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Theses/Dissertations

Open Access Dissertations

Materials Science and Engineering

2015

Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Near-Congruent Solidification Of Castings, Kevin J Chaput Apr 2015

Near-Congruent Solidification Of Castings, Kevin J Chaput

Open Access Dissertations

A study on the microstructure development of as-cast Cu-Mn alloys based around the congruent minimum at 34.6 wt % Mn and 873 °C was performed. Initially, this was to evaluate the alloy as an alternative to wide freezing range Pb and Sn bronzes that are plagued with porosity. The shallow minimum and associated narrow freezing ranges around the congruent point result in a completely cellular (non-dendritic) solidification morphology for a composition range ~3 wt % Mn about the congruent composition (C c). The degree of cellular solidification was found to depend on the mold material. Increased mold conductivity lead to a ...


Transport Studies In Graphene-Based Materials And Structures, Jiuning Hu Apr 2015

Transport Studies In Graphene-Based Materials And Structures, Jiuning Hu

Open Access Dissertations

Graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite, has emerged as one of the most attractive materials in recent years for its many unique and excellent properties, inviting a broad area of fundamental studies and applications. In this thesis, we present some theoretical/experimental studies about the thermal, electronic and thermoelectric transport properties in graphene-based systems. We employ the molecular dynamic simulations to study the thermal transport in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) exhibiting various properties, including chirality dependent thermal conductivity, thermal rectification in asymmetric GNRs, defects and isotopic engineering of the thermal conductivity and negative differential thermal conductance (NDTC) at large temperature ...


Growth Of Low Disorder Gaas/Algaas Heterostructures By Molecular Beam Epitaxy For The Study Of Correlated Electron Phases In Two Dimensions, John D. Watson Apr 2015

Growth Of Low Disorder Gaas/Algaas Heterostructures By Molecular Beam Epitaxy For The Study Of Correlated Electron Phases In Two Dimensions, John D. Watson

Open Access Dissertations

The unparalleled quality of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy has enabled a wide range of experiments probing interaction effects in two-dimensional electron and hole gases. This dissertation presents work aimed at further understanding the key material-related issues currently limiting the quality of these 2D systems, particularly in relation to the fractional quantum Hall effect in the 2nd Landau level and spin-based implementations of quantum computation.^ The manuscript begins with a theoretical introduction to the quantum Hall effect which outlines the experimental conditions necessary to study the physics of interest and motivates the use of the semiconductor ...


Tunable Organization Of Cellulose Nanocrystals For Controlled Thermal And Optical Response, Jairo A. Diaz Amaya Apr 2015

Tunable Organization Of Cellulose Nanocrystals For Controlled Thermal And Optical Response, Jairo A. Diaz Amaya

Open Access Dissertations

The biorenewable nature of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) has opened up new opportunities for cost-effective, sustainable materials design. By taking advantage of their distinctive structural properties and self-assembly, promising applications have started to nurture the fields of flexible electronics, biomaterials, and nanocomposites. CNCs exhibit two fundamental characteristics: rod-like morphology (5-20 nm wide, 50-500 nm long), and lyotropic behavior (i.e., liquid crystalline mesophases formed in solvents), which offer unique opportunities for structural control and fine tuning of thermal and optical properties based on a proper understanding of their individual behavior and interactions at different length scales. In the present work, we ...


Encapsulation Of Chemical Catalyst And Structural Epoxy In Microcapsules Generated Via Microcapillary Devices, Congwang Ye Apr 2015

Encapsulation Of Chemical Catalyst And Structural Epoxy In Microcapsules Generated Via Microcapillary Devices, Congwang Ye

Open Access Dissertations

Protection and controlled release of chemicals through encapsulation have been extensively used in daily applications such as drug delivery, food processing, enzyme stabilization, and chemical storage. A significant need for further development in this area is to reduce the capsule size and to obtain more predictable performance by narrowing the capsule geometry distribution. For the past decade, microfluidics have been rapidly developed to become a popular technique for the generation of monodisperse single/double/multiple emulsion drops in the micrometer to millimeter size range. With this technique, polymeric microcapsules with a narrow size distribution can be fabricated by adding different ...


