufacturing, Rapeepan Promyoo

Open Access Dissertations

In order to control AFM-based TBN to produce precise nano-geometry efficiently, there is a need to conduct a more focused study of the effects of different parameters, such as feed, speed, and depth of cut on the process performance and outcome. This is achieved by experimentally validating a MD simulation model of nanomachining, and using it to conduct parametric studies to guide AFM-based TBN. A 3D MD model with a larger domain size was developed and used to gain a unique insight into the nanoindentation and nanoscratching processes such as the effect of tip speed (e.g. effect of tip ...


A New Approach To Modeling Aviation Accidents, Arjun Harsha Rao Dec 2016

A New Approach To Modeling Aviation Accidents, Arjun Harsha Rao

Open Access Dissertations

General Aviation (GA) is a catchall term for all aircraft operations in the US that are not categorized as commercial operations or military flights. GA aircraft account for almost 97% of the US civil aviation fleet. Unfortunately, GA flights have a much higher fatal accident rate than commercial operations. Recent estimates by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) showed that the GA fatal accident rate has remained relatively unchanged between 2010 and 2015, with 1566 fatal accidents accounting for 2650 fatalities. Several research efforts have been directed towards betters understanding the causes of GA accidents. Many of these efforts use National ...


Adaptive Sampling Trust-Region Methods For Derivative-Based And Derivative-Free Simulation Optimization Problems, Sara Shashaani Dec 2016

Adaptive Sampling Trust-Region Methods For Derivative-Based And Derivative-Free Simulation Optimization Problems, Sara Shashaani

Open Access Dissertations

We consider unconstrained optimization problems where only “stochastic” estimates of the objective function are observable as replicates from a Monte Carlo simulation oracle. In the first study we assume that the function gradients are directly observable through the Monte Carlo simulation. We propose ASTRO, which is an adaptive sampling based trust-region optimization method where a stochastic local model is constructed, optimized, and updated iteratively. ASTRO is a derivative-based algorithm and provides almost sure convergence to a first-order critical point with good practical performance. In the second study the Monte Carlo simulation is assumed to provide no direct observations of the ...


Investigation Of Methods For Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination In Distillers Grains, Hu Shi Dec 2016

Investigation Of Methods For Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination In Distillers Grains, Hu Shi

Open Access Dissertations

The overall goal of this project was to reduce the aflatoxin level in the final coproduct of ethanol bioprocessing--DDGS. This was pursued by examining the effects of reduction of aflatoxin in the incoming corn prior to bioprocessing, the degradation of aflatoxin in the intermediate products, namely DWG and CDS, during processing, and aflatoxin degradation in the DDGS. Segregation techniques (size screening and density sorting) and detoxification methods (conventional and microwave heating, food additives, and high voltage atmospheric cold plasma) were evaluated for their effectiveness in aflatoxin reduction.

Effectiveness of physical segregation of aflatoxin contaminated corn was investigated by size screening ...


A Sharp Interface Isogeometric Strategy For Moving Boundary Problems, Tao Song Dec 2016

A Sharp Interface Isogeometric Strategy For Moving Boundary Problems, Tao Song

Open Access Dissertations

The proposed methodology is first utilized to model stationary and propagating cracks. The crack face is enriched with the Heaviside function which captures the displacement discontinuity. Meanwhile, the crack tips are enriched with asymptotic displacement functions to reproduce the tip singularity. The enriching degrees of freedom associated with the crack tips are chosen as stress intensity factors (SIFs) such that these quantities can be directly extracted from the solution without a-posteriori integral calculation.

As a second application, the Stefan problem is modeled with a hybrid function/derivative enriched interface. Since the interface geometry is explicitly defined, normals and curvatures can ...


Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun Dec 2016

Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun

Open Access Dissertations

Three-dimensional scanning and display are rapidly-advancing new technologies with important commercial drivers such as 3D printing and remote imaging for big data applications. Holography is a natural approach to recording and displaying three-dimensional information because it uses phase-sensitive interferometry to record interference patterns when a reference beam encounters coherent light arriving from an object. The 3D information is contained in the values of wave optics. Holography is a broad field that goes beyond recording and displaying. For instance, holographic optical elements, which take advantage of holographic imaging principles, perform the functions of lenses, gratings or mirrors. Holographic interferometry is also ...


