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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang Dec 2016

Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Structured optical media, usually characterized by periodic patterns of inhomogeneities in bulk materials, provide a new approach to ultimate control of wave propagation with possible practical applications: from distributed feedback lasers by diffraction gratings, to highly nonlinear performance for super-continuum generation, to fiber-optic telecommunications by microstructured photonic crystal fibers, to invisibility cloaking, to super-resolution imaging with metamaterials etc.

In particular, structured optical media allow to manipulate the wave propagation and dispersion. In this thesis, we focus on engineering the propagation phase dispersion by modulating the compositions and dimensions of the periodic elements. By tailoring the dispersion in momentum space, we ...


Plasmonic Devices Based On Transparent Conducting Oxides For Near Infrared Applications, Kim Jongbum Dec 2016

Plasmonic Devices Based On Transparent Conducting Oxides For Near Infrared Applications, Kim Jongbum

Open Access Dissertations

In the past decade, there have been many breakthroughs in the field of plasmonics and nanophotonics that have enabled optical devices with unprecedented functionalities. Even though remarkable demonstration of at photonic devices has been reported, constituent materials are limited to the noble metals such as gold (Au) and silver (Ag) due to their abundance of free electrons which enable the support of plasmon resonances in the visible range. With the strong demand for extension of the optical range of plasmonic applications, it is now a necessity to explore and develop alternative materials which can overcome intrinsic issues of noble metals ...


Gravity-Assist Trajectories To Venus, Mars, And The Ice Giants: Mission Design With Human And Robotic Applications, Kyle M. Hughes Dec 2016

Gravity-Assist Trajectories To Venus, Mars, And The Ice Giants: Mission Design With Human And Robotic Applications, Kyle M. Hughes

Open Access Dissertations

Gravity-assist trajectories to Uranus and Neptune are found (with the allowance of impulsive maneuvers using chemical propulsion) for launch dates ranging from 2024 to 2038 for Uranus and 2020 to 2070 for Neptune. Solutions are found using a patched conic model with analytical ephemeris via the Satellite Tour Design Program (STOUR), originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Delivered payload mass is computed for all solutions for select launch vehicles, and attractive solutions are identified as those that deliver a specified amount of payload mass into orbit at the target body in minimum time. The best cases for each ...


Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun Dec 2016

Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun

Open Access Dissertations

Three-dimensional scanning and display are rapidly-advancing new technologies with important commercial drivers such as 3D printing and remote imaging for big data applications. Holography is a natural approach to recording and displaying three-dimensional information because it uses phase-sensitive interferometry to record interference patterns when a reference beam encounters coherent light arriving from an object. The 3D information is contained in the values of wave optics. Holography is a broad field that goes beyond recording and displaying. For instance, holographic optical elements, which take advantage of holographic imaging principles, perform the functions of lenses, gratings or mirrors. Holographic interferometry is also ...


Exploring Spin-Transfer-Torque Devices And Memristors For Logic And Memory Applications, Zoha Pajouhi Aug 2016

Exploring Spin-Transfer-Torque Devices And Memristors For Logic And Memory Applications, Zoha Pajouhi

Open Access Dissertations

As scaling CMOS devices is approaching its physical limits, researchers have begun exploring newer devices and architectures to replace CMOS.

Due to their non-volatility and high density, Spin Transfer Torque (STT) devices are among the most prominent candidates for logic and memory applications. In this research, we first considered a new logic style called All Spin Logic (ASL). Despite its advantages, ASL consumes a large amount of static power; thus, several optimizations can be performed to address this issue. We developed a systematic methodology to perform the optimizations to ensure stable operation of ASL.

Second, we investigated reliable design of ...


Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man Aug 2016

Nanophotonics For Dark Materials, Filters, And Optical Magnetism, Mengren Man

Open Access Dissertations

Research on nanophotonic structures for three application areas is described, a near perfect optical absorber based on a graphene/dielectric stack, an ultraviolet bandpass filter formed with an aluminum/dielectric stack, and structures exhibiting homogenizable magnetic properties at infrared frequencies. The graphene stack can be treated as a effective, homogenized medium that can be designed to reflect little light and absorb an astoundingly high amount per unit thickness, making it an ideal dark material and providing a new avenue for photonic devices based on two-dimensional materials. Another material stack arrangement with thin layers of metal and insulator forms a multi-cavity ...


Particle Modeling Of Non-Equilibrium Field Emission Driven Rf Microplasmas, Siva Sashank Tholeti Aug 2016

Particle Modeling Of Non-Equilibrium Field Emission Driven Rf Microplasmas, Siva Sashank Tholeti

Open Access Dissertations

Non-equilibrium microplasmas at atmospheric pressures have been investigated for active flow control, micropropulsion and electronic display applications to name a few. The operational voltages for these microplasmas are on the order of kilovolts. When the electric field at the electrodes reaches GV/m or tens of GV/m either due to reduced interelectrode spacing and surface irregularities or due to carefully designed nanostructures on the electrodes, quantum processes such as field emission and field ionization come into effect. These can potentially reduce the operational voltages of microplasma devices by an order of magnitude. Due to the rarefied and non-equilibrium nature ...


Energy Transfer And Localization In Molecular Crystals, Mitchell A. Wood May 2016

Energy Transfer And Localization In Molecular Crystals, Mitchell A. Wood

Open Access Dissertations

With the aim of developing new technologies for the detection and defeat of energetic materials, this collection of work was focused on using simulations to characterize materials at extremes of temperature, pressure and radiation. Each branch of the work here is collected by which material response is potentially used as the detectable signal.

Where the chemical response is of interest, this work will explore the possibility of non-statistical chemical reactions in condensed-phase energetic materials via reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We characterize the response of three unique high energy density molecular crystals to different means of energy input: electric fields ...


Tailoring Optical And Plasmon Resonances In Core-Shell And Core-Multishell Nanowires, Sarath Ramadurgam Jan 2016

Tailoring Optical And Plasmon Resonances In Core-Shell And Core-Multishell Nanowires, Sarath Ramadurgam

Open Access Dissertations

Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are sub-wavelength structures which exhibit strong optical (Mie) resonances in the visible range. In addition to such optical resonances, the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in metal and semiconductor (or dielectric) based core-shell (CS) and core-multishell (CMS) NWs can be tailored to achieve novel negative-index metamaterials (NIM), extreme absorbers, invisibility cloaks and sensors. Particularly, in this dissertation, the versatility of CS and CMS NWs for the design of negative-index metamaterials in the visible range and, plasmonic light harvesting in ultrathin photocatalyst layers for water splitting are studied.

Utilizing the LSPR in the metal layer and the magnetic ...


Modular Approach To Spintronics, Kerem Yunus Camsari Apr 2015

Modular Approach To Spintronics, Kerem Yunus Camsari

Open Access Dissertations

There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this thesis is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiments we establish ...


Transport Studies In Graphene-Based Materials And Structures, Jiuning Hu Apr 2015

Transport Studies In Graphene-Based Materials And Structures, Jiuning Hu

Open Access Dissertations

Graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite, has emerged as one of the most attractive materials in recent years for its many unique and excellent properties, inviting a broad area of fundamental studies and applications. In this thesis, we present some theoretical/experimental studies about the thermal, electronic and thermoelectric transport properties in graphene-based systems. We employ the molecular dynamic simulations to study the thermal transport in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) exhibiting various properties, including chirality dependent thermal conductivity, thermal rectification in asymmetric GNRs, defects and isotopic engineering of the thermal conductivity and negative differential thermal conductance (NDTC) at large temperature ...


