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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Structural Applications Of Metal Foams Considering Material And Geometrical Uncertainty, Mohammadreza Moradi Sep 2011

Structural Applications Of Metal Foams Considering Material And Geometrical Uncertainty, Mohammadreza Moradi

Open Access Dissertations

Metal foam is a relatively new and potentially revolutionary material that allows for components to be replaced with elements capable of large energy dissipation, or components to be stiffened with elements which will generate significant supplementary energy dissipation when buckling occurs. Metal foams provide a means to explore reconfiguring steel structures to mitigate cross-section buckling in many cases and dramatically increase energy dissipation in all cases. The microstructure of metal foams consists of solid and void phases. These voids have random shape and size. Therefore, randomness ,which is introduced into metal foams during the manufacturing processes, creating more uncertainty in ...


Separation Of Carboxylic Acids From Aqueous Fraction Of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oils Using Nanofiltration And Reverse Osmosis Membranes, Achyuta Vara Prasada Rao Teella Sep 2011

Separation Of Carboxylic Acids From Aqueous Fraction Of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oils Using Nanofiltration And Reverse Osmosis Membranes, Achyuta Vara Prasada Rao Teella

Open Access Dissertations

There has been a growing interest in renewable sources of energy due to an increase in demand and potential shortages and environmental problems associated with fossil fuels. Bio-oils, complex liquid fuels produced from fast pyrolysis of biomass, have been recognized as one potential source of renewable energy. However, they cannot be utilized directly due to their high viscosity, corrosiveness, and high char content. Bio-oils readily phase separate into aqueous phase and organic phase upon addition of water. The aqueous fraction of bio oil (AFBO) is convenient to process and contains sugars, organic acids, hydroxyacetone, hydroxyacetaldehyde, furfural, phenols and other organic ...


In Situ Reinforced Polymers Using Low Molecular Weight Compounds, Onur Sinan Yordem Sep 2011

In Situ Reinforced Polymers Using Low Molecular Weight Compounds, Onur Sinan Yordem

Open Access Dissertations

The primary objective of this research is to generate reinforcing domains in situ during the processing of polymers by using phase separation techniques. Low molecular weight compounds were mixed with polymers where the process viscosity is reduced at process temperatures and mechanical properties are improved once the material system is cooled or reacted. Thermally induced phase separation and thermotropic phase transformation of low molar mass compounds were used in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) resins. Reaction induced phase separation was utilized in thermosets to generate anisotropic reinforcements. A new strategy to increase fracture toughness of materials ...


Electrostatic Effects In Aggregation Of Crystallin Proteins, Deniz Elizabeth Civay Sep 2011

Electrostatic Effects In Aggregation Of Crystallin Proteins, Deniz Elizabeth Civay

Open Access Dissertations

The three projects utilized polymer physics theories to investigate polymer aggregation mechanics. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), static light scattering (SLS) and small angle light scattering (SALS) were the primary characterization tools. The goal of the first project was to study the aggregation of bovine βL-crystallin and apply that knowledge towards cataract formation, which is caused by aggregation of the crystallins. The first series of experiments characterized the kinetics of α-crystallin and βL-crystallin in water at room temperature. α-crystallin’s equilibrium hydrodynamic radius value was kinetically independent. βL-crystallin formed an aggregate with an Rh that was kinetically dependent. The packing structure ...


Organic Photovoltaics Based On P3ht/Pcbm: Correlating Efficiency And Morphology, Dian Chen Sep 2011

Organic Photovoltaics Based On P3ht/Pcbm: Correlating Efficiency And Morphology, Dian Chen

Open Access Dissertations

Controlling the morphology of thin films is key in optimizing the efficiency of polymer-based photovoltaic (PV) devices. The morphology and interfacial behavior of the multicomponent active layers confined between electrodes are strongly influenced by the preparation conditions. Results obtained in this work quantitatively show the photovoltaic device performance is strongly affected by the nanoscopic morphology, crystal orientation, composition distribution and the interdiffusion behavior of the photoactive layer. To better understand the physics of the photoactive layer in the organic photovoltaic devices, it is necessary to gain a quantitative understanding of the morphology and the manner in which it develops. A ...


