Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 109

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Method For Selecting Hvac Retrofit Solutions For Existing Small- And Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings, Bonggil Jeon Dec 2016

A Method For Selecting Hvac Retrofit Solutions For Existing Small- And Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings, Bonggil Jeon

Open Access Dissertations

The primary purpose of the present study is to develop a framework and methodology for evaluating appropriate Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) retrofit solutions that can be effectively retrofitted into different types of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings (SMSCB). Additionally, development of an advanced data-driven decision-making tool is introduced as a benefit of proposed framework. In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on retrofits of existing commercial buildings (IBE, 2013b). In fact, the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2003 (EIA, 2006) indicates that over 70% of existing commercial buildings across the United States are more than twenty ...


Hydrodynamics Of Swimming Microorganisms In Complex Fluids, Gaojin Li Dec 2016

Hydrodynamics Of Swimming Microorganisms In Complex Fluids, Gaojin Li

Open Access Dissertations

Swimming motion of microorganisms, such as spermatozoa, plankton, algae and bacteria, etc., ubiquitously occurs in nature. It affects many biological processes, including reproduction, infection and the marine life ecosystem. The hydrodynamic effects are important in microorganism swimming, their nutrient uptake, fertilization, collective motions and formation of colonies. In nature, microorganisms have evolved to use various fascinating ways for locomotion and transport. Different designs are also developed for the locomotion of artificial nano- and microswimmers. In this study, we use several different computational models to investigate the behavior of microswimmers.

Microorganisms typically swim in the low Reynolds number regime, where inertia ...


Fracture Analysis In Biomimetic Bouligand Architectures, Nobphadon Suksanqpanya Dec 2016

Fracture Analysis In Biomimetic Bouligand Architectures, Nobphadon Suksanqpanya

Open Access Dissertations

The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of Bouligand structures and its biomimetic materials. One of the outstanding species with the Bouligand structures is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus, (or stomatopod) due to its capability of generating high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys. The load-bearing part of this appendage, the dactyl club, contains an interior region, which is mainly characterized by the Bouligand structure. This ...


Energy Localization And Heat Generation In Composite Energetic Systems Under High-Frequency Mechanical Excitation, Jesus O. Mares Dec 2016

Energy Localization And Heat Generation In Composite Energetic Systems Under High-Frequency Mechanical Excitation, Jesus O. Mares

Open Access Dissertations

In this work, the ability to use high frequency mechanical excitation to generate significant heating within plastic bonded explosives, as well as single energetic particles embedded within a viscoelastic binder, is studied. In this work, the fundamental mechanisms associated with the conversion of high-frequency mechanical excitation to heat as applied to these composite energetic systems are thoroughly investigated.

High-frequency contact excitation has been used to generate a significant amount of heat within samples of PBX 9501 and representative inert mock materials. Surface temperature rises on the order of 10 °C were observed at certain frequencies over a range from 50 ...


Modifying Burning Rate And Agglomeration Size In Aluminized Composite Solid Propellants Using Mechanically Activated Metals, Hatem Mohamed Belal Dec 2016

Modifying Burning Rate And Agglomeration Size In Aluminized Composite Solid Propellants Using Mechanically Activated Metals, Hatem Mohamed Belal

Open Access Dissertations

Agglomeration reduction techniques are important field in solid propellant industry, Large agglomeration results in excessive two phase losses. Tailored composite particles has been applied to tailor aluminum particle ignition and combustion. In this research, mechanical activated aluminum magnesium powders are synthesized, tested in both laser ignition using CO2 and propellant. Prepared powders categorized into particle size that suitable for propellant application. Laser ignition tests showed that the prepared powder are more reactive than magnalium which has the same Al:Mg weight ratio. Agglomeration capturing showed that the prepared powder produce much less than neat aluminum or even similar physical mixture ...


Photoelectrochemical And Photophysical Studies Of Carbon Nanotube And Molybdenum Disulfide Based Light Harvesting Devices, Hanyu Zhang Dec 2016

Photoelectrochemical And Photophysical Studies Of Carbon Nanotube And Molybdenum Disulfide Based Light Harvesting Devices, Hanyu Zhang

Open Access Dissertations

There is a critical need in utilizing solar radiation as a renewable energy source. While photovoltaic solar cells are widely used, much attention has been devoted in the past decade to developing nanotechnology for potential cost reduction and improved device efficiency and reliability. Low-dimensional materials offer unique physical properties which may be exploited for solar energy harvesting and conversion. Understanding their fundamental properties and developing relevant manufacturing strategies will thus pave the road toward high-performance, cost-effective, light-harvesting devices.