Growth Of Low Disorder Gaas/Algaas Heterostructures By Molecular Beam Epitaxy For The Study Of Correlated Electron Phases In Two Dimensions, John D. Watson Apr 2015

Growth Of Low Disorder Gaas/Algaas Heterostructures By Molecular Beam Epitaxy For The Study Of Correlated Electron Phases In Two Dimensions, John D. Watson

Open Access Dissertations

The unparalleled quality of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy has enabled a wide range of experiments probing interaction effects in two-dimensional electron and hole gases. This dissertation presents work aimed at further understanding the key material-related issues currently limiting the quality of these 2D systems, particularly in relation to the fractional quantum Hall effect in the 2nd Landau level and spin-based implementations of quantum computation.^ The manuscript begins with a theoretical introduction to the quantum Hall effect which outlines the experimental conditions necessary to study the physics of interest and motivates the use of the semiconductor ...


Circular Bessel Field Statistics And The Pursuit Of Far-Subwavelength Resolution, Yulu Chen Apr 2015

Circular Bessel Field Statistics And The Pursuit Of Far-Subwavelength Resolution, Yulu Chen

Open Access Dissertations

The statistical description of wave propagation in random media is important for many applications. While polarized light in systems with weakly interacting scatterers and sufficient overall scatter has zero-mean circular Gaussian statistics, the underlying assumptions break down in the Anderson localization and weakly scattering regimes. Although probability density functions for wave intensity and amplitude exist beyond Gaussian statistics, suitable statistical descriptions for the field with strong and weak random scatter were unknown. The first analytical probability density function for the field that is effective in both the Anderson localization regime and the weakly scattering regime is derived by modeling the ...


Experimental Constraints On Exotic Spin-Dependent Interactions Using Specialized Materials, Rakshya Khatiwada Apr 2015

Experimental Constraints On Exotic Spin-Dependent Interactions Using Specialized Materials, Rakshya Khatiwada

Open Access Dissertations

Various theories predict the possible existence of symmetry violating forces with mesoscopic range interactions from mm-m [1]. These forces can arise from the coupling of a spin 0 boson to spin 1/2 fermions through scalar (gs) and pseudoscalar (gp) couplings. We discuss two experiments that can investigate these interactions using nucleon rich, impressively low magnetic susceptibility (5-100 times lower than pure water) test masses and electron-spin rich, polarized test masses (spin density: 10^20 h/cm3 ). The first experiment looks for a P-odd, T-odd interaction potential proportional to (S.r) where S is the spin of one particle and ...


Computational Optical Imaging: Applications In Synthetic Aperture Imaging, Phase Retrieval, And Digital Holography, Dennis Joseph Lee Apr 2015

Computational Optical Imaging: Applications In Synthetic Aperture Imaging, Phase Retrieval, And Digital Holography, Dennis Joseph Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Computational imaging has become an important field, as a merger of both algorithms and physical experiments. In the realm of microscopy and optical imaging, an important application is the problem of improving resolution, which is bounded by wavelength and numerical aperture according to the classic diffraction limit. We will investigate the resolution enhancement of phase objects such as transparent biological cells. One key challenge is how to measure phase experimentally. Standard interferometric techniques have the drawback of being sensitive to environmental vibrations and temperature fluctuations, and they use a reference arm which requires more space and cost. Non-holographic methods provide ...


Novel Techniques For Quasi Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication Of Transformation Optics Devices, Paul R. West Jan 2015

Novel Techniques For Quasi Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication Of Transformation Optics Devices, Paul R. West

Open Access Dissertations

Current nanofabrication is almost exclusively limited to top-down, two-dimensional techniques. As technology moves more deeply into the nano-scale regime, fabrication of new devices with quasi three-dimensional geometries shows great potential. One excellent example of an emerging field that requires this type of non-conformal 3D fabrication technique is the field of Transformation Optics. This field involves transforming and manipulating the optical space through which light propagates. Arbitrarily manipulating the optical space requires advanced fabrication techniques, which are not possible with current two-dimensional fabrication technologies. One step toward quasi three-dimensional nanofabrication involves employing angled deposition allowing new growth mechanisms, and enabling a ...


