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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Nearly Orthogonal, Doppler Tolerant Waveforms And Signal Processing For Multi-Mode Radar Applications, Uttam Kumar Majumder Oct 2014

Nearly Orthogonal, Doppler Tolerant Waveforms And Signal Processing For Multi-Mode Radar Applications, Uttam Kumar Majumder

Open Access Dissertations

In this research, we investigate the design and analysis of nearly orthogonal, Doppler tolerant waveforms for diversity waveform radar applications. We then present a signal processing framework for joint synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indication (GMTI) processing that is built upon our proposed waveforms. ^ To design nearly orthogonal and Doppler tolerant waveforms, we applied direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) coding techniques to linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals. The resulting transmitted waveforms are rendered orthogonal using a unique spread spectrum code. At the receiver, the echo signal can be decoded using its spreading code. In this manner, transmit ...


Theory Of Topological Insulators And Its Applications, Parijat Sengupta Oct 2014

Theory Of Topological Insulators And Its Applications, Parijat Sengupta

Open Access Dissertations

An important pursuit in semiconductor physics is to discover new materials to sustain the continuous progress and improvements in the current electronic devices. Traditionally, three material types are in use: 1) Metals 2) Semiconductors 3) Insulators. All the three material types are classified according to the energy gap between conduction and valence bands derived from band theory of solids. Recent theoretical predictions and confirmed by experimental observations have provided evidence that there exists materials which behave as insulators in the bulk but possess gapless conducting states on the surface. These new class of materials are called topological insulators (TI). In ...


Quantifying Aesthetics Of Visual Design Applied To Automatic Design, Ali Jahanian Oct 2014

Quantifying Aesthetics Of Visual Design Applied To Automatic Design, Ali Jahanian

Open Access Dissertations

In today's "Instagram" world, with advances in ubiquitous computing and access to social networks, digital media is adopted by art and culture. In this dissertation, we study what makes a good design by investigating mechanisms to bring aesthetics of design from realm of subjection to objection. These mechanisms are a combination of three main approaches: learning theories and principles of design by collaborating with professional designers, mathematically and statistically modeling good designs from large scale datasets, and crowdscourcing to model perceived aesthetics of designs from general public responses. We then apply the knowledge gained in automatic design creation tools ...


Application Of Integer Quadratic Programming To Detection Of High-Dimensional Wireless Systems, Jamal Yousuf Alsawalhi Oct 2014

Application Of Integer Quadratic Programming To Detection Of High-Dimensional Wireless Systems, Jamal Yousuf Alsawalhi

Open Access Dissertations

This work introduces a novel permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) architecture that employs rotational asymmetry to increase the torque density output in constant power variable speed applications. A population based multi-objective design optimization algorithm is used to design and analyze the new machine topology. A number of design studies are presented to show that the proposed machine structure outperforms a conventional PMSM machine. Validation of the analytical machine design model using a three dimensional finite element analyses is performed and the results are presented. Finally, a case study in which a hybrid electric bus traction motor is designed is presented.


Material And Device Aspects Of Semiconducting Two-Dimensional Crystals, Han Liu Oct 2014

Material And Device Aspects Of Semiconducting Two-Dimensional Crystals, Han Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Two-dimensional (2D) crystals have attracted much attention in recent years due to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Semiconducting 2D crystals with van der Waals structures, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, are considered promising candidates for future device applications, as many have large band gaps, high carrier mobilities, and enable devices with immunity to short channel effects in addition to compatibility with silicon CMOS processes.^ In this thesis, the fundamental device implications of using semiconducting 2D crystals are investigated. This includes: 1) the optimization of device fabrication processing for better device performance, 2) comparing the device physics in 2D ...


Advanced Iii-V / Si Nano-Scale Transistors And Contacts: Modeling And Analysis, Seung Hyun Park Oct 2014

Advanced Iii-V / Si Nano-Scale Transistors And Contacts: Modeling And Analysis, Seung Hyun Park

Open Access Dissertations

The exponential miniaturization of Si CMOS technology has been a key to the electronics revolution. However, the continuous downscaling of the gate length becomes the biggest challenge to maintain higher speed, lower power, and better electrostatic integrity for each following generation. Hence, novel devices and better channel materials than Si are considered to improve the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) device performance. III-V compound semiconductors and multi-gate structures are being considered as promising candidates in the next CMOS technology. III-V and Si nano-scale transistors in different architectures are investigated (1) to compare the performance between InGaAs of III-V compound semiconductors and ...


Estimating Toner Usage With Laser Electrophotographic Printers, And Object Map Generation From Raster Input Image, Lu Wang Oct 2014

Estimating Toner Usage With Laser Electrophotographic Printers, And Object Map Generation From Raster Input Image, Lu Wang

Open Access Dissertations

Accurate estimation of toner usage is an area of on-going importance for laser, electrophotographic (EP) printers. In Part 1, we propose a new two-stage approach in which we first predict on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the absorptance from printed and scanned pages. We then form a weighted sum of these pixel values to predict overall toner usage on the printed page. The weights are chosen by least-squares regression to toner usage measured with a set of printed test pages. Our two-stage predictor significantly outperforms existing methods that are based on a simple pixel counting strategy in terms of both accuracy and ...