This thesis has investigated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanolayers for their light-harvesting ability in donor-acceptor systems. These materials ...


Fundamental Studies Of Flame Propagation In Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines, Zhiyan Wang Dec 2016

Fundamental Studies Of Flame Propagation In Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines, Zhiyan Wang

Open Access Dissertations

Lean-burn natural gas engines offer enhanced thermal efficiencies and reduced soot and NOx emissions. However, cycle-to-cycle variability in combustion that can result from unreliable ignition, variability in equivalence ratio and quenching is a challenge. Reliability of ignition can be improved by employing a dual-fuel ignition strategy in which a small quantity of diesel fuel is injected to initiate ignition. Computational studies of n-heptane/methane-air mixing layers are performed to provide insight into the fundamental physics of dual-fuel ignition. The results show that the characteristic time required for steady premixed flame propagation has three components: time for autoignition to occur, time ...


On The Use Of Mechanical And Acoustical Excitations For Selective Heat Generation In Polymer-Bonded Energetic Materials, Daniel C. Woods Dec 2016

On The Use Of Mechanical And Acoustical Excitations For Selective Heat Generation In Polymer-Bonded Energetic Materials, Daniel C. Woods

Open Access Dissertations

To address security issues in both military and civilian settings, there is a pressing need for improved explosives detection technologies suitable for trace vapor detection. In light of the strong dependence of vapor pressure on temperature, trace vapor detection capabilities may be enhanced by selectively heating target materials by external excitation. Moreover, polymer-bonded energetic materials may be particularly susceptible to heating by mechanical or acoustical excitation, due to the high levels of damping and low thermal conductivities of most polymers. In this work, the thermomechanical response of polymer-based energetic composites and methods for acoustical excitation are investigated in order to ...


Thermomechanical Properties Of Novel Lanthanum Zirconate Based Thermal Barrier Coatings - An Integrated Experimental And Modeling Study, Xingye Guo Dec 2016

Thermomechanical Properties Of Novel Lanthanum Zirconate Based Thermal Barrier Coatings - An Integrated Experimental And Modeling Study, Xingye Guo

Open Access Dissertations

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are refractory materials deposited on gas turbine components, which provide thermal protection for metallic components at operating conditions. The current state-of-art TBC material is yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), whose service temperature is limited to 1200 celsius, due to sintering and phase transition at higher temperatures. In comparison, lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7, LZ) has become a promising candidate material for TBCs due to its lower thermal conductivity and higher phase stability compared to YSZ.

The primary objective of this thesis is to design a novel robust LZ-based TBC system suitable for applications beyond 1200 celsius. Due to LZ’s ...


Modeling Methods For Merging Computational And Experimental Aerodynamic Pressure Data, Jacob Courtney Haderlie Dec 2016

Modeling Methods For Merging Computational And Experimental Aerodynamic Pressure Data, Jacob Courtney Haderlie

Open Access Dissertations

This research describes a process to model surface pressure data sets as a function of wing geometry from computational and wind tunnel sources and then merge them into a single predicted value. The described merging process will enable engineers to integrate these data sets with the goal of utilizing the advantages of each data source while overcoming the limitations of both; this provides a single, combined data set to support analysis and design. The main challenge with this process is accurately representing each data source everywhere on the wing. Additionally, this effort demonstrates methods to model wind tunnel pressure data ...


Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interfaces And Related Applications, Stephen L. Hodson Dec 2016

Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interfaces And Related Applications, Stephen L. Hodson

Open Access Dissertations

The development of thermal interface materials (TIMs) is necessitated by the temperature drop across interfacing materials arising from macro and microscopic irregularities of their surfaces that constricts heat through small contact regions as well as mismatches in their thermal properties. Similar to other types of TIMs, CNT TIMs alleviate the thermal resistance across the interface by thermally bridging two materials together with cylindrical, high-aspect ratio, and nominally vertical conducting elements. Within the community of TIM engineers, the vision driving the development of CNT TIMs was born from measurements that revealed impressively high thermal conductivities of individual CNTs. This vision was ...


Concurrent Detection And Isolation Of Cellular And Molecular Biomarkers, Wanfeng Huang Dec 2016

Concurrent Detection And Isolation Of Cellular And Molecular Biomarkers, Wanfeng Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Detection of cancer markers such as protein biomolecules and cancer cells in bodily fluids is of great importance in early diagnosis, prognosis as well as evaluation of therapy efficacy. Numerous devices have been developed for detecting either cellular or molecular targets, however there has not yet been a system that can simultaneously detect both cellular and molecular targets effectively. Molecule and cell-based assays are important because each type of target can tell a different story about the state of the disease and the two types of information can potentially be combined and/or compared for more accurate biological or clinical ...


