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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Exploring The Cause Of Injury Or Death In Grain Entrapment, Engulfment And Extrication, Salah F. Issa Dec 2016

Exploring The Cause Of Injury Or Death In Grain Entrapment, Engulfment And Extrication, Salah F. Issa

Open Access Dissertations

Grain entrapments and engulfments are one of most common hazards associated with grain storage facilities. Since the 1970’s over 1,880 incidents have been documented in agricultural confined spaces of which 65% of all recorded incidents were grain entrapments and engulfments. There have been several studies conducted on the contributing factors behind these incidents; however, there have been very few attempts to understand the environmental, physiological or psychological factors the victims experience while entrapped, engulfed, or extricated. This includes understanding how secondary injuries are caused by grain or during extrication by first responders. The research effort was divided into ...


Modeling Picking On Pharmaceutical Tablets, Shrikant Swaminathan Aug 2016

Modeling Picking On Pharmaceutical Tablets, Shrikant Swaminathan

Open Access Dissertations

Tablets are the most popular solid dosage form in the pharmaceutical industry because they are cheap to manufacture, chemically and mechanically stable and easy to transport and fairly easy to control dosage. Pharmaceutical tableting operations have been around for decades however the process is still not well understood. One of the common problems faced during the production of pharmaceutical tablets by powder compaction is sticking of powder to the punch face, This is known as 'sticking'. A more specialized case of sticking is picking when the powder is pulled away form the compact in the vicinity of debossed features. In ...


Optical Dosimetry Tools And Monte Carlo Based Methods For Applications In Image Guided Optical Therapy In The Brain, Akshay N Prabhu Verleker Aug 2016

Optical Dosimetry Tools And Monte Carlo Based Methods For Applications In Image Guided Optical Therapy In The Brain, Akshay N Prabhu Verleker

Open Access Dissertations

Purpose: The long-term goal of this research is to determine the feasibility of using near infra-red light to stimulate drug release in metastatic lesions within the brain. In this work, we focused on developing the tools needed to quantify and verify photon fluence distribution in biological tissue. To accomplish this task, an optical dosimetry probe and Monte Carlo based simulation code were fabricated, calibrated and developed to predict light transport in heterogeneous tissue phantoms of the skull and brain. Empirical model (EM) of photon transport using CT images as input were devised to provide real-time calculations capable of being translated ...


Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez Apr 2016

Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez

Open Access Dissertations

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive brain cancer characterized by poor prognosis. Despite significant efforts by the basic and clinical research community our understanding of GBM progression and recurrence has been incremental. Improvements in therapeutic response have been dismal, and GBM continues to be the deadliest tumor of the central nervous system, with patient average survival rate of 12 months. Synergistic relationships that the tumor cells establish with the brain microenvironment have been proven fundamental for successful tumor progression and maintenance. Yet, many in vitro GBM studies are performed in formats that fail to recapitulate the most essential component of ...


A Novel In Vivo Tumor Oxygen Profiling Assay: Combining Functional And Molecular Imaging With Multivariate Mathematical Modeling, Chung-Wein Lee Apr 2015

A Novel In Vivo Tumor Oxygen Profiling Assay: Combining Functional And Molecular Imaging With Multivariate Mathematical Modeling, Chung-Wein Lee

Open Access Dissertations

Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop and test a novel high spatio-temporal in vivo assay to quantify tumor oxygenation and hypoxia. The assay implements a biophysical model of oxygen transport to fuse parameters acquired from in vivo functional and molecular imaging modalities. ^ Introduction: Tumor hypoxia plays an important role in carcinogenesis. It triggers pathological angiogenesis to supply more oxygen to the tumor cells and promotes cancer cell metastasis. Preclinical and clinical evidence show that anti-angiogenic treatment is capable of normalizing the tumor vasculature both structurally and functionally. The resulting normalized vasculature provides a more efficient and uniform ...


The Pathological Role Of Acrolein In Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis And Multiple Sclerosis, Melissa A. Tully Apr 2015

The Pathological Role Of Acrolein In Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis And Multiple Sclerosis, Melissa A. Tully

Open Access Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy that affects nearly 2.5 million people worldwide. Despite substantial efforts, few treatments are currently available largely due to limited knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms underlying the disease. The immune-inflammatory nature of the pathology has prompted investigation of the role of oxidative stress in disease development and progression; however targeting reactive oxygen species for neutralization has had marginal success therapeutically, suggesting that an alternate oxidative stress-related target would prove beneficial. Recently, our lab has implicated acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde that is both a byproduct and catalyst of lipid peroxidation, as a potential ...