Characterizing The Effects Of Repetitive Head Trauma In Female Soccer Athletes For Prevention Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Diana Otero Svaldi Dec 2016

Characterizing The Effects Of Repetitive Head Trauma In Female Soccer Athletes For Prevention Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Diana Otero Svaldi

Open Access Dissertations

As participation in women’s soccer continues to grow and the longevity of female athletes’ careers continues to increase, prevention of mTBI in women’s soccer has become a major concern for female athletes as the long-term risks associated with a history of mTBI are well documented. Among women’s sports, soccer exhibits the highest concussion rates, on par with those of men’s football at the collegiate level. Head impact monitoring technology has revealed that “concussive hits” occurring directly before symptomatic injury are not predictive of mTBI, suggesting that the cumulative effect of repetitive head impacts experienced by collision ...


Policy Design Tool For Managing Indoor Residential Water Demand In Water-Scarce Regions, Mujahed M. Thneibat Dec 2016

Policy Design Tool For Managing Indoor Residential Water Demand In Water-Scarce Regions, Mujahed M. Thneibat

Open Access Dissertations

In view of population growth; climate change; and economic evolution, water resources in numerous parts of the world have reached their natural capacities. Consequently, the ability of many countries to grow; meet the basic needs of inhabitants; and protect the environment will be endangered like never before unless water resources are smartly handled and managed. ^ In the past few decades, many developed and developing countries have suffered from water scarcity, and more are certain to follow. The water security dilemma is much more challenging in developing countries. Water utilities have had to follow regulatory plans to manage demand on water ...


Optical Sub-Diffraction Limited Focusing For Confined Heating And Lithography, Luis M. Traverso Dec 2016

Optical Sub-Diffraction Limited Focusing For Confined Heating And Lithography, Luis M. Traverso

Open Access Dissertations

Electronics and nanotechnology is constantly demanding a decrease in size of fabricated nanoscale features. This decrease in size has become much more difficult recently due to the limited resolution of optical systems that are fundamental to many nanofabrication methods. A lot of effort has been made to fabricate devices smaller than the diffraction limit of light. Creating devices that are capable of confining fields by means of interference patterns of propagating wave modes and surface plasmon, has proven successful to confine light into smaller spot sizes.

Zone plate diffraction lenses generate spots with dimensions very close to the diffraction limit ...


Students' Explanations In Complex Learning Of Disciplinary Programming, Camilo Vieira Dec 2016

Students' Explanations In Complex Learning Of Disciplinary Programming, Camilo Vieira

Open Access Dissertations

Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) has been denominated as the third pillar of science and as a set of important skills to solve the problems of a global society. Along with the theoretical and the experimental approaches, computation offers a third alternative to solve complex problems that require processing large amounts of data, or representing complex phenomena that are not easy to experiment with. Despite the relevance of CSE, current professionals and scientists are not well prepared to take advantage of this set of tools and methods. Computation is usually taught in an isolated way from engineering disciplines, and therefore ...


Functional Mri In The Presence Of Repetitive, Sub-Concussive Impacts, Trey E. Shenk Nov 2016

Functional Mri In The Presence Of Repetitive, Sub-Concussive Impacts, Trey E. Shenk

Open Access Dissertations

Recent research has raised understanding and awareness of the long-term risks associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While much research has focused on the role of concussion (a single event exhibiting clear clinical symptoms), the role of repetitive sub-concussive impacts is not well understood. This study uses functional MRI measurements of high school football players to identify functional changes, even in the absence of clinical symptoms.


Reactions Of Graphene Oxide And Buckminsterfullerene In The Aquatic Environment, Yingcan Zhao Aug 2016

Reactions Of Graphene Oxide And Buckminsterfullerene In The Aquatic Environment, Yingcan Zhao

Open Access Dissertations

Due to unique physical and chemical properties, carbon-based nanomaterials, including C60 and graphene oxide, now being used in an increasing number of applications. Considering their widespread use, nanoparticles will inevitably find their way to the natural environment. However, their environmental fate and transport have not been intensively explored, resulting in a general lack of knowledge regarding their risk assessment and life cycle exposure concentrations. To this end, this study has investigated: (i) the photo mineralization of aqu/nC60 clusters under photo irradiation, and (ii) environmental transformation of graphene oxide in the aquatic environment. This study shows that CO2 was produced ...


Efficient Modeling Of Sound Source Radiation In Free-Space And Room Environments, Yangfan Liu Aug 2016

Efficient Modeling Of Sound Source Radiation In Free-Space And Room Environments, Yangfan Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Motivated by the need to develop efficient acoustics simulations for sources in different room environments, a modeling procedure has been proposed that consists of two steps in general: (1) the modeling of the free-space radiation of the source based on measurements in a anechoic environment, and (2) the prediction of the sound field in a room environment based on that free-space information.

To achieve a high modeling efficiency, i.e., to reduce the number of modeling parameters while still maintaining acceptable accuracy, a Multipole Equivalent Source Model (ESM) with undetermined source locations has been developed for the free-space sound field ...