Design And Analysis Of Solar Cells By Coupled Electrical - Optical Simulation, Xufeng Wang Oct 2014

Design And Analysis Of Solar Cells By Coupled Electrical - Optical Simulation, Xufeng Wang

Open Access Dissertations

Careful electrical design and optical design are both crucial for achieving high-efficiency solar cells. It is common to link these two aspects serially; the optical design is first done to minimize reflection and maximize light trapping, and then the resulting optical generation rate is input to the electrical simulation. For very high efficiency solar cells that approach the Shockley-Queisser limit, however, electrical and optical transports are tightly coupled in both directions. Photons generated by radiative recombination can be reabsorbed to create additional electron-hole pairs (so-called photon recycling), which decreases losses. A variety of novel photon management schemes are currently being ...


Modeling And Characterization Of Non-Ideal Effects In High-Performance Rf Mems Tuners, Juan Zeng Oct 2014

Modeling And Characterization Of Non-Ideal Effects In High-Performance Rf Mems Tuners, Juan Zeng

Open Access Dissertations

The emerging standards for the next-generation wireless communication system demand for multi-band RF front-ends. Reconfigurable RF devices based on MEMS technology have emerged with the potential to significantly reduce the system complexity and cost. Robust operation of RF MEMS tuners under the non-ideal effects due to fabrication uncertainties and environmental variations is critical in achieving reliable RF MEMS reconfigurable devices. Therefore, it is essential to model and characterize these non-ideal effects, and further to alleviate these non-ideal effects by design optimization.^ In this dissertation, the effects of non-perfect anchor support, residual stress, and temperature sensibility of MEMS tuners have been ...


Image Analysis Using Visual Saliency With Applications In Hazmat Sign Detection And Recognition, Bin Zhao Oct 2014

Image Analysis Using Visual Saliency With Applications In Hazmat Sign Detection And Recognition, Bin Zhao

Open Access Dissertations

Visual saliency is the perceptual process that makes attractive objects "stand out" from their surroundings in the low-level human visual system. Visual saliency has been modeled as a preprocessing step of the human visual system for selecting the important visual information from a scene. We investigate bottom-up visual saliency using spectral analysis approaches. We present separate and composite model families that generalize existing frequency domain visual saliency models. We propose several frequency domain visual saliency models to generate saliency maps using new spectrum processing methods and an entropy-based saliency map selection approach. A group of saliency map candidates are then ...


Power-Efficient High-Speed Interface Circuit Techniques, Elkim Felipe Roa Fuentes Oct 2014

Power-Efficient High-Speed Interface Circuit Techniques, Elkim Felipe Roa Fuentes

Open Access Dissertations

Inter- and intra-chip connections have become the new challenge to enable the scaling of computing systems, ranging from mobile devices to high-end servers. Demand for aggregate I/O bandwidth has been driven by applications including high-speed ethernet, backplane micro-servers, memory, graphics, chip-to-chip and network onchip. I/O circuitry is becoming the major power consumer in SoC processors and memories as the increasing bandwidth demands larger per-pin data rate or larger I/O pin count per component. The aggregate I/O bandwidth has approximately doubled every three to four years across a diverse range of standards in different applications. However, in ...


Computing With Spintronics: Circuits And Architectures, Rangharajan Venkatesan Oct 2014

Computing With Spintronics: Circuits And Architectures, Rangharajan Venkatesan

Open Access Dissertations

This thesis makes the following contributions towards the design of computing platforms with spintronic devices. 1) It explores the use of spintronic memories in the design of a domain-specific processor for an emerging class of data-intensive applications, namely recognition, mining and synthesis (RMS). Two different spintronic memory technologies — Domain Wall Memory (DWM) and STT-MRAM — are utilized to realize the different levels in the memory hierarchy of the domain-specific processor, based on their respective access characteristics. Architectural tradeoffs created by the use of spintronic memories are analyzed. The proposed design achieves 1.5X-4X improvements in energy-delay product compared to a CMOS ...


Multi-Objective Optimization And Meta-Modeling Of Tape-Wound Transformers, Ahmed Taher Jul 2014

Multi-Objective Optimization And Meta-Modeling Of Tape-Wound Transformers, Ahmed Taher

Open Access Dissertations

In the research presented herein, design models of tape-wound transformers to support component and system-level optimization are considered. As a basis for component optimization, a magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) model is derived. The key components of the MEC model are the leakage permeances, which have been established using analytical techniques and validated using both 2D and 3D finite element analysis. To enable high frequency design, expressions that predict the winding AC resistance and the proximity effect loss are derived. In addition, a thermal equivalent circuit (TEC) model is established to predict the temperature throughout the transformer and to account for ...


