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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Direct And Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Biomass Storage: Implications For Life Cycle Assessment Of Biofuels, Isaac Robert Emery Oct 2013

Direct And Indirect Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Biomass Storage: Implications For Life Cycle Assessment Of Biofuels, Isaac Robert Emery

Open Access Dissertations

Ethanol and other biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks are currently the most promising candidates to replace a large fraction of gasoline consumption in the United States and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Gaps in current approaches to estimating the net greenhouse gas emissions from second-generation biofuels may lead to underestimation of the carbon intensity of these fuels. Current life cycle assessment models of biofuels do not sufficiently account for biomass losses and emissions associated with the harvest and storage of biomass feedstocks, which can require additional fuel and materials use on the farm as well as reducing the effective yield of a ...


Determining Detailed Reaction Kinetics For Nitrogen-And Oxygen-Containing Fuels, Nicole Jeanne Labbe Feb 2013

Determining Detailed Reaction Kinetics For Nitrogen-And Oxygen-Containing Fuels, Nicole Jeanne Labbe

Open Access Dissertations

With the emergence of new biorenewable transportation fuels, the role of heteroatoms in combustion has increased tremendously. While petroleum-based fuels are primarily hydrocarbons, many biorenewable fuels contain heteroatoms such as oxygen and nitrogen, introducing new challenges associated with toxic emissions. A fundamental understanding of the chemical kinetics of combustion of these heteroatomic fuels is necessary to elucidate the pathways by which these toxic emissions are formed and may be achieved through the development of combustion models. Reaction sets, the core of these combustion models, may be assembled for individual fuels through a balance of employing vetted rate constants from prior ...


Modeling Material Transformations In Biorefinement, Vishal Agarwal Sep 2012

Modeling Material Transformations In Biorefinement, Vishal Agarwal

Open Access Dissertations

Lignocellulosic biomass is a significant pool of energy resource, which can be harnessed to supplement or replace the dwindling fossil fuel reserves. This requires development of economically viable means to efficiently convert biomass to biofuels. A major requirement in biofuel industry is to develop highly active, selective and stable catalysts. Zeolites are an important class of micro-porous crystalline solids, and have proven to be effective and stable acid catalysts for a variety of petrochemical and fine-chemical processes. Nitrided zeolites -- i.e., those with Si-O-Si and Si-OH-Al groups substituted by Si-NH-Si and Si-NH2-Al -- have shown promise as shape-selective basic ...


Pyrolysis Oils: Characterization, Stability Analysis, And Catalytic Upgrading To Fuels And Chemicals, Tushar Vispute Feb 2011

Pyrolysis Oils: Characterization, Stability Analysis, And Catalytic Upgrading To Fuels And Chemicals, Tushar Vispute

Open Access Dissertations

There is a growing need to develop the processes to produce renewable fuels and chemicals due to the economical, political, and environmental concerns associated with the fossil fuels. One of the most promising methods for a small scale conversion of biomass into liquid fuels is fast pyrolysis. The liquid product obtained from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil. It is a complex mixture of more than 300 compounds resulting from the depolymerization of biomass building blocks, cellulose; hemi-cellulose; and lignin. Bio-oils have low heating value, high moisture content, are acidic, contain solid char particles, are ...