Structural Characterization Of Multimetallic Nanoparticles, Vineetha Mukundan Oct 2014

Structural Characterization Of Multimetallic Nanoparticles, Vineetha Mukundan

Open Access Dissertations

Bimetallic and trimetallic alloy nanoparticles have enhanced catalytic activities due to their unique structural properties. Using in situ time-resolved synchrotron based x-ray diffraction, we investigated the structural properties of nanoscale catalysts undergoing various heat treatments. Thermal treatment brings about changes in particle size, morphology, dispersion of metals on support, alloying, surface electronic properties, etc. First, the mechanisms of coalescence and grain growth in PtNiCo nanoparticles supported on planar silica on silicon were examined in detail in the temperature range 400-900°C. The sintering process in PtNiCo nanoparticles was found to be accompanied by lattice contraction and L10chemical ...


Dynamic Control Of Plasmonic Resonances With Graphene Based Nanostructures, Naresh Kumar Emani Oct 2014

Dynamic Control Of Plasmonic Resonances With Graphene Based Nanostructures, Naresh Kumar Emani

Open Access Dissertations

Light incident on a metallic structure excites collective oscillations of electrons termed as plasmons. These plasmons are useful in control and manipulation of information in nanoscale dimensions and at high operating frequencies. Hence, the field of plasmonics opens up the possibility of developing nanoscale optoelectronic circuitry for computing and sensing applications. One of the challenges in this effort is the lack of tunable plasmonic resonance. Currently, the resonant wavelength of plasmonic structure is fixed by the material and structural parameters. Post-fabrication dynamic control of a plasmonic resonance is rather limited.^ In this thesis we explore the combination of optoelectrical properties ...


Effects Of Energetic Irradiation On Materials And Devices Based On Graphene And Topological Insulators, Isaac Childres Oct 2014

Effects Of Energetic Irradiation On Materials And Devices Based On Graphene And Topological Insulators, Isaac Childres

Open Access Dissertations

This report focuses on the optical and electronic properties of graphene and topological insulators and how these Dirac fermion systems interact with energetic irradiation. We first present data exploring the effects of electron-beam and oxygen plasma induced disorder on the electronic properties and Raman spectra of graphene. These initial investigations were important for relating Raman peak intensities and weak localization features to each other and to an average disorder length in graphene, LD. ^ We then integrate gate-effect measurements into the Raman spectroscopy study to fully explore the relationships between carrier density, disorder and Raman spectrum signatures. We find significant ...


Tunable Impedance Matching Network Fundamental Limits And Pracitical Considerations, Wesley N. Allen Oct 2014

Tunable Impedance Matching Network Fundamental Limits And Pracitical Considerations, Wesley N. Allen

Open Access Dissertations

As wireless devices continue to increase in utility while decreasing in dimension, design of the RF front-end becomes more complex. It is common for a single handheld device to operate on a plethora of frequency bands, utilize multiple antennae, and be subjected to a variety of environments. One complexity in particular which arises from these factors is that of impedance mismatch. Recently, tunable impedance matching networks have begun to be implemented to address this problem. ^ This dissertation presents the first in-depth study on the frequency tuning range of tunable impedance matching networks. Both the fundamental limitations of ideal networks as ...


Applications Of Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering In Combustion, Claresta Nicole Dennis Oct 2014

Applications Of Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering In Combustion, Claresta Nicole Dennis

Open Access Dissertations

The dissertation deals with the further development of chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CPP fs-CARS) for applications of gas phase thermometry and extension to methane concentration measurements. The main effort has been to assess the usefulness and robustness of the technique in turbulent combustors of practical interest. A primary aim has been to evaluate the use of CPP fs-CARS for vibrational N2 thermometry in a highly turbulent environment. It has been suggested that due to the laser beam temporal overlap required for fs-CARS signal generation, the technique would be unsuccessful due to beam propagation retardation effects from density ...