A Numerical Study Of Droplet Formation And Behavior Using Interface Tracking Methods, Sandeep Menon Sep 2011

A Numerical Study Of Droplet Formation And Behavior Using Interface Tracking Methods, Sandeep Menon

Open Access Dissertations

An adaptive remeshing algorithm has been developed for multiphase flow simulations using the moving-mesh interface tracking (MMIT) technique. The edge-swapping algorithm uses the Delaunay criterion (in 2D) and a dynamic programming technique (in 3D) to maximize the quality of mesh primitives surrounding edges in the mesh, and performs local remeshing to minimize interpolation errors. Edge bisection and contraction operations are also performed to adjust the mesh resolution around important features like fluid-interfaces, driven by a local length scale estimation algorithm that is efficient and easily parallelized. Flow-field interpolation after reconnection is achieved using a conservative, second-order accurate remapping scheme that ...


Queue Length Based Pacing Of Internet Traffic, Cai Yan Sep 2011

Queue Length Based Pacing Of Internet Traffic, Cai Yan

Open Access Dissertations

As the Internet evolves, there is a continued demand for high Internet bandwidth. This demand is driven partly by the widely spreading real-time video applications, such as on-line gaming, teleconference, high-definition video streaming. All-optical switches and routers have long been studied as a promising solution to the rapidly growing demand. Nevertheless, buffer sizes in all-optical switches and routers are very limited due to the challenges in manufacturing larger optical buffers. On the other hand, Internet traffic is bursty. The existence of burstiness in network traffic has been shown at all time scales, from tens of milliseconds to thousands of seconds ...


Phase Behavior Of Block Copolymers In Compressed Co2 And As Single Domain-Layer, Nanolithographic Etch Resists For Sub-10 Nm Pattern Transfer, Curran Matthew Chandler Sep 2011

Phase Behavior Of Block Copolymers In Compressed Co2 And As Single Domain-Layer, Nanolithographic Etch Resists For Sub-10 Nm Pattern Transfer, Curran Matthew Chandler

Open Access Dissertations

Diblock copolymers have many interesting properties, which first and foremost include their ability to self-assemble into various ordered, regularly spaced domains with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The work in this dissertation can be logically divided into two parts - the first and the majority of this work describes the phase behavior of certain block copolymer systems, and the second discusses real applications possible with block copolymer templates. Many compressible fluids have solvent-like properties dependent on fluid pressure and can be used as processing aids similar to liquid solvents. Here, compressed CO2 was shown to swell several thin homopolymer films, including polystyrene ...


Ion Mobility Studies Of Functional Polymeric Materials For Fuel Cells And Lithium Ion Batteries, Shilpi Sanghi Sep 2011

Ion Mobility Studies Of Functional Polymeric Materials For Fuel Cells And Lithium Ion Batteries, Shilpi Sanghi

Open Access Dissertations

The research presented in this thesis focuses on developing new functional polymeric materials that can conduct ions, H+, or OH- or Li+. The motivation behind this work was to understand the similarities and/or differences in the structure property relationships between polymer membranes and the conductivity of H+ and OH- ions, and between polymer membranes and the anhydrous conductivity of H+ and Li+ ions. This understanding is critical to developing durable polymer membranes with high H+, OH- and Li+ ion conductivity for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFCs) and lithium ion batteries respectively ...


Low-Profile, Modular, Ultra-Wideband Phased Arrays, Steven S. Holland Sep 2011

Low-Profile, Modular, Ultra-Wideband Phased Arrays, Steven S. Holland

Open Access Dissertations

Ultrawideband (UWB) phased antenna arrays are critical to the success of future multi-functional communication, sensing, and countermeasure systems, which will utilize a few UWB phased arrays in place of multiple antennas on a platform. The success of this new systems approach relies in part on the ability to manufacture and assemble low-cost UWB phased arrays with excellent radiation characteristics.This dissertation presents the theory and design of a new class of UWB arrays that is based on unbalanced fed tightly-coupled horizontal dipoles over a ground plane. Practical implementation of this concept leads to two inexpensive wideband array topologies, the Banyan ...