Surface Modification Of Traditional And Bioresorbable Metallic Implant Materials For Improved Biocompatibility, Emily Kristine Walker Apr 2015

Surface Modification Of Traditional And Bioresorbable Metallic Implant Materials For Improved Biocompatibility, Emily Kristine Walker

Open Access Dissertations

Due to their strength, elasticity, and durability, a variety of metal alloys are commonly used in medical implants. Traditionally, corrosion-resistant metals have been preferred. These permanent materials can cause negative systemic and local tissue effects in the long-term. Permanent stenting can lead to late-stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. Metallic pins and screws for fracture fixation can corrode and fail, cause loss of bone mass, and contribute to inflammation and pain at the implant site, requiring reintervention. Corrodible metallic implants have the potential to prevent many of these complications by providing transient support to the affected tissue, dissolving at a rate ...


Sintering Techniques For Microstructure Control In Ceramics, Andrew T. Rosenberger Apr 2015

Sintering Techniques For Microstructure Control In Ceramics, Andrew T. Rosenberger

Open Access Dissertations

Sintering techniques can be manipulated to enhance densification in difficult to sinter materials and to produce property enhancing microstructures. However, the interplay between materials, sintering techniques, and end properties is not fully understood in many material systems, and some fundamental aspects of sintering such as the nature of the effects of electric fields remains unknown. The processing property relationships were examined in two classes of materials; zirconium diboride ultra high temperature ceramic composites, and all solid lithium-ion battery phosphate materials. ^ Investigation of zirconium diboride ceramics focused on the effects of zirconium carbide as a secondary or tertiary phase in ZrB ...


Investigations Of Carbon Nanotube Catalyst Morphology And Behavior With Transmission Electron Microscopy, Sammy M. Saber Apr 2015

Investigations Of Carbon Nanotube Catalyst Morphology And Behavior With Transmission Electron Microscopy, Sammy M. Saber

Open Access Dissertations

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are materials with significant potential applications due to their desirable mechanical and electronic properties, which can both vary based on their structure. Electronic applications for CNTs are still few and not widely available, mainly due to the difficulty in the control of fabrication. Carbon nanotubes are grown in batches, but despite many years of research from their first discovery in 1991, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how to control the structure of CNTs. This work attempts to bridge some of the gap between question and answer by focusing on the catalyst particle used in common ...


Experimental And Modeling Investigation Of Cellulose Nanocrystals Polymer Composite Fibers, Si Chen Apr 2015

Experimental And Modeling Investigation Of Cellulose Nanocrystals Polymer Composite Fibers, Si Chen

Open Access Dissertations

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are a class of newly developed and sustainable nanomaterial derived from cellulose-based materials such as wood. There have been substantial research efforts to utilize these materials as reinforcing agents. However, in order to develop CNC nanocomposites with industrial applications, it is necessary to understand how addition of CNCs affect the properties of the polymer nanocomposite. In the present work, several approaches, experimental and theoretical, are presented in an effort to characterize and understand the effect of CNCs on the properties of polymer CNC fibers. ^ Two experimental methods were used to develop cellulose acetate (CA) and CNC composite ...


Experimental Constraints On Exotic Spin-Dependent Interactions Using Specialized Materials, Rakshya Khatiwada Apr 2015

Experimental Constraints On Exotic Spin-Dependent Interactions Using Specialized Materials, Rakshya Khatiwada

Open Access Dissertations

Various theories predict the possible existence of symmetry violating forces with mesoscopic range interactions from mm-m [1]. These forces can arise from the coupling of a spin 0 boson to spin 1/2 fermions through scalar (gs) and pseudoscalar (gp) couplings. We discuss two experiments that can investigate these interactions using nucleon rich, impressively low magnetic susceptibility (5-100 times lower than pure water) test masses and electron-spin rich, polarized test masses (spin density: 10^20 h/cm3 ). The first experiment looks for a P-odd, T-odd interaction potential proportional to (S.r) where S is the spin of one particle and ...