Advanced Iii-V / Si Nano-Scale Transistors And Contacts: Modeling And Analysis, Seung Hyun Park Oct 2014

Advanced Iii-V / Si Nano-Scale Transistors And Contacts: Modeling And Analysis, Seung Hyun Park

Open Access Dissertations

The exponential miniaturization of Si CMOS technology has been a key to the electronics revolution. However, the continuous downscaling of the gate length becomes the biggest challenge to maintain higher speed, lower power, and better electrostatic integrity for each following generation. Hence, novel devices and better channel materials than Si are considered to improve the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) device performance. III-V compound semiconductors and multi-gate structures are being considered as promising candidates in the next CMOS technology. III-V and Si nano-scale transistors in different architectures are investigated (1) to compare the performance between InGaAs of III-V compound semiconductors and ...


Hydrogen Loading System Development And Evaluation Of Tritiated Substrates To Optimize Performance In Tritium Based Betavoltaics, Thomas E. Adams Oct 2014

Hydrogen Loading System Development And Evaluation Of Tritiated Substrates To Optimize Performance In Tritium Based Betavoltaics, Thomas E. Adams

Open Access Dissertations

State-of-the-art hydrogen loading system onto thin metallic films based on differential pressure in calibrated chambers has been developed for conditions pressures and temperatures up to 69 bar and 500°C, respectively. Experiments on hydrogen loading on to palladium films of thickness 50 and 250 nm were conducted at pressure ranging from 0.2 bar to 10 bar at temperature 310°C. For first time film hydrogen loading was carried out at 1 bar and at room temperature which temperature. Beta flux exiting surface of metal tritide films has been modeled with MC-SET (Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Trajectories in solids ...


Optical Spectroscopy And Langmuir Probe Diagnostics Of Microwave Plasma In Synthesis Of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials, Alfredo D. Tuesta Oct 2014

Optical Spectroscopy And Langmuir Probe Diagnostics Of Microwave Plasma In Synthesis Of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials, Alfredo D. Tuesta

Open Access Dissertations

Along with the revolutionary discovery and development of carbon nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes and graphitic sheets, has arrived the potential for their application in the fields of medicine, bioscience and engineering due to their exceptional structural, thermal and electrical properties. As roll-to-roll plasma deposition systems begin to provide means for large scale production of these nanodevices, a detailed understanding of the environment responsible for their synthesis is imperative in order to more accurately design and control the growth of carbon nanodevices. To date, the understanding of the chemistry and kinetics that govern the synthesis of carbon nanodevices is only ...


Energy Efficient Hybrid Computing Systems Using Spin Devices, Mrigank Sharad Jul 2014

Energy Efficient Hybrid Computing Systems Using Spin Devices, Mrigank Sharad

Open Access Dissertations

Emerging spin-devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ's), spin-valves and domain wall magnets (DWM) have opened new avenues for spin-based logic design. This work explored potential computing applications which can exploit such devices for higher energy-efficiency and performance. The proposed applications involve hybrid design schemes, where charge-based devices supplement the spin-devices, to gain large benefits at the system level. As an example, lateral spin valves (LSV) involve switching of nanomagnets using spin-polarized current injection through a metallic channel such as Cu. Such spin-torque based devices possess several interesting properties that can be exploited for ultra-low power computation. Analog characteristic of ...