Effects Of Molecular Architecture On Crystallization Behavior Of Pol(Lactic Acid) And Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate, Jeffrey Paul Kalish Sep 2011

Effects Of Molecular Architecture On Crystallization Behavior Of Pol(Lactic Acid) And Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate, Jeffrey Paul Kalish

Open Access Dissertations

The relationship between polymer chain architecture, crystallization behavior, and morphology formation was investigated. The structures formed are highly dependent on chain configuration and crystallization kinetics. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) random copolymers were studied. Sample characterization was performed using a variety of techniques, including spectroscopy, scattering, and calorimetry. In PLA, structural differences between α’ and α crystalline phases were analyzed using cryogenic infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Compared to the  crystal, the ’ crystal has slightly looser packing and weaker intermolecular interactions involving carbonyl and methyl functional groups. Simulations in conjunction with Raman scattering analyzed the ...


Clock Generation And Distribution For Enhancing Immunity To Power Supply Noise, Jinwook Jang Sep 2011

Clock Generation And Distribution For Enhancing Immunity To Power Supply Noise, Jinwook Jang

Open Access Dissertations

Clock generation and distribution are getting difficult due to increased die size and increased number of cores in a microprocessor. Clock frequencies of microprocessors have been increased and expected to trend 4GHz in near future. This increased clock frequency requires to limit the clock skew and jitter to 5~10% of clock frequency, which is 12.5~25ps. On top of this, non-ideal power supply behavior (supply droops) is worsening available timing margin to the critical paths. This dissertation presents three types of interrelated works: 1) analytical modeling of period jitter of global clock distribution induced by power supply droop ...


Modeling And Simulation Of Nanoparticle Formation In Microemulsion Droplets, Sreekumar R. Kuriyedath Sep 2011

Modeling And Simulation Of Nanoparticle Formation In Microemulsion Droplets, Sreekumar R. Kuriyedath

Open Access Dissertations

Semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots (QDs), are an important class of materials that are being extensively studied for a wide variety of potential applications, such as medical diagnostics, photovoltaics, and solid-state lighting. The optical and electronic properties of these nanocrystals are different from their bulk properties and depend on the size of the QDs. Therefore an important requirement in their synthesis is a proper control on the final nanoparticle size. Recently, a technique has been developed for synthesizing zinc selenide (ZnSe) QDs using microemulsion droplets as templates. In these systems, a fixed amount of a reactant is dissolved ...


Development Of Plant Cell Culture Processes To Produce Natural Product Pharmaceuticals: Characterization, Analysis, And Modeling Of Plant Cell Aggregation, Martin Kolewe Sep 2011

Development Of Plant Cell Culture Processes To Produce Natural Product Pharmaceuticals: Characterization, Analysis, And Modeling Of Plant Cell Aggregation, Martin Kolewe

Open Access Dissertations

Plant derived natural products represent some of the most effective anti-cancer and anti-infectious disease pharmaceuticals available today. However, uncertainty regarding the feasibility of commercial supply due to the limited availability of many plants in nature has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the use of natural products as leads in modern drug discovery. Plant cell suspension culture, consisting of dedifferentiated plant cells grown in vitro and amenable to large scale industrial biotechnology processes, is a production alternative which promises renewable and economical supply of these important drugs. The widespread application of this technology is limited by low product yields, slow ...