Modeling, Optimization, And Sensitivity Analysis Of A Continuous Multi-Segment Crystallizer For Production Of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, Bradley James Ridder Jan 2015

Modeling, Optimization, And Sensitivity Analysis Of A Continuous Multi-Segment Crystallizer For Production Of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, Bradley James Ridder

Open Access Dissertations

We have investigated the simulation-based, steady-state optimization of a new type of crystallizer for the production of pharmaceuticals. The multi-segment, multi-addition plug-flow crystallizer (MSMA-PFC) offers better control over supersaturation in one dimension compared to a batch or stirred-tank crystallizer. Through use of a population balance framework, we have written the governing model equations of population balance and mass balance on the crystallizer segments. The solution of these equations was accomplished through either the method of moments or the finite volume method. The goal was to optimize the performance of the crystallizer with respect to certain quantities, such as maximizing the ...


Coupled Fluid-Thermal Analysis Of Low-Pressure Sublimation And Condensation With Application To Freeze-Drying, Arnab Ganguly Oct 2014

Coupled Fluid-Thermal Analysis Of Low-Pressure Sublimation And Condensation With Application To Freeze-Drying, Arnab Ganguly

Open Access Dissertations

Freeze-drying is a low-pressure, low-temperature condensation pumping process widely used in the manufacture of bio-pharmaceuticals for removal of solvents by sublimation. The goal of the process is to provide a stable dosage form by removing the solvent in such a way that the sensitive molecular structure of the active substance is least disturbed. The vacuum environment presents unique challenges for understanding and controlling heat and mass transfer in the process. As a result, the design of equipment and associated processes has been largely empirical, slow and inefficient.^ A comprehensive simulation framework to predict both, process and equipment performance is critical ...


Current Steering And Electrode Spanning With Partial Tripolar Stimulation Mode In Cochlear Implants, Ching-Chih Wu Oct 2014

Current Steering And Electrode Spanning With Partial Tripolar Stimulation Mode In Cochlear Implants, Ching-Chih Wu

Open Access Dissertations

Cochlear implants (CIs) partially restore hearing sensation to profoundly deaf people by electrically stimulating the surviving auditory neurons. However, CI users perform poorly in challenging listening tasks such as speech recognition in noise and Cochlear implants (CIs) partially restore hearing sensation to profoundly deaf people by electrically stimulating the surviving auditory neurons. However, CI users perform poorly in challenging listening tasks such as speech recognition in noise and music perception, possibly due to the small number of implanted electrodes and the large current spread of electric stimulation. Although current spread may be reduced using partial tripolar (pTP) stimulation mode, the ...


Developing A Drug Delivery System For Treatment Of Vocal Fold Scarring, Aaron Michael Kosinski Oct 2013

Developing A Drug Delivery System For Treatment Of Vocal Fold Scarring, Aaron Michael Kosinski

Open Access Dissertations

Vocal fold scarring is an affliction that results in the formation of a disorganized and stiff extracellular matrix (ECM) with abnormal ECM component densities & structures including a significant increase in collagen deposition. It is caused by improper healing post injury and results in profound changes in the biomechanical properties of the vocal folds impairing their ability to generate a normal mucosal wave during phonation.

Finding an effective treatment for vocal fold scarring has been elusive. Currently, treatments seek temporary solutions that correct glottal incompetence and reduce stiffness caused by the scar through the augmentation of the vocal folds using various ...


Effects Of Hearing Aid Amplification On Robust Neural Coding Of Speech, Jonathan Daniel Boley Oct 2013

Effects Of Hearing Aid Amplification On Robust Neural Coding Of Speech, Jonathan Daniel Boley

Open Access Dissertations

Hearing aids are able to restore some hearing abilities for people with auditory impairments, but background noise remains a significant problem. Unfortunately, we know very little about how speech is encoded in the auditory system, particularly in impaired systems with prosthetic amplifiers. There is growing evidence that relative timing in the neural signals (known as spatiotemporal coding) is important for speech perception, but there is little research that relates spatiotemporal coding and hearing aid amplification.

This research uses a combination of computational modeling and physiological experiments to characterize how hearing aids affect vowel coding in noise at the level of ...


Altered Cholesterol Metabolism In Human Cancers Unraveled By Label-Free Spectroscopic Imaging, Shuhua Yue Oct 2013

Altered Cholesterol Metabolism In Human Cancers Unraveled By Label-Free Spectroscopic Imaging, Shuhua Yue

Open Access Dissertations

Despite tremendous scientific achievements, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States. Metabolic reprogramming has been increasingly recognized as a core hallmark of cancer. My dissertation work identified novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for human cancers through the study of cholesterol in cancer cells.

Enabled by label-free Raman spectromicroscopy, we performed the first quantitative analysis of lipogenesis at single cell level in human patient cancerous tissues. Our imaging data revealed an unexpected, aberrant accumulation of esterified cholesterol in lipid droplets of high-grade prostate cancer and metastases, but not in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or ...