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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Modeling The Atomic And Electronic Structure Of Metal-Metal, Metal-Semiconductor And Semiconductor-Oxide Interfaces, Ganesh Krishna Hegde Oct 2013

Modeling The Atomic And Electronic Structure Of Metal-Metal, Metal-Semiconductor And Semiconductor-Oxide Interfaces, Ganesh Krishna Hegde

Open Access Dissertations

The continuous downward scaling of electronic devices has renewed attention on the importance of the role of material interfaces in the functioning of key components in electronic technology in recent times. It has also brought into focus the utility of

atomistic modeling in providing insights from a materials design perspective. In this thesis, a combination of Semi Empirical Tight-Binding (TB), first-principles Density

Functional Theory and Reactive Molecular Dynamics (MD) modeling is used to study aspects of the electronic and atomic structure of three such 'canonical' material interfaces - Metal-Metal, Metal-Semiconductor and Semiconductor oxide interfaces.

An important contribution of this thesis is ...


Utilizing Electron Microscopy And Spectroscopy Methods To Understand Water Structure And Water Doping, Lior Miller Oct 2013

Utilizing Electron Microscopy And Spectroscopy Methods To Understand Water Structure And Water Doping, Lior Miller

Open Access Dissertations

Water is the second most common element in the universe and the most studied material on earth. Most of the studies concerning water are from the fields of chemistry and biology. Hence, the structure of water molecules and short range order and interactions are well characterized and understood. However, the collective arrangement of water molecules and the long range order are still missing. Understanding of this long range order in water is needed, as it is the key to many water activities.

To fill this gap, this study utilizes a new direct method for characterization of water in the vapor ...


The Effect Of Composition On The Linear And Nonlinear Mechanical Properties Of Particulate Filled Elastomers, Oluwaseyi Ogebule Oct 2013

The Effect Of Composition On The Linear And Nonlinear Mechanical Properties Of Particulate Filled Elastomers, Oluwaseyi Ogebule

Open Access Dissertations

Engineering elastomers are materials capable of undergoing large deformation upon load application and recovering upon load removal. From car tires to building vibration isolator systems, elastomers are the most versatile of engineering materials. The inclusion of particulate fillers into elastomers enhances their mechanical properties (modulus, tensile strength, toughness, tear resistance, etc) thereby extending their applicability to more demanding functions. The automotive, healthcare, construction, adhesives and consumer products are some of the many industries that produce finished goods containing elastomeric parts.

Despite the various concepts on reinforcement in filled elastomers, a complete understanding of their linear viscoelastic properties and the nonlinear ...


Mechanisms Of Microstructure Formation Under The Influence Of Ultrasonic Vibrations, Milan Rakita Oct 2013

Mechanisms Of Microstructure Formation Under The Influence Of Ultrasonic Vibrations, Milan Rakita

Open Access Dissertations

Positive effects of ultrasound on crystallization have been known for almost 90 years. Application of ultrasound has been very successful in many industries, most notably in chemistry, creating a new branch of science - sonochemistry. However, ultrasonication has not found wide commercial application in the solidification processing. The reason for that is the complexity of underlying phenomena and the lack of predicting models which correlate processing parameters with the properties of a product. The purpose of this study is to give some contribution toward better understanding of mechanisms that lead to changes in the solidifying microstructure. It has been found that ...


Synthesis Of Graphene Nanomaterials And Their Application In Electrochemical Energy Storage, Guoping Xiong Oct 2013

Synthesis Of Graphene Nanomaterials And Their Application In Electrochemical Energy Storage, Guoping Xiong

Open Access Dissertations

The need to store and use energy on diverse scales in a modern technological society necessitates the design of large and small energy systems, among which electrical energy storage systems such as batteries and capacitors have attracted much interest in the past several decades. Supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors, or electrochemical capacitors, with fast power delivery and long cycle life are complementing or even replacing batteries in many applications. The rapid development of miniaturized electronic devices has led to a growing need for rechargeable micro-power sources with high performance. Among different sources, electrochemical micro-capacitors or micro-supercapacitors provide higher power density ...