Aspects Of Network Formation And Property Evolution In Glassy Polymer Networks, Andrew Thomas Detwiler Sep 2011

Aspects Of Network Formation And Property Evolution In Glassy Polymer Networks, Andrew Thomas Detwiler

Open Access Dissertations

Experimental and theoretical characterization techniques are developed to illuminate relationships between molecular architecture, processing strategies, and physical properties of several model epoxy-amine systems. Just beyond the gel point partially cured networks are internally antiplasticized by unreacted epoxy and amine which leads to enhanced local chain packing and strain localization during deformation processes. Additional curing causes the antiplasticization to be removed, resulting in lower modulus, density, yield stress, and less strain localization. Physical and mechanical probes of network formation are discussed with respect to several different partially cured model epoxy-amine chemistries. The non-linear fracture energy release rate and the molecular architecture ...


Role Of Strongly Interacting Additives In Tuning The Structure And Properties Of Polymer Systems, Vikram Kumar Daga Sep 2011

Role Of Strongly Interacting Additives In Tuning The Structure And Properties Of Polymer Systems, Vikram Kumar Daga

Open Access Dissertations

Block copolymer (BCP) nanocomposites are an important class of hybrid materials in which the BCP guides the spatial location and the periodic assembly of the additives. High loadings of well-dispersed nanofillers are generally important for many applications including mechanical reinforcing of polymers. In particular the composites shown in this work might find use as etch masks in nanolithography, or for enabling various phase selective reactions for new materials development. This work explores the use of hydrogen bonding interactions between various additives (such as homopolymers and non-polymeric additives) and small, disordered BCPs to cause the formation of well-ordered morphologies with small ...


Engineering Modeling, Analysis And Optimal Design Of Custom Foot Orthotic, Lieselle Enid Trinidad Sep 2011

Engineering Modeling, Analysis And Optimal Design Of Custom Foot Orthotic, Lieselle Enid Trinidad

Open Access Dissertations

This research details a procedure for the systematic design of custom foot orthotics based on simulation models and their validation through experimental and clinical studies. These models may ultimately be able to replace the use of empirical tables for designing custom foot orthotics and enable optimal design thicknesses based on the body weight and activities of end-users. Similarly, they may facilitate effortless simulation of various orthotic and loading conditions, changes in material properties, and foot deformities by simply altering model parameters. Finally, these models and the corresponding results may also form the basis for subsequent design of a new generation ...


Informativeness And The Computational Metrology Of Collaborative Adaptive Sensor Systems, Anthony P. Hopf May 2011

Informativeness And The Computational Metrology Of Collaborative Adaptive Sensor Systems, Anthony P. Hopf

Open Access Dissertations

Complex engineered systems evolve, with a tendency toward self-organization, which can, paradoxically, frustrate the aims of those seeking to develop them. The systems engineer, seeking to promote the development in the context of changing and uncertain requirements, is challenged by conceptual gaps that emerge within engineering projects, particularly as they scale up, that inhibit communication among the various stakeholders. Overall optimization, involving multiple criterion, is often expressed in the language of the individual parties, increasing the complexity of the overall situation, subsuming the participants within the evolution of the complex engineered system, containing the objective and subjective in counterproductive or ...


Flow Cytometry Of Cultured Plant Cells For Characterization Of Culture Heterogeneity And Cell Sorting Applications, Vishal Gaurav May 2011

Flow Cytometry Of Cultured Plant Cells For Characterization Of Culture Heterogeneity And Cell Sorting Applications, Vishal Gaurav

Open Access Dissertations

Plant cells culture provides a production source for plant-derived pharmaceuticals in which environmental conditions can be more easily controlled, manipulated, and optimized to yield high quantities of these valuable natural products. The Roberts Laboratory focuses on development and optimization of bio-processes for production of the anti-cancer agent paclitaxel (Taxol®) in Taxus cell suspension cultures with an emphasis on understanding cellular metabolism at both the molecular and cellular level. Most studies concerning metabolite production via cell culture technology rely on culture-average parameters, which are often insufficient to describe culture heterogeneity. There are several limitations associated with this non-model system; and adapting ...