Unveiling The Mechanical Behavior Of The Rod-Like Microstructure In The Radular Teeth Of Cryptochiton Stelleri, Enrique Escobar De Obaldia Apr 2015

Unveiling The Mechanical Behavior Of The Rod-Like Microstructure In The Radular Teeth Of Cryptochiton Stelleri, Enrique Escobar De Obaldia

Open Access Dissertations

Natural ceramics provided with high volume fractions of mineralized materials that are surrounded by a weak organic interface combine the stiff mechanical behavior of building blocks, like hydroxyapatite or aragonite, and the compliance of the organic surroundings. Unique mechanical properties (e.g. light density and toughness) distinguish bio-composites from common engineering materials. A key example is the highly mineralized shell of the radular teeth of the Crypochiton stelleri. Nature has provided the radular teeth with a highly oriented rod-like microstructure of nano-scale dimensions embedded in a matrix of chitin sheaths. Compared to other biological materials, the external iron oxide layer ...


Assessing Coupled Mechanical Behavior And Environmental Degradation At Submicron Scales, Samantha K Lawrence Jan 2015

Assessing Coupled Mechanical Behavior And Environmental Degradation At Submicron Scales, Samantha K Lawrence

Open Access Dissertations

Mechanical and electromechanical properties, deformation and fracture mechanisms, and environmental resistance of materials at submicron scales have been investigated through the combination of nanomechanical testing, high resolution microscopy, diffraction, and electrochemical testing. Nanomechanical techniques were used to isolate environmental, orientation, and size effects. Material evaluation focuses on metals, both model and engineering alloys, in bulk and thin-film form as well as oxide-substrate systems. Yield behavior of Ni 200, a model material, depends on sampled volume size, orientation, and surface preparation. Exposure to high-pressure hydrogen gas is also found to impact incipient plasticity and mechanical properties of commercially pure Ni 201 ...


Kesterite Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorbers Derived Using Inhomogeneous Czts Nanoparticles, Wei-Chang D. Yang Jan 2015

Kesterite Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorbers Derived Using Inhomogeneous Czts Nanoparticles, Wei-Chang D. Yang

Open Access Dissertations

My doctoral research focuses on understanding the structure-property-processing relationship of the kesterite materials to improve their device performance. It is recognized in both my own work and the recent literature that the structural and compositional integrities of CZTSSe are crucial to derive the solar cell grade kesterite thin-films. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) allows me to demonstrate the structural and compositional inhomogeneity of the CZTS nanoparticles and CZTSSe thin-films at the nanoscale. For example, the observed forbidden reflections in TED patterns and FFT diffractograms corresponding to HRTEM images indicate that cation disorder leads to stacking faults in CZTS nanoparticles. Probe-corrected STEM ...


Characterization And Mechanical Properties Of Solar Grade Silicon In Granular And Nanopowder Form, Mohamad Bilal Zbib Jan 2015

Characterization And Mechanical Properties Of Solar Grade Silicon In Granular And Nanopowder Form, Mohamad Bilal Zbib

Open Access Dissertations

Polycrystalline silicon is mainly used for solar cell applications, structures in micro-electromechanical systems, and production of single crystal Si. One of the relatively new methods for producing large quantities of polysilicon is fluidized bed reactor (FBR), where two main morphologies are produced, granular solid (1-3 mm) and nanopowders (30-300 nm). Grinding and fracture occurs in the granular solid during shipping and handling which can affect the final product properties and create safety issues. The microstructure and the morphology of both the granular and the nanopowder forms of Si were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM). The ...