Evaluating The Performance Of Passive Chilled Beams With Respect To Energy Efficiency And Thermal Comfort, Janghyun Kim Dec 2016

Evaluating The Performance Of Passive Chilled Beams With Respect To Energy Efficiency And Thermal Comfort, Janghyun Kim

Open Access Dissertations

Existing modeling approaches for passive chilled beams determined from tests on individual chilled beams in a laboratory are not adequate for assessing overall energy usage and occupant comfort within building simulation programs. In addition, design guidelines for passive chilled beam systems are needed for identifying appropriate applications and optimal configurations. This thesis includes (i) extensive experimental studies for characterizing the performance of passive chilled beams, in both laboratory settings and in field studies, (ii) development of passive chilled beam performance prediction models, (iii) integration of these models into building simulation models/tools and (iv) use of building simulation for overall ...


Optimal Design Of Sound Absorbing Systems With Microperforated Panels, Nicholas Nakjoo Kim Dec 2016

Optimal Design Of Sound Absorbing Systems With Microperforated Panels, Nicholas Nakjoo Kim

Open Access Dissertations

As the development of technology makes economic prosperity and life more convenient, people now desire a higher quality of life. This quality of life is based not only on the convenience in their life but also on clean and eco-friendly environments. To meet that requirement, much research is being performed in many areas of eco-friendly technology, such as renewable energy, biodegradable content, and batteries for electronic vehicles.

This tendency is also obvious in the acoustics area, where there are continuing attempts to replace fiber-glass sound absorbers with fiber-free materials. The combination of microperfoated panels (MPP) (one of the fiber-free sound ...


Experimentally Validated 3d Md Model For Afm-Based Tip-Based Nanomanufacturing, Rapeepan Promyoo Dec 2016

Experimentally Validated 3d Md Model For Afm-Based Tip-Based Nanomanufacturing, Rapeepan Promyoo

Open Access Dissertations

In order to control AFM-based TBN to produce precise nano-geometry efficiently, there is a need to conduct a more focused study of the effects of different parameters, such as feed, speed, and depth of cut on the process performance and outcome. This is achieved by experimentally validating a MD simulation model of nanomachining, and using it to conduct parametric studies to guide AFM-based TBN. A 3D MD model with a larger domain size was developed and used to gain a unique insight into the nanoindentation and nanoscratching processes such as the effect of tip speed (e.g. effect of tip ...


A Sharp Interface Isogeometric Strategy For Moving Boundary Problems, Tao Song Dec 2016

A Sharp Interface Isogeometric Strategy For Moving Boundary Problems, Tao Song

Open Access Dissertations

The proposed methodology is first utilized to model stationary and propagating cracks. The crack face is enriched with the Heaviside function which captures the displacement discontinuity. Meanwhile, the crack tips are enriched with asymptotic displacement functions to reproduce the tip singularity. The enriching degrees of freedom associated with the crack tips are chosen as stress intensity factors (SIFs) such that these quantities can be directly extracted from the solution without a-posteriori integral calculation.

As a second application, the Stefan problem is modeled with a hybrid function/derivative enriched interface. Since the interface geometry is explicitly defined, normals and curvatures can ...


Optical Sub-Diffraction Limited Focusing For Confined Heating And Lithography, Luis M. Traverso Dec 2016

Optical Sub-Diffraction Limited Focusing For Confined Heating And Lithography, Luis M. Traverso

Open Access Dissertations

Electronics and nanotechnology is constantly demanding a decrease in size of fabricated nanoscale features. This decrease in size has become much more difficult recently due to the limited resolution of optical systems that are fundamental to many nanofabrication methods. A lot of effort has been made to fabricate devices smaller than the diffraction limit of light. Creating devices that are capable of confining fields by means of interference patterns of propagating wave modes and surface plasmon, has proven successful to confine light into smaller spot sizes.

Zone plate diffraction lenses generate spots with dimensions very close to the diffraction limit ...


Efficient Modeling Of Sound Source Radiation In Free-Space And Room Environments, Yangfan Liu Aug 2016

Efficient Modeling Of Sound Source Radiation In Free-Space And Room Environments, Yangfan Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Motivated by the need to develop efficient acoustics simulations for sources in different room environments, a modeling procedure has been proposed that consists of two steps in general: (1) the modeling of the free-space radiation of the source based on measurements in a anechoic environment, and (2) the prediction of the sound field in a room environment based on that free-space information.