The Parameter Signature Isolation Method And Applications, James Richard Mccusker May 2011

The Parameter Signature Isolation Method And Applications, James Richard Mccusker

Open Access Dissertations

The aim of this research was to develop a method of system identification that would draw inspiration from the approach taken by human experts for simulation model tuning and validation. Human experts are able to utilize their natural pattern recognition ability to identify the various shape attributes, or signatures, of a time series from simulation model outputs. They can also intelligently and effectively perform tasks ranging from system identification to model validation. However, the feature extraction approach employed by them cannot be readily automated due to the difficulty in measuring shape attributes. In order to bridge the gap between the ...


Computational Analysis Of Structural Transformations In Carbon Nanostructures Induced By Hydrogenation, Andre R. Muniz May 2011

Computational Analysis Of Structural Transformations In Carbon Nanostructures Induced By Hydrogenation, Andre R. Muniz

Open Access Dissertations

Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, have attracted significant interest over the past several years due to their outstanding and unusual combination of physical properties. These properties can be modified in a controllable way by chemical functionalization in order to enable specific technological applications. One example is hydrogenation, achieved by the exposure of these materials to a source of atomic hydrogen. This process has been considered for hydrogen storage purposes and for the control of the band gap of these materials for applications in carbon-based electronics. Hydrogen atoms are chemisorbed onto the surface of these materials, introducing sp3-hybridized ...


Modeling Of Flash Boiling Flows In Injectors With Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends, Kshitij Deepak Neroorkar Feb 2011

Modeling Of Flash Boiling Flows In Injectors With Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends, Kshitij Deepak Neroorkar

Open Access Dissertations

Flash boiling may be defined as the finite-rate mechanism that governs phase change in a high temperature liquid that is depressurized below its vapor pressure. This is a transient and complicated phenomenon which has applications in many industries. The main focus of the current work is on modeling flash boiling in injectors used in engines operating on the principle of gasoline direct injection (GDI). These engines are prone to flash boiling due to the transfer of thermal energy to the fuel, combined with the sub-atmospheric pressures present in the cylinder during injection. Unlike cavitation, there is little tendency for the ...


Low Cost Electronically Steered Phase Arrays For Weather Applications, Mauricio Sanchez-Barbetty Feb 2011

Low Cost Electronically Steered Phase Arrays For Weather Applications, Mauricio Sanchez-Barbetty

Open Access Dissertations

The Electronically Steered Phased Array is one of the most versatile antennas used in radars applications. Some of the advantages of electronic steering are faster scan, no moving parts and higher reliability. However, the cost of phased arrays has always been prohibitive - in the order of $1M per square meter. The cost of a phased array is largely impacted by the cost of the high frequency electronics at each element and the cost of packaging. Advances in IC integration will allow incorporating multiple elements such as low noise amplifier, power amplifier, phase shifters and up/down-conversion into one or two ...


Band Structure Calculations Of Strained Semiconductors Using Empirical Pseudopotential Theory, Jiseok Kim Feb 2011

Band Structure Calculations Of Strained Semiconductors Using Empirical Pseudopotential Theory, Jiseok Kim

Open Access Dissertations

Electronic band structure of various crystal orientations of relaxed and strained bulk, 1D and 2D confined semiconductors are investigated using nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method with spin-orbit interaction. For the bulk semiconductors, local and nonlocal pseudopotential parameters are obtained by fitting transport-relevant quantities, such as band gap, effective masses and deformation potentials, to available experimental data. A cubic-spline interpolation is used to extend local form factors to arbitrary q and the resulting transferable local pseudopotential V(q) with correct work function is used to investigate the 1D and 2D confined systems with supercell method. Quantum confinement, uniaxial and biaxial strain and ...