Modeling The Atomic And Electronic Structure Of Metal-Metal, Metal-Semiconductor And Semiconductor-Oxide Interfaces, Ganesh Krishna Hegde Oct 2013

Modeling The Atomic And Electronic Structure Of Metal-Metal, Metal-Semiconductor And Semiconductor-Oxide Interfaces, Ganesh Krishna Hegde

Open Access Dissertations

The continuous downward scaling of electronic devices has renewed attention on the importance of the role of material interfaces in the functioning of key components in electronic technology in recent times. It has also brought into focus the utility of

atomistic modeling in providing insights from a materials design perspective. In this thesis, a combination of Semi Empirical Tight-Binding (TB), first-principles Density

Functional Theory and Reactive Molecular Dynamics (MD) modeling is used to study aspects of the electronic and atomic structure of three such 'canonical' material interfaces - Metal-Metal, Metal-Semiconductor and Semiconductor oxide interfaces.

An important contribution of this thesis is ...


Design And Assembly Of Nanostructured Complex Metal Oxide Materials For The Construction Of Batteries And Thermoelectric Devices, Gautam Ganapati Yadav Oct 2013

Design And Assembly Of Nanostructured Complex Metal Oxide Materials For The Construction Of Batteries And Thermoelectric Devices, Gautam Ganapati Yadav

Open Access Dissertations

Thermoelectric devices and lithium-ion batteries are among the fastest growing energy technologies. Thermoelectric devices generate energy from waste heat, whereas lithium-ion batteries store energy for use in commercial applications. Two different topics are bound with a common thread in this thesis - nanotechnology! In fact, nanostructuring is a more preferred term for the approach I have taken herein. Another commonality between these two topics is the material system I have used to prove my hypotheses - complex metal oxides.

Complex metal oxides can be used for both energy generation and storage as they are stable at high temperatures, are benign and inexpensive ...


Applicability Of Continuum Fracture Mechanics In Atomistic Systems, Shao-Huan Cheng Oct 2013

Applicability Of Continuum Fracture Mechanics In Atomistic Systems, Shao-Huan Cheng

Open Access Dissertations

By quantitating the amplitude of the unbounded stress, the continuum fracture mechanics defines the stress intensity factor K to characterize the stress and displacement fields in the vicinity of the crack tip, thereby developing the relation between the stress singularity and surface energy (energy release rate G). This G-K relation, assigning physical meaning to the stress intensity factor, makes these two fracture parameters widely used in predicting the onset of crack propagation. However, due to the discrete nature of the atomistic structures without stress singularity, there might be discrepancy between the failure prediction and the reality of nanostructured materials. Defining ...


Atomistic Simulation Of Plasma Interaction With Plasma Facing Components In Fusion Reactors, Xue Yang Oct 2013

Atomistic Simulation Of Plasma Interaction With Plasma Facing Components In Fusion Reactors, Xue Yang

Open Access Dissertations

The interaction between plasma and fusion relevant materials is one of the critical issues in successfully using those materials in Tokamak reactors. This research uses molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and binary collision approximation methods to model fusion relevant material bombarded by energetic particles to investigate retention, deposition, sputtering, erosion, blistering effects, diffusion, and so on.

The deuterium bombardment of monocrystalline tungsten was modeled by LAMMPS code using Tersoff type interatomic potential. The deuterium trapping rate, implantation depth, and stopping time in 600-2000 K tungsten bombarded by 5-100 eV deuterium atoms were simulated. Irradiated monocrystalline tungsten became amorphous prior to ...


Altered Cholesterol Metabolism In Human Cancers Unraveled By Label-Free Spectroscopic Imaging, Shuhua Yue Oct 2013

Altered Cholesterol Metabolism In Human Cancers Unraveled By Label-Free Spectroscopic Imaging, Shuhua Yue

Open Access Dissertations

Despite tremendous scientific achievements, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States. Metabolic reprogramming has been increasingly recognized as a core hallmark of cancer. My dissertation work identified novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for human cancers through the study of cholesterol in cancer cells.

Enabled by label-free Raman spectromicroscopy, we performed the first quantitative analysis of lipogenesis at single cell level in human patient cancerous tissues. Our imaging data revealed an unexpected, aberrant accumulation of esterified cholesterol in lipid droplets of high-grade prostate cancer and metastases, but not in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or ...