To achieve a high modeling efficiency, i.e., to reduce the number of modeling parameters while still maintaining acceptable accuracy, a Multipole Equivalent Source Model (ESM) with undetermined source locations has been developed for the free-space sound field ...


Intelligent Control Of A Class Of Nonlinear Systems, Phuong D. Ngo Aug 2016

Intelligent Control Of A Class Of Nonlinear Systems, Phuong D. Ngo

Open Access Dissertations

The objective of this study is to improve and propose new fuzzy control algorithms for a class of nonlinear systems. In order to achieve the objectives, novel stability theorems as well as modeling techniques are also investigated. Fuzzy controllers in this work are designed based on the fuzzy basis function neural networks and the type-2 Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models.

For a class of single-input single-output nonlinear systems, a new stability condition is derived to facilitate the design process of proportional-integral Mamdani fuzzy controllers. The stability conditions require a new technique to calculate the dynamic gains of nonlinear systems represented by fuzzy ...


Flow Shop Scheduling For Energy Efficient Manufacturing, Hao Zhang Aug 2016

Flow Shop Scheduling For Energy Efficient Manufacturing, Hao Zhang

Open Access Dissertations

A large number of new peaking power plants with their associated auxiliary equipment are installed to meet the growing peak demand every year. However, 10% utility capacity is used for only 1%~2% of the hours in a year. Thus, to meet the demand and supply balance through increasing the infrastructure investments only on the supply side is not economical. Alternatively, demand-side management might cut the cost of maintaining this balance via offering consumers incentives to manage their consumption in response to the price signals.

Time-varying electricity rate is a demand-side management scheme. Under the time-varying electricity rate, the electricity ...


Flow Shop Scheduling For Energy Efficient Manufacturing, Hao Zhang Aug 2016

Flow Shop Scheduling For Energy Efficient Manufacturing, Hao Zhang

Open Access Dissertations

A large number of new peaking power plants with their associated auxiliary equipment are installed to meet the growing peak demand every year. However, 10% utility capacity is used for only 1%~2% of the hours in a year. Thus, to meet the demand and supply balance through increasing the infrastructure investments only on the supply side is not economical. Alternatively, demand-side management might cut the cost of maintaining this balance via offering consumers incentives to manage their consumption in response to the price signals.

Time-varying electricity rate is a demand-side management scheme. Under the time-varying electricity rate, the electricity ...


Modeling Of Frame Structures Undergoing Large Deformations And Large Rotations, Hui Liu Aug 2016

Modeling Of Frame Structures Undergoing Large Deformations And Large Rotations, Hui Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Numerical simulation of large-scale problems in structural dynamics, such as structures subject to extreme loads, can provide useful insights into structural behavior while minimizing the need for expensive experimental testing for the same. These types of problems are highly non-linear and usually involve material damage, large deformations and sometimes even collapse of structures. Conventionally, frame structures have been modeled using beam-frame finite elements in almost all structural analysis software currently being used by researchers and the industry. However, there are certain limitations associated with this modeling approach. This research focuses on two issues, in particular, of modeling frame structures undergoing ...


Modeling Picking On Pharmaceutical Tablets, Shrikant Swaminathan Aug 2016

Modeling Picking On Pharmaceutical Tablets, Shrikant Swaminathan

Open Access Dissertations

Tablets are the most popular solid dosage form in the pharmaceutical industry because they are cheap to manufacture, chemically and mechanically stable and easy to transport and fairly easy to control dosage. Pharmaceutical tableting operations have been around for decades however the process is still not well understood. One of the common problems faced during the production of pharmaceutical tablets by powder compaction is sticking of powder to the punch face, This is known as 'sticking'. A more specialized case of sticking is picking when the powder is pulled away form the compact in the vicinity of debossed features. In ...


Implementing And Testing A Panel-Based Method For Modeling Acoustic Scattering From Cfd Input, S. Hales Swift Aug 2016

Implementing And Testing A Panel-Based Method For Modeling Acoustic Scattering From Cfd Input, S. Hales Swift

Open Access Dissertations

Exposure of sailors to high levels of noise in the aircraft carrier deck environment is a problem that has serious human and economic consequences. A variety of approaches to quieting exhausting jets from high-performance aircraft are undergoing development. However, testing of noise abatement solutions at full-scale may be prohibitively costly when many possible nozzle treatments are under consideration. A relatively efficient and accurate means of predicting the noise levels resulting from engine-quieting technologies at personnel locations is needed. This is complicated by the need to model both the direct and the scattered sound field in order to determine the resultant ...