Pyrolysis Oils: Characterization, Stability Analysis, And Catalytic Upgrading To Fuels And Chemicals, Tushar Vispute Feb 2011

Pyrolysis Oils: Characterization, Stability Analysis, And Catalytic Upgrading To Fuels And Chemicals, Tushar Vispute

Open Access Dissertations

There is a growing need to develop the processes to produce renewable fuels and chemicals due to the economical, political, and environmental concerns associated with the fossil fuels. One of the most promising methods for a small scale conversion of biomass into liquid fuels is fast pyrolysis. The liquid product obtained from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil. It is a complex mixture of more than 300 compounds resulting from the depolymerization of biomass building blocks, cellulose; hemi-cellulose; and lignin. Bio-oils have low heating value, high moisture content, are acidic, contain solid char particles, are ...


Mechanical Evaluation Methods For Polymer And Composite Systems, Donna Theresa Wrublewski Feb 2011

Mechanical Evaluation Methods For Polymer And Composite Systems, Donna Theresa Wrublewski

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation describes the development and application of various mechanical characterization techniques to four types of polymer composite materials. The composite nature of these materials ranges from molecular to macro-scale, as do the size scales probed by the techniques chosen. The two main goals of this work are to evaluate the suitability of existing characterization methods to new composite materials (and augment the methods as needed), and to use these methods to determine optimal composite system parameters to maximize the desired mechanical response. Chapter 2 employs nondestructive ultrasonic spectroscopy for characterizing the stiffness response of both micron-scale woven composites and ...


Atomic-Scale Modeling Of Transition-Metal Doping Of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, Tejinder Singh Feb 2011

Atomic-Scale Modeling Of Transition-Metal Doping Of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, Tejinder Singh

Open Access Dissertations

Doping in bulk semiconductors (e.g., n- or p- type doping in silicon) allows for precise control of their properties and forms the basis for the development of electronic and photovoltaic devices. Recently, there have been reports on the successful synthesis of doped semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) for potential applications in solar cells and spintronics. For example, nanocrystals of ZnSe (with zinc-blende lattice structure) and CdSe and ZnO (with wurtzite lattice structure) have been doped successfully with transition-metal (TM) elements (Mn, Co, or Ni). Despite the recent progress, however, the underlying mechanisms of doping in colloidal nanocrystals are not ...


Managing Lithographic Variations In Design, Reliability, And Test Using Statistical Techniques, Aswin Sreedhar Feb 2011

Managing Lithographic Variations In Design, Reliability, And Test Using Statistical Techniques, Aswin Sreedhar

Open Access Dissertations

Much of today's high performance computing engines and hand-held mobile devices are products of aggressive CMOS scaling. Technology scaling in semiconductor industry is mainly driven by corresponding improvements in optical lithography technology. Photolithography, the art used to create patterns on the wafer is at the heart of the semiconductor manufacturing process. Lately, improvements in optical technology have been difficult and slow. The transition to deep ultra-violet (DUV) light source (193nm) required changes in lens materials, mask blanks, light source and photoresist. It took more than ten years to develop a stable chemically amplified resist (CAR) for DUV. Consequently, as ...


Fiber Formation From The Melting Of Free-Standing Polystyrene, Ultra-Thin Films: A Technique For The Investication Of Thin Film Dynamics, Confinement Effects And Fiber-Based Sensing, Jeremy M. Rathfon Feb 2011

Fiber Formation From The Melting Of Free-Standing Polystyrene, Ultra-Thin Films: A Technique For The Investication Of Thin Film Dynamics, Confinement Effects And Fiber-Based Sensing, Jeremy M. Rathfon

Open Access Dissertations

Free-standing ultra-thin films and micro to nanoscale fibers offer a unique geometry in which to study the dynamics of thin film stability and polymer chain dynamics. By melting these films and investigating the subsequent processes of hole formation and growth, and fiber thinning and breakup, many interesting phenomena can be explored, including the nucleation of holes, shear-thinning during hole formation, finite-extensibility of capillary thinning viscoelastic fibers, and confinement effects on entanglement of polymer chains. Free-standing films in the melt are unstable and rupture due to instabilities. The mechanism of membrane failure and hole nucleation is modeled using an energy barrier ...