Dynamic Behavior Of Sandwich Beams With Internal Resonators, Bhisham Nar Narain Sharma Oct 2013

Dynamic Behavior Of Sandwich Beams With Internal Resonators, Bhisham Nar Narain Sharma

Open Access Dissertations

Dynamic behavior of sandwich beams with internal resonators was investigated. The effect of inserting spring-mass resonators into the sandwich core was theoretically analyzed and it was shown that a wave attenuation bandgap exists due to local resonance. Steady state experiments were used to demonstrate such an attenuation bandgap. Frequency response functions were obtained for a beam with resonators and without resonators. It was shown that insertion of resonators into the core causes a wave attenuation bandgap to open up. The experimental results were verified using finite element simulations. Further experiments were carried out by tuning the resonators at 12 Hz ...


Response Of Plasma Facing Components In Tokamaks Due To Intense Energy Deposition Using Particle-In-Cell(Pic) Methods, Filippo Genco Oct 2013

Response Of Plasma Facing Components In Tokamaks Due To Intense Energy Deposition Using Particle-In-Cell(Pic) Methods, Filippo Genco

Open Access Dissertations

Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ...


Multiscale Modeling Of The Hierarchical Structure Of Cellulose Nanocrystals, Fernando Luis Dri Oct 2013

Multiscale Modeling Of The Hierarchical Structure Of Cellulose Nanocrystals, Fernando Luis Dri

Open Access Dissertations

Cellulose constitutes the most abundant renewable polymeric resource available today. It considered an almost inexhaustible source of raw material, and holds great promise in meeting increasing demands for environmentally friendly and biocompatible products. Key future applications are currently under development for the automotive, aerospace and textile industries. When cellulose fibers are subjected to acid hydrolysis, the fibers yield rod-like, highly crystalline residues called cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). These particles show remarkable mechanical and chemical properties (e.g. Young Modulus ~200 GPa) within the range of other synthetically-developed reinforcement materials. Critical to the design of these materials are fundamental material properties, many ...


Spectroscopic And Kinetic Characterization Of Catalytic Materials For The Conversion Of Biomass-Derived Compounds, Paul James Dietrich Oct 2013

Spectroscopic And Kinetic Characterization Of Catalytic Materials For The Conversion Of Biomass-Derived Compounds, Paul James Dietrich

Open Access Dissertations

As economies look to transition away from petroleum for social, economic, and political reasons, biomass will continue to attract attention as a renewable feedstock for the fuels and chemicals industry. In order to turn biomass into end use fuels and chemicals, the oxygen content must be lowered significantly, requiring large hydrogen inputs. For these processes to be completely renewable, the hydrogen must come from biomass or biomass-derived compounds. In this work, catalysts for the aqueous phase reforming (APR) of biomass-derived sugars were characterized by a combination of reaction kinetics, X-ray spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and theoretical computation to determine the active ...


Applicability Of Continuum Fracture Mechanics In Atomistic Systems, Shao-Huan Cheng Oct 2013

Applicability Of Continuum Fracture Mechanics In Atomistic Systems, Shao-Huan Cheng

Open Access Dissertations

By quantitating the amplitude of the unbounded stress, the continuum fracture mechanics defines the stress intensity factor K to characterize the stress and displacement fields in the vicinity of the crack tip, thereby developing the relation between the stress singularity and surface energy (energy release rate G). This G-K relation, assigning physical meaning to the stress intensity factor, makes these two fracture parameters widely used in predicting the onset of crack propagation. However, due to the discrete nature of the atomistic structures without stress singularity, there might be discrepancy between the failure prediction and the reality of nanostructured materials. Defining ...


Solution To Certain Problems In The Failure Of Composite Structures, Jonathan Goodsell Oct 2013

Solution To Certain Problems In The Failure Of Composite Structures, Jonathan Goodsell

Open Access Dissertations

The present work contains the solution of two problems in composite structures. In the first, an approximate elasticity solution for prediction of the displacement, stress and strain fields within the m-layer, symmetric and balanced angle-ply composite laminate of finite-width subjected anticlastic bending deformation is developed. The solution is shown to recover classical laminated plate theory predictions at interior regions of the laminate and thereby illustrates the boundary layer character of this interlaminar phenomenon. The results exhibit the anticipated response in congruence with the solutions for uniform axial extension and uniform temperature change, where divergence of the interlaminar shearing stress is ...