Particle Modeling Of Non-Equilibrium Field Emission Driven Rf Microplasmas, Siva Sashank Tholeti Aug 2016

Particle Modeling Of Non-Equilibrium Field Emission Driven Rf Microplasmas, Siva Sashank Tholeti

Open Access Dissertations

Non-equilibrium microplasmas at atmospheric pressures have been investigated for active flow control, micropropulsion and electronic display applications to name a few. The operational voltages for these microplasmas are on the order of kilovolts. When the electric field at the electrodes reaches GV/m or tens of GV/m either due to reduced interelectrode spacing and surface irregularities or due to carefully designed nanostructures on the electrodes, quantum processes such as field emission and field ionization come into effect. These can potentially reduce the operational voltages of microplasma devices by an order of magnitude. Due to the rarefied and non-equilibrium nature ...


Data Driven Low-Bandwidth Intelligent Control Of A Jet Engine Combustor, Nathan L. Toner Aug 2016

Data Driven Low-Bandwidth Intelligent Control Of A Jet Engine Combustor, Nathan L. Toner

Open Access Dissertations

This thesis introduces a low-bandwidth control architecture for navigating the input space of an un-modeled combustor system between desired operating conditions while avoiding regions of instability and blow-out. An experimental procedure is discussed for identifying regions of instability and gathering sufficient data to build a data-driven model of the system's operating modes. Regions of instability and blow-out are identified experimentally and a data-driven operating point classifier is designed. This classifier acts as a map of the operating space of the combustor, indicating regions in which the flame is in a "good" or "bad" operating mode. A data-driven predictor is ...


Modeling The Impact Of Battery Degradation Within Lifecycle Cost Based Design Optimization Of Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Ashish P. Vora Aug 2016

Modeling The Impact Of Battery Degradation Within Lifecycle Cost Based Design Optimization Of Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Ashish P. Vora

Open Access Dissertations

The optimal design of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains from a systems perspective is critical to realize the maximum benefits for a given application. This is particularly true in the heavy-duty vehicle space where the major challenges are: (i) greater emphasis on economic viability, (ii) reluctance to take on risk associated with new technologies, and (iii) numerous diverse applications that preclude a one-size-fits-all approach to hybrid-electric powertrain design. Past studies on HEV powertrain design have either ignored battery degradation, or failed to holistically capture its impact from a lifecycle cost perspective. The focus of this effort is the development of ...


Laser Direct Written Silicon Nanowires For Electronic And Sensing Applications, Woongsik Nam Aug 2016

Laser Direct Written Silicon Nanowires For Electronic And Sensing Applications, Woongsik Nam

Open Access Dissertations

Silicon nanowires are promising building blocks for high-performance electronics and chemical/biological sensing devices due to their ultra-small body and high surface-to-volume ratios. However, the lack of the ability to assemble and position nanowires in a highly controlled manner still remains an obstacle to fully exploiting the substantial potential of nanowires. Here we demonstrate a one-step method to synthesize intrinsic and doped silicon nanowires for device applications. Sub-diffraction limited nanowires as thin as 60 nm are synthesized using laser direct writing in combination with chemical vapor deposition, which has the advantages of in-situ doping, catalyst-free growth, and precise control of ...


Atomistic And Mesoscopic Simulations Of Heat Transfer Across Heterogeneous Material Interfaces, Sridhar Sadasivam Aug 2016

Atomistic And Mesoscopic Simulations Of Heat Transfer Across Heterogeneous Material Interfaces, Sridhar Sadasivam

Open Access Dissertations

The study of heat transfer and the associated thermal interface resistance at heterogeneous material interfaces is over 70 years old since the first measurements of thermal interface resistance by Kapitza in 1941. However, recent developments in experimental metrology techniques that enable spectrally-resolved phonon transport measurements at the nanoscale along with the development of high-fidelity simulation methods have provided a renewed interest in the fundamental physics of heat transfer across interfaces. Miniaturized electronic devices and nanostructured materials for energy applications are among technologies that would benefit from a fundamental understanding of interfacial thermal transport. This dissertation focuses on the study of ...


Investigation Of Digital Pump/Motor Control Strategies, Farid El Breidi Aug 2016

Investigation Of Digital Pump/Motor Control Strategies, Farid El Breidi

Open Access Dissertations

A pump is the heart of fluid power systems, it has a significant impact on the efficiency of many fluid power systems. Motors are the most common rotary actuators in fluid power systems. State-of-the-art pump/motor units can achieve efficiencies higher than 90% when operating at maximum displacement; however, as the displacement drops, the efficiency of these units drops to below 50%. A new digital pump/motor design aims at increasing these efficiencies by utilizing two electrically controlled high speed on/off valves per displacement chamber; these valves provide the ability to achieve variable displacement and allow freedom in choosing ...