Design Of Robust Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memories For Ultralow Power High Performance On-Chip Cache Applications, Xuanyao Fong Jul 2014

Design Of Robust Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memories For Ultralow Power High Performance On-Chip Cache Applications, Xuanyao Fong

Open Access Dissertations

Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memories (STT-MRAMs) based on magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) has become the leading candidate for future universal memory technology due to its potential for low power, non-volatile, high speed and extremely good endurance. However, conflicting read and write requirements exist in STT-MRAM technology because the current path during read and write operations are the same. Read and write failures of STT-MRAMs are degraded further under process variations. The focus of this dissertation is to optimize the yield of STT- MRAMs under process variations by employing device-circuit-architecture co-design techniques. A devices-to-systems simulation framework was developed to evaluate ...


Fundamental Design Principles Of Novel Mems Based "Landau" Switches, Sensors, And Actuators : Role Of Electrode Geometry And Operation Regime, Ankit Jain Jul 2014

Fundamental Design Principles Of Novel Mems Based "Landau" Switches, Sensors, And Actuators : Role Of Electrode Geometry And Operation Regime, Ankit Jain

Open Access Dissertations

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are considered as potential candidates for "More-Moore" and "More-than-Moore" applications due to their versatile use as sensors, switches, and actuators. Examples include accelerometers for sensing, RF-MEMS capacitive switches in communication, suspended-gate (SG) FETs in computation, and deformable mirrors in optics. In spite of the wide range of applications of MEMS in diverse fields, one of the major challenges for MEMS is their instability. Instability divides the operation into stable and unstable regimes and poses fundamental challenges for several applications. For example: Tuning range of deformable mirrors is fundamentally limited by pull-in instability, RF-MEMS capacitive switches suffer from ...


On Variability And Reliability Of Poly-Si Thin-Film Transistors, Chih-Hsiang Ho Jul 2014

On Variability And Reliability Of Poly-Si Thin-Film Transistors, Chih-Hsiang Ho

Open Access Dissertations

In contrast to conventional bulk-silicon technology, polysilicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) can be implanted in flexible substrate and can have low process temperature. These attributes make poly-Si TFT technology more attractive for new applications, such as flexible displays, biosensors, and smart clothing. However, due to the random nature of grain boundaries (GBs) in poly-Si film and self-heating enhanced negative bias temperature instability (NBTI), the variability and reliability of poly-Si TFTs are the main obstacles that impede the application of poly-Si TFTs in high-performance circuits. The primary focus of this dissertation is to develop new design methodologies and modeling techniques for ...


New Covariance-Based Feature Extraction Methods For Classification And Prediction Of High-Dimensional Data, Mopelola Adediwura Sofolahan Oct 2013

New Covariance-Based Feature Extraction Methods For Classification And Prediction Of High-Dimensional Data, Mopelola Adediwura Sofolahan

Open Access Dissertations

When analyzing high dimensional data sets, it is often necessary to implement feature extraction methods in order to capture relevant discriminating information useful for the purposes of classification and prediction. The relevant information can typically be represented in lower-dimensional feature spaces, and a widely used approach for this is the principal component analysis (PCA) method. PCA efficiently compresses information into lower dimensions; however, studies indicate that it is not optimal for feature extraction especially when dealing with classification problems. Furthermore, for high-dimensional data having limited observations, as is typically the case with remote sensing data and nonstationary data such as ...


Analysis And Optimization Of Cooperative Wireless Networks, Phuong Thanh Tran Oct 2013

Analysis And Optimization Of Cooperative Wireless Networks, Phuong Thanh Tran

Open Access Dissertations

Recently, cooperative communication between users in wireless networks has attracted a considerable amount of attention. A significant amount of research has been conducted to optimize the performance of different cooperative communication schemes, subject to some resource constraints such as power, bandwidth, and time. However, in previous research, each optimization problem has been investigated separately, and the optimal solution for one problem is usually not optimal for the other problems.

This dissertation focuses on joint optimization or cross-layer optimization in wireless cooperative networks. One important obstacle is the non-convexity of the joint optimization problem, which makes the problem difficult to solve ...


Solar Cell Temperature Dependent Efficiency And Very High Temperature Efficiency Limits, John Robert Wilcox Oct 2013

Solar Cell Temperature Dependent Efficiency And Very High Temperature Efficiency Limits, John Robert Wilcox

Open Access Dissertations

Clean renewable solar energy is and will continue to be a critically important source of electrical energy. Solar energy has the potential of meeting all of the world's energy needs, and has seen substantial growth in recent years. Solar cells can convert sun light directly into electrical energy, and much progress has been made in making them less expensive and more efficient. Solar cells are often characterized and modeled at 25 °C, which is significantly lower than their peak operating temperature. In some thermal concentrating systems, solar cells operate above 300 °C. Since increasing the temperature drastically affects the ...


Information Measures For Statistical Orbit Determination, Alinda Kenyana Mashiku Jan 2013

Information Measures For Statistical Orbit Determination, Alinda Kenyana Mashiku

Open Access Dissertations

The current Situational Space Awareness (SSA) is faced with a huge task of tracking the increasing number of space objects. The tracking of space objects requires frequent and accurate monitoring for orbit maintenance and collision avoidance using methods for statistical orbit determination. Statistical orbit determination enables us to obtain estimates of the state and the statistical information of its region of uncertainty given by the probability density function (PDF). As even collision events with very low probability are important, accurate prediction of collisions require the representation of the full PDF of the random orbit state. Through representing the full PDF ...