Atomic Level Study Of Water-Gas Shift Catalysts Via Transmission Electron Microscopy And X-Ray Spectroscopy, Mehmed Cem Akatay Oct 2013

Atomic Level Study Of Water-Gas Shift Catalysts Via Transmission Electron Microscopy And X-Ray Spectroscopy, Mehmed Cem Akatay

Open Access Dissertations

Water-gas shift (WGS), CO + H2 O [Special characters omitted.] CO2 + H2 (ΔH° = -41 kJ mol -1 ), is an industrially important reaction for the production of high purity hydrogen. Commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2 O3 catalystsare employed to accelerate this reaction, yet these catalysts suffer from certain drawbacks, including costly regeneration processes and sulfur poisoning. Extensive research is focused on developing new catalysts to replace the current technology. Supported noble metals stand out as promising candidates, yet comprise intricate nanostructures complicating the understanding of their working mechanism.

In this study, the structure of the supported Pt catalysts ...


The Comparison Of Composite Aircraft Field Repair Method (Cafrm) With Traditional Aircraft Repair Technologies, Peng Hao Wang Oct 2013

The Comparison Of Composite Aircraft Field Repair Method (Cafrm) With Traditional Aircraft Repair Technologies, Peng Hao Wang

Open Access Dissertations

In the aviation industry, manufacturers made the transition from aluminum to composite materials for the majority of their primary structures over the last few decades. While the design and manufacturing techniques have consistently evolved, field repair methods were consistently overlooked. In this study, specimens fabricated using some of the common repair methods such as the autoclave repair method, and Double Vacuum Debulk (DVD) repair method were tested against the Composite Aircraft Field Repair Method (CAFRM) proposed by the researcher. Specimens were tested with microscopy, acid digestion, short beam shear, and mode I fracture tests. The researcher was able to determine ...


Characterization Of Self-Assembled Functional Polymeric Nanostructures: I. Magnetic Nanostructures From Metallopolymers Ii. Zwitterionic Polymer Vesicles In Ionic Liquid, Raghavendra Raj Maddikeri Feb 2013

Characterization Of Self-Assembled Functional Polymeric Nanostructures: I. Magnetic Nanostructures From Metallopolymers Ii. Zwitterionic Polymer Vesicles In Ionic Liquid, Raghavendra Raj Maddikeri

Open Access Dissertations

Two diverse projects illustrate the application of various materials characterization techniques to investigate the structure and properties of nanostructured functional materials formed in both bulk as well as in solutions. In the first project, ordered magnetic nanostructures were formed within polymer matrix by novel metallopolymers. The novel metal-functionalized block copolymers (BCPs) enabled the confinement of cobalt metal ions within nanostructured BCP domains, which upon simple heat treatment resulted in room temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) materials. On the contrary, cobalt functionalized homopolymer having similar chemical structure and higher loading of metal-ion are unstructured and exhibited superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior at room temperature. Based ...


Impact Resistant Glassy Polymers: Pre-Stress And Mode Ii Fracture, Jared Steven Archer Feb 2013

Impact Resistant Glassy Polymers: Pre-Stress And Mode Ii Fracture, Jared Steven Archer

Open Access Dissertations

Model glassy polymers, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC) are used to experimentally probe several aspects of polymer fracture. In Chapter 1, the method of pre-stress is employed as a means of improving the fracture properites of brittle PMMA. Samples are tested under equi-biaxial compression, simple shear and a combination of biaxial compression and shear. Equi-biaxial compression is shown to increase the threshold stress level for projectile penetration whereas shear pre-stress has a large effect on the overall energy absorbed during an impact. There is also an apparent interaction observed between compression and shear to dramatically increase the threshold stress ...


Helical Ordering In Chiral Block Copolymers, Wei Zhao Feb 2013

Helical Ordering In Chiral Block Copolymers, Wei Zhao

Open Access Dissertations

The phase behavior of chiral block copolymers (BCPs*), namely, BCPs with at least one of the constituent block is formed by chiral monomers, is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Specifically, the formation of a unique morphology with helical sense, the H* phase, where the chiral block forms nanohelices hexagonally embedded in the matrix of achiral block, is investigated. Such unique morphology was first observed in the cast film of polystyrene-b-poly(L-lactide) (PS-b-PLLA) from a neutral solvent dichloromethane at room temperature with all the nanohelices being left-handed, which would switch to right-handed if the PLLA block changes ...